Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 65
Filter
1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928047

ABSTRACT

A new quercetin nanocrystals self-stabilized Pickering emulsion(QT-NSSPE) was prepared by high-pressure homogenization combined with probe ultrasonic method. The influences of oil fraction, quercetin(QT) concentration, and pH of water phase on the formation of QT-NSSPE were investigated. On this basis, the QT-NSSPE prepared under optimal conditions was evaluated in terms of microstructure, stability, and in vitro release and the droplet size and drug loading were 15.82 μm and 4.87 mg·mL~(-1), respectively. The shell structure formed by quercetin nanocrystals(QT-NC) on the emulsion droplet surface was observed under a scanning electron microscope(SEM). X-ray diffraction(XRD) showed that the crystallinity of adsorbed QT-NC decreased significantly as compared with the raw QT. There were not significant changes of QT-NSSPE properties after 30 days of storage at room temperature. The in vitro release experiment confirmed that QT-NSSPE has a higher accumulative release rate than the raw QT. All these results indicated that QT-NSSPE has a great stability and a satisfactory in vitro release behavior, which is a promising new oral delivery system for QT.


Subject(s)
Emulsions/chemistry , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Quercetin , Water/chemistry
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908995

ABSTRACT

Objective:To put forward the teaching improvement direction and promote homogeneous training by analyzing the assessment results of the trainees having the training of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in three hospitals like Beijing Children's Hospital, and identifying related influencing factors.Methods:From August 27 to September 27, 2020, students and teachers who participated in the standardized teaching of CPR in three hospitals were included in the study. The teaching process followed the international unified standard curriculum plan for basic life support implementer. The teaching effect was evaluated by written examination, single-person CPR, automatic external defibrillator (AED) skill test and student satisfaction surveys on the team CPR training effect. SPSS 20.0 was used to analyze the differences between groups, and logistic regression analysis was used to find out the factors affecting the assessment results.Results:Twenty-five teachers from three children's hospitals gave lessons for 27 times, and 154 students completed the training and assessments. Among them, 144 passed the written examination, accounting for 93.5%, while 130 passed the single-person CPR+AED skill test at one time, accounting for 84.4%. There were significant differences in the results of written examination and skill test among students from these three hospitals ( P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the professional title of the students and the experience of the teachers affected the scores of the skill test. There were regional differences in students' identities, positions and professional titles, but their learning needs for team CPR were the same, accounting for 44.8%, which was higher than that of single skills. A percentage of 94.8% students believed that the ability of "closed-loop communication" was an important factor in team CPR, and 74.7% students were satisfied with the teaching effect of this skill in class. Conclusion:At present, measures such as dual lecturer system and separation of teaching and examination should be taken to ensure the implementation of standardized teaching. Through standardized quantitative assessment, the quality of training can be ensured and the training effect of CPR homogenization can be realized. Each training center should also improve the teaching level of efficient team CPR to promote the improvement of post competency for medical staff.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2585-2604, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888873

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) represent a growing public concern for clinicians to manage in many medical settings, with substantial associated morbidities and mortalities. Among many current therapeutic options for the treatment of IFIs, amphotericin B (AmB) is the most frequently used drug. AmB is considered as a first-line drug in the clinic that has strong antifungal activity and less resistance. In this review, we summarized the most promising research efforts on nanocarriers for AmB delivery and highlighted their efficacy and safety for treating IFIs. We have also discussed the mechanism of actions of AmB, rationale for treating IFIs, and recent advances in formulating AmB for clinical use. Finally, this review discusses some practical considerations and provides recommendations for future studies in applying AmB for combating IFIs.

4.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e200143, 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340227

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the fish composition and ecological attributes of the ichthyofauna collected in a limnological zone of the Taquaruçu Reservoir, lower Paranapanema River. Information about the fish community was updated when compared to the previous study (2006). Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) showed differences in species composition between periods and community weighted means (CWMs) exhibited changes in functional composition over time. Four functional indices were used in the principal coordinate analysis (PcoA) to measure changes in the functional space of species, whereas functional β-diversity inspected differences in the traits composition between the periods. 1,203 individuals were sampled of 43 species, being 16 non-native and 14 new records. Compared to 2006, 27 species were absent, most of them native to Loricariidae and Anostomidae, while Curimatidae and Pimelodidae decreased in abundance. Functional indexes showed a reduction in functional diversity, whereas new species records exhibited functional redundancy. It might have occurred a simplification of the fish community over time, excluding the migratory and specialists species such as the herbivores and detritivores. Accordingly, we concluded that the ichthyofauna of the Taquaruçu Reservoir might have been undergoing a process towards biotic homogenization.(AU)


Avaliamos a composição de peixes e atributos ecológicos da ictiofauna coletada em uma zona limnológica do reservatório de Taquaruçu, baixo rio Paranapanema. As informações sobre a comunidade de peixes foram atualizadas quando comparadas ao estudo anterior (2006). O escalonamento multidimensional não métrico (NMDS) mostrou diferenças na composição de espécies entre os períodos, e as médias ponderadas da comunidade (CWMs) exibiram mudanças na composição funcional ao longo do tempo. Quatro índices funcionais foram utilizados na análise de coordenadas principais (PcoA) para medir as mudanças no espaço funcional das espécies, enquanto a β-diversidade funcional inspecionou diferenças na composição de traços entre os períodos. Foram amostrados 1,203 indivíduos de 43 espécies, sendo 16 não-nativas e 14 novos registros. Em comparação com 2006, 27 espécies estavam ausentes, a maioria nativa de Loricariidae e Anostomidae, enquanto Curimatidae e Pimelodidae diminuíram em abundância. Os índices funcionais mostraram redução na diversidade funcional, enquanto novos registros de espécies exibiram redundância funcional. Pode ter ocorrido uma simplificação da comunidade de peixes ao longo do tempo, excluindo as espécies migradoras e especialistas como os herbívoros e detritívoros. Dessa forma, concluímos que a ictiofauna do reservatório de Taquaruçu pode estar sofrendo um processo de homogeneização biótica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodiversity , Biota , Fishes/classification
5.
Biota Neotrop. (Online, Ed. ingl.) ; 21(3): e20201034, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278410

ABSTRACT

Abstract The use and occupation of land by human population substantially influence environmental variables and fish assemblage in streams. However, there is little knowledge on how these changes affect the ecomorphological structure of fish assemblage in mesohabitats. Therefore, we aim to assess whether the land-use types affect the ecomorphological structure of fish assemblage in distinct mesohabitats. Environmental and ichthyofaunistic data were collected in three mesohabitats (rifles, runs, and pools) of five rural and five urban streams. Twenty-one ecomorphological indices were obtained from the mean of linear morphological measurements and areas of the fishes. Subsequently, the Euclidean distance was calculated, based on the ecomorphological indices, between each pair of species, to measure the ecomorphological distances for the mesohabitats of the rural and urban streams. The results show that the urban environment is more harmful to streams than the rural one, due to changes in the environmental variables and decrease in species richness. The main environmental changes found in urban streams were the decrease in canopy cover by riparian vegetation and dissolved oxygen, and the increase in electrical conductivity and bed silting. Also, there was a significant decrease in the morphological similarity between fish species in the mesohabitats of urban streams compared to rural ones. Therefore, we can conclude that the urban environment leads to the loss of morphologically similar fish species in the mesohabitats, with only a few functionally distinct species remaining.


Resumo O uso e ocupação do solo pela população humana influencia substancialmente as variáveis ambientais e a assembleia de peixes em riachos. No entanto, há pouco conhecimento de como estas alterações afeta a estrutura ecomorfológica da assembleia de peixes em mesohábitats. Portanto, objetiva-se avaliar se o tipo do uso do solo afeta a estrutura ecomorfológica da assembleia de peixes nos distintos mesohábitats. Dados ambientais e ictiofaunísticos foram coletados em três mesohabitats (corredeiras, rápidos e remansos) de cinco riachos rurais e cinco urbanos. Vinte e um índices ecomorfológicos foram obtidos a partir das médias das medidas morfológicas lineares e áreas dos peixes. Posteriormente, a distância Euclidiana foi calculada, baseada nos índices ecomorfológicos, entre cada par de espécies, afim de mensurar as distâncias ecomorfológicas para os mesohábitats dos riachos rurais e urbanos. Os resultados mostram que o ambiente urbano é mais danoso aos riachos do que o rural, devido a diminuição da riqueza de espécies e as alterações nas variáveis ambientais. As principais mudanças ambientais encontradas em riachos urbanos foram a diminuição da cobertura do dossel pela vegetação ripária e do oxigênio dissolvido e o aumento da condutividade elétrica e do assoreamento do leito. Além disso, houve uma diminuição significativa da similaridade morfológica entre as espécies de peixes nos mesohábitats de riachos urbanos em comparação com os rurais. Portanto, podemos concluir que o ambiente urbano leva à perda de espécies de peixes morfologicamente similares nos mesohábitats, restando apenas algumas espécies funcionalmente distintas.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846597

ABSTRACT

Objective: To prepare silymarin nanosuspension (SM-NS) with glycyrrhizic acid as stabilizer, and investigate the in vitro release characteristics and charge stabilization mechanism. Methods: SM-NS was prepared by high-speed shear-high pressure homogenization method. SM-NS lyophilized powder were prepared by freeze-drying method and characterized by physical and chemical characterization and in vitro release. The stability mechanism of SM-NS was studied from the ionic strength and pH value. Results: The dosage of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) was 0.15%. The preparation process was shear rate of 19 000 r/min, shear time of 4 min, homogenization pressure of 100 MPa, homogenization times of 12 times, and lyoprotectant was mannitol 3%, the average particle size of SM-NS lyophilized powder was (516.4 ± 10.4) nm, PDI was (0.260 ± 0.046); The in vitro release results showed that the dissolution rate and solubility of SM-NS lyophilized powder were significantly higher than the physical mixture; The study of charge stability mechanism showed that licorice acid can provide good charge stabilization and strong resistance to environmental impact. Conclusion: SM-NS is a potential and new nano-drug with high safety, which is formed by the charge stability of GA to significantly improve the solubility and stability of silymarin.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846387

ABSTRACT

Objective: Puerarin nanoemulsion lyophilized powder (Pue-NE-LP) was prepared using natural surfactant glycyrrhizic acid as stabilizer and evaluated in vitro. Methods: Pue-NE was prepared by high-speed shear and high-pressure homogenization method, and further combined with freeze-drying method to prepare Pue-NE-LP. Taking the average particle size and polydispersity index (PDI) as the evaluation indexes, the optimal prescription and process parameters of this experiment were screened out through a single factor test. The prepared Pue-NE-LP was characterized by physicochemical properties and dissolution in vitro. Results: The average particle size and PDI of Pue-NE-LP prepared with 5% glyceryl caprylate as oil phase, 2.0 mg/mL glycyrrhizic acid as stabilizer, and 7% glucose as lyophilization protectant was (215.1 ± 0.7) nm and (0.133 ± 0.024), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed that Pue-NE-LP was irregularly small and uniform in size; X-ray diffraction showed that Pue-NE-LP existed in an amorphous state. In vitro release results showed that the dissolution rate of Pue-NE-LP was significantly higher than the physical mixture. Conclusion: Pue-NE-LP prepared with natural surfactant glycyrrhizic acid as a stabilizer is not only simple to prepare, but also can significantly improve the solubility and bioavailability of puerarin. It provides a reference for the multiple development of Pue-NE formulations.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846355

ABSTRACT

Objective: Puerarin nanoemulsion (Pue-NE) was prepared with glycyrrhizic acid as a natural stabilizer, and its release characteristics in vitro were investigated. Methods: Data processing was performed using particle size and polydispersity index (PDI) as independent variables, and using the overall desirability (OD) as the evaluation index. The central composite design-response surface method was used to optimize the prescription, and the physical and chemical properties and release characteristics of Pue-NE prepared by the optimal prescription were investigated. Results: The best prescription for Pue-NE is puerarin at a concentration of 5.0 mg/mL, glycyrrhizic acid at a concentration of 1.75 mg/mL, and caprylic glyceride in an amount of 3.5 mL. The average particle size of the nanoemulsion is (184.5 ± 0.8) nm, the PDI is 0.088 ± 0.002, the zeta potential is (10.56 ± 0.35) mv, the conductivity is (98.3 ± 0.4) μs/cm, pH is 6.750 ± 0.005, solubility (4.970 ± 0.008) mg/mL, drug loading is (99.4 ± 0.2)%, turbidity (24.3 ± 1.0) cm-1 (n = 3). It was identified as O/W emulsion by dyeing method. TEM scanning results show that the droplets are spherical and uniform in size and the stability results showed that Pue-NE has good storage stability at 25 ℃. In vitro release results showed that Pue-NE has the greatest release in phosphate buffered pH 6.8 within 24 hours. Conclusion: The preparation of Pue-NE with glycyrrhizic acid as a natural stabilizer is not only simple and convenient, but also can effectively replace the use of traditional chemical synthetic stabilizers and improve the solubility of puerarin.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846202

ABSTRACT

Objective: To prepare magnolol solid dispersions (Mag-SD), magnolol phospholipids complex (Mag-PC) and magnolol solid lipid nanoparticles (Mag-SLN), and compare their effects on the pharmacokinetics in vivo. Methods: Solvent evaporation method was used to prepare Mag-SD and Mag-PC. Their existential state of Mag in Mag-SD and Mag-PC were analyzed by X-ray power diffraction (XRPD). High pressure homogenization method was employed to prepare Mag-SLN, its particle size and Zeta potential were also studied. The dissolution in vitro of Mag-SD, Mag-PC and Mag-SLN were also studied compared to magnolol suspension. SD rats in each group were administered intragastrically with magnolol, Mag-SD, Mag-PC and Mag-SLN, respectively. The concentration of magnolol in blood was analyzed by HPLC, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained. The pharmacokinetic behavior and bioavailability of magnolol, Mag-SD, Mag-PC and Mag-SLN were also compared. Results: The results of XRPD indicated that magnolol showed an amorphous state in Mag-SD and Mag-PC. The average particle size and Zeta potential of Mag-SLN was (161.37 ± 3.77) nm and (-29.16 ± 1.83) mV, respectively. The results of dissolution in vitro indicated that the cumulative dissolution of magnolol was 30.6% within 12 h. Mag-SD, Mag-PC and Mag-SLN enhanced its cumulative dissolution to 96.3%, 76.4% and 45.9%, respectively. The results of pharmacokinetics in vivo showed that Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ of Mag-SD, Mag-PC and Mag-SLN were enhanced greatly compared to magnolol suspension. Mag-PC, Mag-SD and Mag-SLN increased its Cmax from (429.67 ± 53.12) ng/mL to (533.62 ± 59.01), (721.73 ± 103.44) and (1 063.21 ± 108.22) ng/mL, respectively. The bioavailability of Mag-SD, Mag-PC and Mag-SLN were enhanced to 1.38, 2.12 and 3.45 times, respectively. Conclusion: Mag-SD, Mag-PC and Mag-SLN could promote the absorption of magnolol in SD rats notably. In addition, Mag-SLN could give a better effect on the bioavailability.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846102

ABSTRACT

Objective: To prepare the rhynchophylline nanosuspensions and lyophilized powder, and study its sustained-release tablets. Methods: Rhynchophylline nanosuspensions were prepared by microprecipitation combined with high pressure homogenization method, and the particle size and zeta potential were determined. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to observe the appearances of nanosuspensions. Nanosuspensions were prepared into lyophilized powder using lactose as freeze-dried protectors. HPMC (hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose) was used as hydrophilic matrix to prepare the sustained-release tablets. Single factor investigation and orthogonal experiments were employed to optimize the formulation of rhynchophylline nanosuspensions sustained-release tablets, and the model fitting was also been studied. Results: The particle size and zeta potential of rhynchophylline nanosuspensions were (153.7 ± 4.9) nm and (-18.54 ± 1.32) mV, respectively. The appearances of rhynchophylline nanosuspensions were spherical or nearly spherical. After orthogonal optimization, the cumulative release rate of rhynchophylline nanosuspensions sustained-release tablets was 92.53% in 12 h. The optimized formulation of hydrogel matrix sustained-release tablets was better accorded with Higuchi model: ln(1-Mt/M∞)=0.286 0 t1/2-0.069 0 (r=0.992 4). The drug release from hydrogel matrix sustained-release tablets were controlled by diffusion and degradation. Conclusion: The obtained rhynchophylline nanosuspensions has small particle size. The prepared hydrogel matrix sustained-release tablets can control the release of rhynchophylline nanosuspensions in a slow characteristic.

11.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1704-1710, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-823047

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To optimize the p reparation technology of citronellol submicroemulsion. METHODS :The content of citronellol in Citronellol submicroemulsion was determined by HPLC. Citronellol submicroemulsion by high-speed shearing dispersion-high pressure homogenization method ,with centrifugation stability constant (ke) and particle size were used as evaluation indexes. Its formulation and preparation technology were optimized and validated. Drug-loading amount and encapsulation rate of the preparation were detected. RESULTS :The linear range of citronellol were 4-64 μg/mL(R 2=0.999 9). RSDs of precision ,stability(24 h)and reproducibility tests were all lower than 3%. The recoveries were 97.64%-101.97%(RSD= 2.28%,n=3),97.71%-99.50%(RSD=1.29%,n=3),96.87%-101.48%(RSD=2.86%,n=3). The optimal formulation included that total weight of soybean oil and medium chain triglycerides (1 ∶ 1,g/g)was 3.75 g,1.2% soybean phospholipid was 0.6 g, cholesterol was 0.06 g,citronellol was 1.25 g,0.6 % sodium oleate was 0.3 g,15-hydroxystearic acid polyethylene glycol ester was 0.75 g,poloxamer 188 was 0.75 g,water added to 50 mL. After prepared by optimal technology at 4 ℃ which contained shearing speed of 13 000 r/min,lasting for 5 min, primary emulsion was adjusted to pH 7 with dilute hydro- chloric acid ,and homogenized with 600 Bar high pressure for 1434412440@qq.com 5 min. The parameters of Citronellol submicroemulsion accor- ding to optimal formulation and technology contained mean particle size of (91.05±0.26)nm,PDI of (0.20±0.01), Zeta-potential of (-30.86±0.39)mV,average content of 649511230@qq.com citronellol(100.21±0.01)%,the drug-loading amount was (2.481 7 ± 0.000 7) mg/mL,the encapsulation rate was (99.27 ± 0.03)% . CONCLUSIONS :The optimal formulation and technology is stable and feasible.

12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190302, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132249

ABSTRACT

Abstract In a climate change context, the buildup of CO2 will affect plant communities worldwide. This study evaluated the effects of CO2 enrichment on the development and defense of two Cerrado native species Baccharis dracunculifolia and B. platypoda and their associated endophytic fungi richness. The study took place in Open-Top Chambers, two with ambient CO2 concentration (~400 ppm) and two in an enriched environment (~800 ppm). Baccharis platypoda developed 20% more leaves under enriched CO2 conditions, whereas B. dracunculifolia was 30% taller and showed 27% more leaves than those under ambient conditions. In both species, leaf polyphenol concentration did not differ between treatments. Nevertheless, polyphenol content had a positive correlation with plant height on both species' individuals grown under CO2 enriched conditions. Endophytic fungi richness and colonization rate on both plant species did not differ between ambient and enriched conditions. Our results show the positive effect of CO2 fertilizer in at least one of the measured growth parameters. An important new finding was a synergistic increase in growth and chemical defense in both studied species under enriched CO2 conditions, suggesting higher carbon assimilation and accumulation. This study suggests that the effects on primary productivity and secondary metabolites of Baccharis species will potentially reflect on the diversity and distribution of Cerrado plants and their associated animal communities.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide/pharmacology , Baccharis/growth & development , Fertilizers , Endophytes/growth & development , Polyphenols/biosynthesis , Baccharis/microbiology , Baccharis/chemistry
13.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 2019 Jul; 11(7): 109-115
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205920

ABSTRACT

Objective: The main purpose of this work was to prepare tolnaftate (TOL) loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), Evaluate its characteristics and in vitro release study. Methods: Tolnaftate loaded Nanostructured lipid carriers were prepared by the high shear homogenization method using different liquid lipids types (DERMAROL DCO® and DERMAROL CCT®) and concentrations, different concentration ratios of tween80® to span20® and different homogenization speeds. All the formulated nanoparticles were subjected to particle size (PS), zeta potential (ZP), polydispersity index (PI), drug entrapment efficiency (EE), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM), release kinetics and in vitro release study was determined. Results: The results revealed that NLC dispersions had spherical shapes with an average size between 154.966±1.85 nm and 1078.4±103.02 nm. High entrapment efficiency was obtained with negatively charged zeta potential with PDI value ranging from 0.291±0.02 to 0.985±0.02. The release profiles of all formulations were characterized by a sustained release behavior over 24 h and the release rates increased as the amount of surfactant decreased. The release rate of TOL is expressed following the theoretical model by Higuchi. Conclusion: From this study, It can be concluded that NLCs are a good carrier for tolnaftate delivery

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-798492

ABSTRACT

Objective:To prepare daidzein nanosuspension capsules,and to investigate intestinal absorption and oral bioavailability by comparing with commercial daidzein capsules. Method:Daidzein nanosuspensions were prepared by precipitation method combined with high pressure homogenization,orthogonal design method was utilized to optimize its formulation.Daidzein nanosuspensions was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction(XRPD),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR),transmission electron microscope(TEM),and indexes including mean particle size,polydispersity index(PDI),and Zeta potential.Intestinal absorption study was carried out to compare the accumulative permeated amount of daidzein from daidzein nanosuspensions and commercial daidzein capsules.Biodistribution of daidzein in gastrointestinal tract was investigated,and oral bioavailability was examined through pharmacokinetic study by HPLC. Result:The in vitro small intestinal absorption enhancement ratio of daidzein nanosuspension capsules was approximately 2.49-fold higher than that of commercial capsules(PConclusion:Daidzein nanosuspensions prepared by combined method can be applied to the production of capsules,which is beneficial to increase the absorption of drug in small intestine and improve its bioavailability after oral administration.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756667

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the implementation of pharmacist-managed clinic(PMC) in Guangdong, and to provide reference for quality management of pharmacist-managed clinics. Methods Collection of a list of all medical institutions that have established pharmaceutical clinics in Guangdong province before July 2018. The development of PMCs at these institutions found in the list was investigated by conducting a questionnaire survey via WeChat and telephone interviews. Results 41 questionnaires were completed, of which 40 were valid, accounting for 97.6% . A total of 40 institutions established PMCs, in which 39 were tertiary hospitals(22.5% of the total number of tertiary hospitals in the province), and 1 was level-1 hospital ( 0.26% of the total number of first-class hospitals in the province). The main PMC categories are chronic disease management clinics, followed by anticoagulant/thrombolytic clinics, pregnant and lactating PMC, COPD management clinics, and drug counseling comprehensive clinics. 81.7% of the visiting pharmacists were of head pharmacist qualifications. The average daily outpatient volume of the 25 hospitals were 3-5 patients. The service time was about 10 -60 minutes per patient in most cases. Their common causes for consultation were adverse drug reactions, drug interactions or incompatibility, drug usage and dosage, drug adjustment and drug selection. Only 9 institutions established a management system, working process and standardized medical records for medication therapy management. Conclusions PMC is an important part of medical services. To ensure its service quality, we should learn from the concept of three-level management of medical quality, and perfect the construction of quality management system of pharmaceutical outpatient clinics.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-753458

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we lay down a homogenization training standard for resident standardized training through a joint discussion among experts from three national resident standardized training bases. The aim of the homogenization of resident standardized training quality shall be reached through the synchronous implementation of tutorial system and comprehensive formative evaluation, the strengthening of training quality process management and the promotion and advancement of training quality of resident standardized training.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851118

ABSTRACT

Objective: To prepare a new hesperidin nanoemulsion (HDN-NE) with glycyrrhizic acid as emulsifier, by which could develop a “new green nano-pharmaceutics” of hesperidin. Methods HDN-NE was prepared by high-speed shearing and high-pressure homogenization. The prescription of HDN-NE was optimized with particle size, PDI, and appearance as indexes. The physicochemical property and stability of HDN-NE prepared by the optimal prescription were studied. Results: The optimal prescription of HDN-NE was as follow: The content of hesperidin, glycyrrhizic acid, and oil phase were 0.1%, 0.3%, and 5%, respectively. The shear rate was 13 000 r/min, the cutting time was 2 min, the homogeneous pressure and times were 100 MPa and 6, severally. The result showed that the prepared HDN-NE had the mean size of (262.7 ± 3.1) nm, PDI of 0.234 ± 0.009, Zeta potential of (-35.42 ± 0.72) mV, and solubility of (460.3 ± 2.1) μg/mL. The physicochemical property study showed that the conductivity was (116.4 ± 1.7) μs/cm, the pH was 6.820 ± 0.008, and the turbidity was 451 cm-1 (n = 3). It was identified as O/W emulsion by dyeing method. The droplets were spherical and uniform by transmission electron microscopy. The stability study showed that HDN-NE had good stability. Conclusion: HDN-NE with glycyrrhizic acid as an emulsifier can significantly improve the solubility and stability of hesperidin, which is a new potential nano-drug with safety.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851052

ABSTRACT

Objective: To prepare sustained-release tablets of tilianin nanosuspension lyophilized powder. The factors that might influence drug release and release mechanism were studied in present study. Methods: High pressure homogenization method was used to prepare tilianin nanosuspension. Lactose and mannitol (3:1) were employed as freeze-drying protective agent to prepare lyophilized powder. HPMC was used as framework material to prepare sustained-release tablets of tilianin nanosuspension lyophilized powder. Based on single factor test, the effects of proportion and amounts of HPMC K4M and HPMC K15, amounts of PEG 4000 and magnesium stearate on in vitro drug release of sustained-release tablets were investigated. Orthogonal test was designed to gain the optimum prescription. Results: The particle size and zeta potential of tilianin nanosuspension were (164.41 ± 9.72) nm and (-37.21 ± 2.38) mV, respectively. The particle size and zeta potential of re-dispersed freeze-drying products were (211.83 ± 11.26) nm and (-31.66 ± 2.92) mV, respectively. The optimum prescription was as follow: the proportion and amounts of HPMC K4M and HPMC K15 were 2:1 and 40 mg, amounts of PEG 4000 was 20 mg, and amounts of magnesium stearate were 0.5%. Sustained release tablets of tilianin nanosuspension were well accorded with Higuchi kinetics model. The equation was Mt/M∞ = 0.286 8 t1/2-0.073 8, r2 = 0.981 4. And the cumulative release could achieve 92.36% in 12 h. The drug release from the tablets was controlled by diffusion and degradation of the matrix. Conclusion: The preparation technology of sustained release tablets of tilianin nanosuspension lyophilized powder has good reproducibility. This sustained release tablets could control the release of tilianin

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850875

ABSTRACT

Objective: To prepare dihydromyricetin (DMY) phospholipids complex (DMY-PC) and its nanostructured lipid carriers (DMY-PC-NLC), and carry out in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Methods: DMY-PC was prepared by solvent evaporation method. High pressure homogenization method was used to prepare DMY-PC-NLC. Orthogonal test was employed to optimize the ratio of solid/liquid lipid, dose of lipids materials, dose of DMY-PC and the concentration of emulsifier of poloxamer. The lyophilized powder of DMY-PC-NLC was prepared with 5% of mannitol as protective agent. The comparation of in vitro release and pharmacokinetics between DMY-PC and DMY-PC-NLC was also studied. Results: DMY was in an amorphous state in DMY-PC. The results of 1HNMR showed that the structure of DMY was not changed. The optimized prescription of DMY-PC-NLC determined by orthogonal test was as follow: The ratio of solid/liquid lipid was 5:1, dose of lipids materials was 325 mg, dose of DMY-PC was 45 mg and the concentration of emulsifier of poloxamer was 0.9%. The average size, Zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and drug loading of DMY- PC-NLC was (197.25 ± 4.42) nm, (-18.2 ± 2.1) mV, (71.68 ± 1.36)% and (3.94 ± 0.24)%, respectively. The in vitro release model was accord with Weibull model and the equation was lnln(1-Mt/M∞)=0.700 1 lnt-1.954 1 (r = 0.971 4). The relative bioavailability of DMY-PC and DMY-PC-NLC were enhanced to 1.63 and 3.22 times compared to DMY, respectively. Conclusion: Compared with DMY-PC, the absorption was promoted by DMY-PC-NLC in further, and the bioavailability of DMY was enhanced effectively.

20.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 1308-1311, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818188

ABSTRACT

Performance management is a key direction of the reform of the national medical and health system, and it is also an important starting point for promoting the development of hospital connotation. In view of the contradiction among the current hospital performance distribution system, this paper proposes a design mentality of performance distribution system based on homogenization subsidy base, and expounds the basic connotation and cognitive basis of homogenization subsidy base. The key elements of the design of the performance distribution system are discussed from four aspects: pre-adjusted total control, coefficientized personnel attendance, same performance appraisal, and homogenization subsidy base. At the same time, this paper also analyzes the characteristics of the performance distribution system based on the homogenization subsidy base. The application prospects of the performance distribution system are prospected from three aspects: the national medical reform requirements, the discipline development discipline and the system's own characteristics.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL