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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1432-1445, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927791

ABSTRACT

Bacterial multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a global challenge in the fields of medicine and health, agriculture and fishery, ecology and environment. The cross-region spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) among different species is one of the main cause of bacterial MDR. However, there is no effective strategies for addressing the intensifying bacterial MDR. The CRISPR-Cas system, consisting of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated proteins, can targetedly degrade exogenous nucleic acids, thus exhibiting high application potential in preventing and controlling bacterial MDR caused by ARGs. This review briefly introduced the working mechanism of CRISPR-Cas systems, followed by discussing recent advances in reducing ARGs by CRISPR-Cas systems delivered through mediators (e.g. plasmids, bacteriophages and nanoparticle). Moreover, the trends of this research field were envisioned, providing a new perspective on preventing and controlling MDR.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteriophages/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Plasmids/genetics
2.
J Genet ; 2020 Sep; 99: 1-11
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215489

ABSTRACT

Genome sequence of Acinetobacter baumannii DS002 revealed the existence of seven contigs with features of indigenous plasmids. Of the seven contigs, three of them have shown size and sequence identity. They appeared to have been generated due to the unique recombination events leading to a large-scale recombination and sequence inversions. The rest of the indigenous plasmids have shown significant size variations and contained the genetic repertoire required for the detoxification of formaldehyde and biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides. Genetic modules encoding novel toxin–antitoxin systems were found in most of the plasmids to ensure their survival in the host. In some instances, the toxin and antitoxin coding sequences were found on two different plasmids promoting the cosegregation of these two plasmids into the daughter cells

3.
J Biosci ; 2020 Apr; : 1-12
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214304

ABSTRACT

The 165,137 bp plasmid pAO1 of Paenarthrobacter nicotinovorans carries the genes of a nicotine catabolicpathway. The genes are organized into several gene modules responsible for the catabolism of L- and D-nicotineto nicotine blue, a-ketoglutarate and succinate. Various modules of these genes have been shown to be presentin gram-positive (Gram?) soil bacteria. The presence of the identical pAO1 nic-genes on the 288,370 bpplasmid pZXY21 of Arthrobacter sp. ZXY2 (96% to 100% at the nucleotide level) permitted the identificationof the limits of this DNA fragment. At the 50 end of the nic-genes are located the ORFs of two predictedintegrases of the tyrosine recombinase family with conserved R, H, R and Y catalytic residues and that of asmall transposase with a predicted leucine zipper motive. They are related to Tn554A, Tn554B and Tn554C ofStaphylococcus aureus and suggest that the entire nic-genes DNA fragment represents a large catabolictransposon. Surprisingly the nic-genes on pZXY21 were found to be interspersed by mobile elements encodingtransposases of various IS families. Insertion of these IS elements disrupts nicotine degradation and divide thenic-genes DNA into potentially new transposons. This finding may illustrate how nicotine catabolic genes canbe mobilized and spread by horizontal gene transfer to other soil bacteria.

4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 41: 9-12, sept. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053556

ABSTRACT

Background: Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the most important mechanism in the evolution of new genetic capabilities in bacteria, including specific degradative pathways, virulence factors, and resistance to antibiotics. Among the processes involved in HGT, transduction is noteworthy. This is a mechanism for gene transmission mediated by a bacteriophage that functions both as a reservoir and as a vector of exogenous genes, which remain protected from environmental effects in the bacteriophage's capsid. Within this context, this investigation aimed to evaluate the ability of the generalized transducing bacteriophage P1 to productively infect and transduce in the bacterial species Salmonella bongori. Results: We could establish that a derivative of bacteriophage P1, P1Cm, infects strains of S. bongori with frequencies of lysogenization in the order of ~10−2 lysogens/UFP. Through thermal induction, infective viral progeny was obtained, and we could show that P1Cm readily formed plaques on S. bongori lawns, a phenomenon thus far not reported for other members of the genus Salmonella. Finally, we showed P1Cm-mediated transduction of the model plasmid RP4 at frequencies of ~10−7 transductants/donor. Conclusion: Therefore, bacteriophage P1 can be used as a tool for the genetic manipulation in the species S. bongori.


Subject(s)
Salmonella , Transduction, Genetic , Bacteriophage P1/genetics , Bacteriophage P1/pathogenicity , Capsid , Gene Transfer, Horizontal , Escherichia coli , Lysogeny
5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195797

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Plasmid has led to increase in resistant bacterial pathogens through the exchange of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genetic determinants through horizontal gene transfer. Baseline data on the occurrence of plasmids carrying AMR genes are lacking in India. This study was aimed to identify the plasmids associated with AMR genetic determinants in ESKAPE pathogens. Methods: A total of 112 ESKAPE isolates including Escherichia coli (n=37), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=48, including 7 pan-drug susceptible isolates), Acinetobacter baumannii (n=8), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=1) and Staphylococcus aureus (n=18) were analyzed in the study. Isolates were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility and whole genome sequencing of isolates was performed using Ion Torrent (PGM) sequencer. Downstream data analysis was done using PATRIC, ResFinder, PlasmidFinder and MLSTFinder databases. All 88 whole genome sequences (WGS) were deposited at GenBank. Results: Most of the study isolates showed resistant phenotypes. As analyzed from WGS, the isolates included both known and unknown sequence types. The plasmid analysis revealed the presence of single or multiple plasmids in the isolates. Plasmid types such as IncHI1B(pNDM-MAR), IncFII(pRSB107), IncFIB(Mar), IncFIB(pQil), IncFIA, IncFII(K), IncR, ColKP3 and ColpVC were present in K. pneumoniae. In E. coli, IncFIA, IncFII, IncFIB, Col(BS512), IncL1, IncX3 and IncH were present along with other types. S. aureus harboured seven different plasmid groups pMW2 (rep 5), pSAS1 (rep 7), pDLK1 (rep 10), pUB110 (rep US12), Saa6159 (rep 16), pKH12 (rep 21) and pSA1308 (rep 21). The overall incidence of IncF type plasmids was 56.5 per cent followed by Col type plasmids 18.3 per cent and IncX 5.3 per cent. Other plasmid types identified were <5 per cent. Interpretation & conclusions: Results from the study may serve as a baseline data for the occurrence of AMR genes and plasmids in India. Information on the association between phenotypic and genotypic expression of AMR was deciphered from the data. Further studies on the mechanism of antibiotic resistance dissemination are essential for enhancing clinical lifetime of antibiotics.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772950

ABSTRACT

Despite the documented antibiotic-induced disruption of the gut microbiota, the impact of antibiotic intake on strain-level dynamics, evolution of resistance genes, and factors influencing resistance dissemination potential remains poorly understood. To address this gap we analyzed public metagenomic datasets from 24 antibiotic treated subjects and controls, combined with an in-depth prospective functional study with two subjects investigating the bacterial community dynamics based on cultivation-dependent and independent methods. We observed that short-term antibiotic treatment shifted and diversified the resistome composition, increased the average copy number of antibiotic resistance genes, and altered the dominant strain genotypes in an individual-specific manner. More than 30% of the resistance genes underwent strong differentiation at the single nucleotide level during antibiotic treatment. We found that the increased potential for horizontal gene transfer, due to antibiotic administration, was ∼3-fold stronger in the differentiated resistance genes than the non-differentiated ones. This study highlights how antibiotic treatment has individualized impacts on the resistome and strain level composition, and drives the adaptive evolution of the gut microbiota.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Bacteria , Genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Genetics , Female , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Metagenomics , Prospective Studies
7.
Salud UNINORTE ; 34(2): 494-505, mayo-ago. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004599

ABSTRACT

Abstract The increased incidences of Healthcare-associated Infections (HAI) caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, have led to an enlarged number of morbidity and mortality cases. Besides, other factors that are affected are patients, families and institutions providing health services. Therefore, the permanent study of the subject is necessary to identify possible strategies that contribute to the reduction of the issue. A critical review of the literature based on the origin of antibiotics, the evolution of their respective resistance, and the impact on public health from a historical and current perspective was developed. The search of the literature was carried out in the bibliographic databases: Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, The Cochrane Library and Lilacs. The reviewed literature showed, from the historical viewpoint, the discovery of antibiotics to the last-generation antibiotics. The rapid coevolution of genes for antibiotics resistance and its subsequent spread to hundreds of species of microorganisms by Horizontal Transfer gene (HTG) was also reviewed. It is also discussed how the expansion in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) generates a series of factors that increase health-care associated infections care (HAI) and their impact on public health. The development of antibiotics from the discovery to recent changes in the behavior and response of the microorganisms with the generation of AMR shortly after, is one of the most fantastic examples of the evolution that exists in nature.


Resumen El aumento en la incidencia de infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud causada por microorganismos multiresistentes a antibióticos, han incrementado la morbilidad, mortalidad y otros factores que afectan a paciente, familias e instituciones prestadoras de servicios de salud; por lo que se ha hecho necesario el estudio permanente del tema, para identificar posibles estrategias que contribuyan a disminuir la situación. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura sobre el origen de los antibióticos, la evolución de su respectiva resistencia, el impacto en la salud pública; desde una perspectiva histórica y actual. La búsqueda de la literatura se realizó en las bases de datos bibliográficas: Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, The Cochrane Library y Lilacs. El análisis de la literatura mostró desde el punto de vista histórico, el descubrimiento de los antibióticos hasta los últimos antibióticos de última generación, y la rápida coevolución de los genes de resistencia a los antibióticos y su posterior diseminación a cientos de especies de microorganismos mediante la Transferencia Horizontal de Genes (THG). También es discutido como el incremento de la resistencia a los antibióticos (RAM) genera una serie de factores que potencian las infecciones asocia de las a los cuidados de la salud (IACS) y su impacto en la salud pública. La historia desde el descubrimiento, los cambios en el comportamiento de uso de los antibióticos y la respuesta de los microorganismos con la generación de la RAM poco tiempo después, es uno de los ejemplos más fantásticos de coevolución que existe en la naturaleza.

8.
NOVA publ. cient ; 16(29): 91-100, ene.-jun. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-976281

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo. La finalidad de esta revisión es abarcar la temática relacionada con los genes de resistencia a antibióticos, sus orígenes, reservorios y movimientos en los diferentes hábitats mediante la metagenómica funcional que permite aislar, identificar y analizar estos genes, así como el impacto que tienen en salud pública. Durante los últimos años se ha visto un gran avance en la microbiología, una de las grandes limitaciones a las que se venían enfrentado los microbiólogos era no poder acceder a la totalidad de los microorganismos que habitan el planeta. Gracias al desarrollo de diferentes disciplinas como la metagenómica se ha logrado tener el acceso a estos microorganismos. Metodología. La importancia de la metagenómica en la resistencia microbiana radica en que, actualmente, solo el 1 % de los microorganismos que habitan el suelo pueden ser estudiados por técnicas convencionales de microbiología, quedando alrededor del 99 % de estos sin estudiar. Al mitigar este gran inconveniente, la metagenómica permite el estudio de la microbiota del suelo en su totalidad generando nuevo conocimiento e información relevante en diferentes campos científicos. Resultados. Mediante la metagenómica funcional se ha podido determinar que el suelo puede ser un posible reservorio de determinantes de resistencia microbiana, debido a que la microbiota que allí habita contiene en su material genético genes de resistencia a antibióticos que confieren resistencia a un amplio espectro de antibióticos utilizados en terapia humana de forma indiscriminada y además tienen todos los mecanismos de resistencia conocidos, algunos de estos genes son generados por presión selectiva ante diferentes agentes presentes en su medio y otros son genes constitutivos que cumplen con funciones significativas en su hábitat. El gran impacto que tienen estos hallazgos está dado en que pueden representar un posible riesgo en salud pública si se adquieren por los patógenos humanos.


Abstract Objective. The purpose of this review is to cover the issues related to antibiotic resistance genes, their origins, reservoirs and movements in different habitats through functional metagenomics that allows to isolate, identify and analyze these genes, as well as the impact they have on health public. During the last years a great advance in the microbiology has been seen, one of the great limitations to which the microbiologists had been facing was not being able to have access to the totality of the microorganisms that inhabit the planet. Thanks to the development of different disciplines such as metagenomics, access to these microorganisms has been achieved. Method. The importance of metagenomics in microbial resistance lies in the fact that currently only 1 % of the microorganisms that inhabit the soil can be studied by conventional microbiology techniques, leaving about 99 % of these without studying, the metagenomics by mitigating this great disadvantage allows the study of the soil microbiota in its entirety generating new knowledge and relevant information in different scientific fields. Results. Through functional metagenomics it has been possible to determine that the soil can be a possible reservoir of determinants of microbial resistance, because the microbiota that live there contain in their genetic material antibiotic resistance genes that confer resistance to a broad spectrum of antibiotics used in human therapy indiscriminately and also have all known mechanisms of resistance, some of these genes are generated by selective pressure against different agents present in their environment and others are constitutive genes that fulfill significant functions in their habitat. The great impact of these findings is that they can represent a possible public health risk if they were acquired by human pathogens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Metagenomics , Genes , Anti-Bacterial Agents
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-807573

ABSTRACT

The mechanism of antimicrobial resistance transmission mediated by mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in Staphylococcus aureus is highly complicated, leading a significant challenge for controlling the spread of the resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Based on the latest literature acquired in this work, we have overviewed the transmission mechanism of antimicrobial resistance encoding MGEs. It is notably that there are a number of MGEs, which may encode different antimicrobial resistance determinants and possess specific transmission mechanism. In spite of this specificity of the strains to their host (human or animal), some Staphylococcus aureus strains can be transmitted from animals to humans or vice versa. This ability of cross staphylococci transfer is an additional means to acquire new genetic material encoded by MGE. It was suggested in this review that study on transmission mechanism of MGEs mediated antimicrobial resistance genes could provide important biological information of their spreading and effectively help prevent and control of the resistant strains and/or resistance genes among human, animals and ecologies.

10.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 19(2): 105-117, jul.-dic. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-900442

ABSTRACT

Resumen La resistencia a antimicrobianos representa un aspecto natural de evolución bacteriana, que puede resultar de mutaciones o por adquisición de genes foráneos. Hay diferentes posturas sobre el origen de ésta resistencia que explican la habilidad de estos microorganismos de adquirir nuevas características. Las teorías de la evolución de Lamarck y Darwin, han dado pie a experimentos diseñados para explorar el origen de la variación bacteriana y surgimiento de nuevas características. Estos estudios muestran que la resistencia está relacionada con mutaciones en genes cromosomales y/o la transferencia de elementos genéticos extracromosomales, que se expresan según la presión antibiótica ejercida. Está revisión recopila los principales experimentos y las conclusiones derivadas para explicar el fenómeno de resistencia a antibióticos.


Abstract Antimicrobial resistance is a natural aspect of bacterial evolution that can result from mutations or acquisition of foreign genes. Various views on the origin of this resistance explain the ability of these organisms to acquire new features. Lamarck and Darwin's theories of evolution have led to experiments designed to explore the origin of bacterial variation and the emergence of new features. These experiments show that antimicrobial resistance is related to mutations in chromosomal genes and/or transfer of extrachromosomal genetic elements that can be expressed based on the antibiotic pressure exerted. The main experiments and findings that seek to explain the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance are reviewed here in.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809061

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular characteristics of ESBL-encoding conjugative plasmid identified in muti-drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from food.@*Methods@#465 Escherichia coli isolates were collected from national foodborne disease surveillance net from 2013 to 2014 (salad, n=159; meat, n=102; processed meat, n=95; cakes/rice, n=46; cooked dish, n=63). ESBLs strain was detected by Mueller-Hinton agar plate, and then its drug resistance was tested by agar dilution method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were performed to identify the corresponding ESBL genes. Plasmids were typed by PCR-based replicon typing and their characteristics were determined by S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis method. Broth mating assays were carried out for all isolates to determine whether the ESBL marker could be transferred by conjugation.@*Results@#12 E. coli were found to be resistant to cefotaxime, and all of which were confirmed as ESBLs. The 12 isolates all carried different types of CTX-M genes resistant to drug, and 7 of which carried TEM type as well. All 12 isolates contained at least one plasmid and some had four plasmids, with size ranging from 47-to 220-kb by S1-PFGE anaylsis. Seven isolates demonstrated the ability to transfer their cefotaxime resistance marker to the recotper strain J53 by only one plasmid.@*Conclusion@#This study highlights the diversity of the multi-drug resistant E. coli and also the diversity of ESBL genes in China. Plasmids carrying these genes poses a serious threat to food safety in China.

12.
Univ. salud ; 18(1): 190-202, ene.-abr. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-783689

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La resistencia antimicrobiana es un grave problema de salud pública que se encuentra en aumento. Entre los factores más importantes relacionados con la diseminación de bacterias multirresistentes está el uso inapropiado de antibióticos y la aplicación insuficiente de las medidas de prevención y control. Adicionalmente, las bacterias tienen la capacidad de mutar o generar mecanismos de transferencia de genes de resistencia mediante plásmidos, transposones e integrones. Materiales y métodos: Se hizo una revisión crítica de la literatura sobre los principales genes de resistencia Gram negativos y su impacto en la salud pública. Fueron utilizadas las bases de datos de Medline, Embase, Lilacs, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciELO, the Cochrane Library y Lilacs. Resultados: Se presenta una revisión de literatura que describe y analiza los principales genes de resistencia a antibióticos presentes en bacilos gram negativos, su origen, evolución y diseminación a microorganismos mediante la transferencia horizontal de genes; justificando la importancia de realizar una vigilancia epidemiológica del tránsito de clones con diferentes perfiles de resistencia y principales enzimas. Conclusiones: El seguimiento de la resistencia antimicrobiana desde el punto de vista de la epidemiología molecular forma parte transcendental de la vigilancia antibiótica como lo recomienda la Organización Mundial de la Salud; pues representa el futuro del monitoreo de la resistencia.


Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance is a serious public health problem that is increasing. Among the most important factors related to the spread of multi-resistant bacteria are the inappropriate use of antibiotics and the insufficient implementation of prevention and control measures. Additionally, bacteria have the ability to mutate or create mechanisms for transfer of resistance genes via plasmids, transposons and integrons. Materials and methods: A critical review of the literature on major resistance genes in Gram negative bacteria and its impact on public health was conducted. Data have been collected from Medline, Embase, Lilacs, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciELO, the Cochrane Library and Lilacs. Results: A review of literature that describes and analyzes the main antibiotic resistance genes present in gram-negative bacilli is presented, as well as their origin, evolution, and subsequent spread to hundreds of species of microorganisms by Horizontal gene transfer which justifies the importance of conducting an epidemiological surveillance on transit of clones with different resistance profiles and major enzymes. Conclusions: The control of antimicrobial resistance from the point of view of molecular epidemiology is part of the antibiotic surveillance control as recommended by the World Health Organization; as it represents the future of the surveillance of resistance.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gene Transfer, Horizontal , Genes, Bacterial , Public Health
13.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2016 Jan-Mar; 34(1): 33-37
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-176545

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The present study was aimed to investigate the genetic context, association with IS26 and horizontal transmission of SHV‑148 among Escherichia coli in Tertiary Referral Hospital of India. Methodology: Phenotypic characterisation of extended‑spectrum beta‑lactamases (ESBLs) was carried out as per CLSI criteria. Molecular characterisation of blaSHV and integron was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and confirmed by sequencing. Linkage of IS26 with blaSHV‑148 was achieved by PCR. Purified products were cloned on pGEM‑T vector and sequenced. Strain typing was performed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis with XbaI digestion. Transferability experiment and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed. Results: A total of 33 isolates showed the presence of SHV‑148 variant by sequencing and all were Class 1 integron borne. PCR and sequencing results suggested that all blaSHV‑148 showed linkage with IS26 and were present in the upstream portion of the gene cassette and were also horizontally transferable through F type of Inc group. Susceptibility results suggest that tigecycline was most effective. Conclusion: The present study reports for the first time of SHV‑148 mediated extended spectrum cephalosporin resistance from India. Association of their resistance gene with IS26 and Class 1 integron and carriage within IncF plasmid signifies the potential mobilising unit for the horizontal transfer.

14.
Mycobiology ; : 105-111, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729445

ABSTRACT

Paclitaxel (taxol) has long been used as a potent anticancer agent for the treatment of many cancers. Ever since the fungal species Taxomyces andreanae was first shown to produce taxol in 1993, many endophytic fungal species have been recognized as taxol accumulators. In this study, we analyzed the taxol-producing capacity of different Colletotrichum spp. to determine the distribution of a taxol biosynthetic gene within this genus. Distribution of the taxadiene synthase (TS) gene, which cyclizes geranylgeranyl diphosphate to produce taxadiene, was analyzed in 12 Colletotrichum spp., of which 8 were found to contain the unique skeletal core structure of paclitaxel. However, distribution of the gene was not limited to closely related species. The production of taxol by Colletotrichum dematium, which causes pepper anthracnose, depended on the method in which the fungus was stored, with the highest production being in samples stored under mineral oil. Based on its distribution among Colletotrichum spp., the TS gene was either integrated into or deleted from the bacterial genome in a species-specific manner. In addition to their taxol-producing capacity, the simple genome structure and easy gene manipulation of these endophytic fungal species make them valuable resources for identifying genes in the taxol biosynthetic pathway.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways , Colletotrichum , Fungi , Gene Transfer, Horizontal , Genome , Genome, Bacterial , Methods , Mineral Oil , Paclitaxel
15.
J Biosci ; 2015 Oct; 40(4): 799-808
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-181465

ABSTRACT

Many methods have been developed for finding the commonalities between different organisms in order to study their phylogeny. The structure of metabolic networks also reveals valuable insights into metabolic capacity of species as well as into the habitats where they have evolved. We constructed metabolic networks of 79 fully sequenced organisms and compared their architectures. We used spectral density of normalized Laplacian matrix for comparing the structure of networks. The eigenvalues of this matrix reflect not only the global architecture of a network but also the local topologies that are produced by different graph evolutionary processes like motif duplication or joining. A divergence measure on spectral densities is used to quantify the distances between various metabolic networks, and a split network is constructed to analyse the phylogeny from these distances. In our analysis, we focused on the species that belong to different classes, but appear more related to each other in the phylogeny. We tried to explore whether they have evolved under similar environmental conditions or have similar life histories. With this focus, we have obtained interesting insights into the phylogenetic commonality between different organisms.

16.
J Biosci ; 2015 June; 40(2): 465-472
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-181413

ABSTRACT

Horizontal gene transfer has, over the past 25 years, become a part of evolutionary thinking. In the present paper I discuss horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in relation to contingency, natural selection, evolutionary change speed and the Tree-of-Life endeavour, with the aim of contributing to the understanding of the role of HGT in evolutionary processes. In addition, the challenges that HGT imposes on the current view of evolution are emphasized.

17.
J Biosci ; 2014 Mar; 39(1): 53-61
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-161896

ABSTRACT

Many horizontally acquired genes (xenogenes) in the bacterium Escherichia coli are maintained in a silent transcriptional state by the nucleoid-associated transcription regulatory protein H-NS. Recent evidence has shown that antibiotic-mediated inhibition of the transcription terminator protein Rho leads to de-repression of horizontally acquired genes, akin to a deletion of hns. The mechanism behind this similarity in outcomes between the perturbations of two distinct processes remains unclear. Using ChIP-seq of H-NS in wild-type cells, in addition to that in cells treated with bicyclomycin – a specific inhibitor of Rho, we show that bicyclomycin treatment leads to a decrease in binding signal for H-NS to the E. coli chromosome. Rho inhibition leads to RNA polymerase readthrough, which in principle could displace H-NS from the DNA, thus leading to transcriptional derepression of H-NS-silenced genes. Other possible mediators of the effect of Rho on H-NS are discussed. A possible positive feedback between Rho and H-NS might help reinforce xenogene silencing.

18.
Rev. Soc. Venez. Microbiol ; 33(2): 110-115, dic. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-710657

ABSTRACT

Bacteria colonizing heavily polluted tailing ponds in Southern Venezuela exhibit multiple resistances against mercurial compounds and antibiotics. The corresponding genetic determinants, mainly acquired through horizontal gene transfer, might also be transferred to pathogenic bacteria, an issue which represents an important risk to public health. In this work we show that indigenous, mercury-resistant bacterial strains isolated from a model tailing pond, located in El Callao (Bolivar State, Venezuela) and exhibiting a high concentration of soluble Hg, were able to transfer in vitro both heavy metal- and antibiotic resistance markers to potential human- and animal- pathogens (i.e. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The frequencies of transfer ranged between 1.2x10-6 and 5.5x10-7 transconjugants per recipient. Transconjugants were also detected in the field, in model biofilms previously grown in natural sponges (Luffa cylindrica) and submersed in the ponds, at frequencies ranging from 1x10-4 to 5x10-3 transconjugants per recipient. These results are of particular relevance from the public health viewpoint, especially in light of the potential risk of horizontal flow of antibiotic resistance genes between indigenous bacteria and potential human pathogens.


Las bacterias que colonizan lagunas de cola altamente contaminadas en el sur de Venezuela, presentan resistencia a compuestos mercuriales y múltiples antibióticos. Los determinantes genéticos responsables de estas resistencias, adquiridos principalmente a través de transferencia horizontal de genes, pueden ser transferidos a bacterias patógenas. En este trabajo mostramos que cepas bacterianas indígenas, resistentes al mercurio y aisladas a partir de una laguna de cola modelo, localizada en El Callao (Estado Bolívar, Venezuela) conteniendo una alta concentración de Hg soluble, fueron capaces de transferir in vitro marcadores de resistencia a metales y antibióticos a cepas potencialmente patógenas para el hombre y animales (ej. Escherichia coli y Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Las frecuencias de transferencia variaron entre 1,2x10-6 y 5,5x10-7 transconjugantes por receptora. Los transconjugantes también fueron detectados en el campo, utilizando un modelo de biopelículas desarrollado en esponjas naturales (Luffa cylindrica) sumergidas en lagunas contaminadas, con frecuencias que variaron entre 1x10-4 y 5x10-3 transconjugantes por receptora. Estos resultados presentan una relevancia particular desde el punto de vista de salud pública, especialmente en vista del riesgo potencial de transferencia horizontal de genes de resistencia a antibióticos entre las bacterias indígenas y bacterias potencialmente patógenas para el hombre.

19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(4): 453-456, jun. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-678299

ABSTRACT

Here we report the presence and expression levels of the vanC 1 and vanC 2/3 genes in vancomycin-susceptible strains of Enterococcus faecalis. The vanC 1 and vanC 2/3 genes were located in the plasmid DNA and on the chromosome, respectively. Specific mRNA of the vanC 1 gene was detected in one of these strains. Additionally, analysis of the vanC gene sequences showed that these genes are related to the vanC genes of Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus. The presence of vanC genes is useful for the identification of E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. Moreover, this is the first report of vanC mRNA in E. faecalis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Chickens , Cloaca/microbiology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
20.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 9-15, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155520

ABSTRACT

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the movement of genetic material between kingdoms and is considered to play a positive role in adaptation. Cryptosporidium parvum is a parasitic protozoan that causes an infectious disease. Its genome sequencing reported 14 bacteria-like proteins in the nuclear genome. Among them, cgd2_1810, which has been annotated as CysQ, a sulfite synthesis pathway protein, is listed as one of the candidates of genes horizontally transferred from bacterial origin. In this report, we examined this issue using phylogenetic analysis. Our BLAST search showed that C. parvum CysQ protein had the highest similarity with that of proteobacteria. Analysis with NCBI's Conserved Domain Tree showed phylogenetic incongruence, in that C. parvum CysQ protein was located within a branch of proteobacteria in the cd01638 domain, a bacterial member of the inositol monophosphatase family. According to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, the sulfate assimilation pathway, where CysQ plays an important role, is well conserved in most eukaryotes as well as prokaryotes. However, the Apicomplexa, including C. parvum, largely lack orthologous genes of the pathway, suggesting its loss in those protozoan lineages. Therefore, we conclude that C. parvum regained cysQ from proteobacteria by HGT, although its functional role is elusive.


Subject(s)
Apicomplexa , Bacteria , Communicable Diseases , Cryptosporidium , Cryptosporidium parvum , Eukaryota , Gene Transfer, Horizontal , Genome , Humans , Inositol , Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases , Proteins , Proteobacteria
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