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1.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(1): 56-62, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364891

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is an extracorporeal therapy which removes apolipoprotein B-containing particles from the circulation. We evaluated techniques and efficiency of lipoprotein apheresis procedures applied to patients with familial and non-familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) at our center. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 250 LA procedures applied to 27 patients with dyslipidemia between March 2011 and August 2019. Results A total of 27 patients, of whom 19 (70.4%) were male and 8 (29.6%), female, were included. Eighteen (66.7%), 6 (22.2%) and 3 (11.1%) patients were diagnosed with non-FH, homozygous FH (HoFH) and heterozygous FH (HeFH), respectively. Two different apheresis techniques, direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI) (48.8%) and double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) (51.2%), were used. The change in the serum total cholesterol (TC) level was the median 302 mg/dl (171-604 mg/dl) (60.4%) in HoFH patients, 305 mg/dl (194-393 mg/dl) (60.8%) in HeFH patients and 227 mg/dl (75-749 mg/dl) (65.3%) in non-FH patients. The change in the serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level was the median 275 mg/dl (109-519 mg/dl) (64.2%), 232 mg/dl (207-291 mg/dl) (64.5%) and 325 mg/dl (22-735 mg/dl) (70.9%) in patients with HoFH, HeFH and non-FH, respectively. A significantly effective reduction in serum lipid levels, including TC, LDL and triglycerides, was achieved in all patients, regardless of the technique, p< .001. The decrease in the serum TC and LDL levels was significantly higher in the DFPP, compared to the DALI, being 220 mg/dl (-300 to 771) vs 184 mg/dl (64-415), p< .001 and 196 mg/dl (11-712) vs 157 mg/dl (54-340), p< .001, respectively. Conclusions Our results showed that LA is a highly effective treatment in reducing serum lipid levels and safe, without any major adverse event.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Blood Component Removal , Lipoproteins , Hyperlipidemias
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923496

ABSTRACT

@#A novel allicin pro-drug tablet containing antacid pellets was developed to realize pH-regulated allicin release and to guarantee allicin yield in stomach environment.Firstly, allicin precursor pellets containing antacid pellet were prepared and artificial gastric juice was used as the medium to determine the yield of the allicin.Then, the total lipid cholesterol (TC), triglyceride cholesterol (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) were used as indicators to study the hypolipidemic effect of allicin precursor pellets in rats.The dissolution test showed that in artificial gastric juice, the yield of allicin-containing antacid pellets exceeded 90%.In pharmacodynamic studies, it was found that antacid pellets showed the expected hypolipidemic effect on hyperlipidemia rats compared without antacid pellets.There was a very significant difference in blood lipid levels between the two test groups (P < 0.05).The allicin pro-drug tablets containing antacid pellets can effectively lower blood lipids.

3.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 818-824, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of Compound danshen tablet s o n improving the blood lipid levels and the mechanism of protecting renal functions in hyperlipidemia model rats. METHODS Sixty male SD rats were divided into normal group,model group ,simvastatin combined with (2S)-N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenylacetyl)-L-alanyl]-2-phenylglycine tert butyl (DAPT)group and low-dose ,medium-dose and high-dose groups of Compound danshen tablets ,with 10 rats in each group. Rats in the normal group received routine diet. The other 5 groups were intraperitoneally injected with 75% yolk emulsion 10 mL/kg, fasting and drinking freely. After 16 h,they were fed high-fat diet for 4 weeks. Simvastatin combined with DAPT group was given simvastatin 0.002 g/kg and DAPT 0.012 g/kg at the same time of modeling. The low-dose ,medium-dose and high-dose groups of Compound danshen tablets were given Compound danshen tablets 0.25,0.5 and 1 g/kg respectively at the same time of modeling , the normal group and model group were given equal volume of distilled water ,once a day ,for 4 weeks. The serum levels of total cholesterol(TC),triglyceride(TG),creatinine(Cr)and urea nitrogen (BUN)in serum were detected by biochemical method ; kidney coefficient of rats was calculated ;histopathological changes of rat kidney were observed by HE staining ,and the renal injury was scored according to the degree of renal tubular injury and glomerular sclerosis in renal cortex ;expression levels of Notch signal receptor 1(Notch 1),Notch signal ligand 1(Jagged1)and hairy division associated enhancer 1(Hes1)in kidney were detected by immunohistochemistry ;mRNA expressions of Notch 1,Jagged1 and Hes 1 in renal tissue were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS Compared with normal group ,the serum levels of TG , TC,Cr and BUN were increased significantly in model group (P<0.05);renal coefficient increased significantly (P<0.05); pathological changes occurred in renal tissue ,and the scores of renal tubular injury and glomerular sclerosis increased significantly (P<0.05);protein and mRNA expressions of Notch1, Jagged1, Hes1 in renal tissue were increased significantly(P<0.05). Compared with model group ,serum levels of TG ,TC,Cr and BUN ,renal coefficient ,the scores of renal tubular injury and glomerular sclerosis ,protein and mRNA expression of Notch 1,Jagged1 and Hes 1 in renal tissue were all decreased in low-dose ,medium-dose and high-dose groups of Compound danshen tablets (P<0.05),and most indexes showed a dose-dependent trend ;the degree of renal lesions was reduced. CONCLUSIONS Compound danshen tablets possess obvious hypolipidemic effect ,and can protect the renal function of hyperlipidemia model rats by down-regulating Notch 1/Jagged1 signal pathway.

4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18672, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360164

ABSTRACT

The use of plants in disease treatment is cost effective and relatively safe. This study was designed to investigate anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-diabetic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Catharanthus roseus alone and in combination therapy in hyperlipidemic & diabetic mice. Eight groups comprising five mice each were used. Group A was hyperlipidemic control, group B, C, D received atorvastatin (20 mg/kg), leaf extract (200 mg/kg) and leaf extract in combination with atorvastatin (200 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) orally for 15 days. Group E was diabetic control. Group F, G, H received sitagliptin (40 mg/kg), leaf extract (200 mg/kg) and extract in combination with sitagliptin (200 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) orally for 7 days. Blood cholesterol levels were measured at 1st, 5th, 10th and 15th day and fasting blood sugar levels were measured at 2, 12, 24, 72 and 168 hours during treatment. One-way ANOVA with tukey- kramer multiple comparison test was used. The chemical characterization of ethanolic extract of Catharanthus roseus leaves showed presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Ethanolic extract of Catharanthus roseus has significant anti-hyperlipidemic & anti-diabetic effects (p<0.05, p<0.01) when compared with control but had not cause significantly increase in anti-hyperlipidemic effects of atorvastatin. While significantly increased the antidiabetic effect of sitagliptin (p<0.05)


Subject(s)
Plant Leaves/classification , Catharanthus/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents , Blood Glucose , Cholesterol/blood , Disease/classification , Alkaloids/blood , Hyperlipidemias/blood
5.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 665-671, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934879

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the characteristics of intestinal microflora among flying personnel with hyperlipidemia, so as to provide insights into prevention of hyperlipidemia among flying personnel. @*Methods @#Flying personnel diagnosed with hyperlipidemia in a sanatiorium from October 2020 to February 2021 were included in the hyperlipidemia group, while flying personnel with normal blood lipids during the same period served as controls. Subjects' age, family history, physical examinations and blood testing results were collected from both groups. Fecal samples were collected, and intestinal microflora was sequenced followed by bioinformatics analysis. The diversity and abundance of intestinal microflora were compared, and the key bacteria were screened using LEfSe analysis.@*Results@#There were 29 subjects in the hyperlipidemia group with a median age (interquartile range) of 34 (12) years and 25 subjects in the control group with a median age (interquartile range) of 30 (12) years, and all subjects were men. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, flight duration, smoking, family history of metabolic diseases and waist circumference (P>0.05). The Shannon diversity index of intestinal microflora was lower in the hyperlipidemia group than in the control group (Z=4.370, P=0.026), and there was a significant difference in the overall structure of intestinal flora between the two groups, which were clustered into two groups. LEfSe analysis identified Herbaspirillum, Atopobium and Eggerthella as key microorganisms in the hyperlipidemia group, and Agathobacter, Dialister, norank_Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes_group, Alloprevotella and unclassified Bacteroidales as key microorganisms in the control group.@*Conclusions@#The species diversity and relative abundance of intestinal microflora are lower in flying personnel with hyperlipidemia than in those with normal blood lipids. Herbaspirillum, Atopobium and Eggerthella may be the key bacteria contributing to hyperlipidemia among flying personnel.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930214

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the characteristics of T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in hyperlipidemia-induced acute pancreatitis (HLAP) and its prognostic value.Methods:This study included 184 patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University from January 2018 to May 2021. Based on disease etiology, there were 92 HLAP cases and 92 non-hyperlipidemia-induced AP (NHLAP) cases. Stratified by disease severity according to 2012 Atlanta classification criteria, the patients were divided into the severe subgroup (SAP) and non-severe subgroup (NSAP). Peripheral venous blood samples were taken from all patients on day 1, 3, and 5 after admission. T lymphocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry, and cytokines were detected by flow fluorometry. The number of CD4 +% and CD8 +% and the expression of cytokines were compared by Student’s t test or Mann-Whitney U analysis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for severe AP, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to predict severe AP. Statistical significance was taken as P<0.05. Results:Compared with the NHLAP group, patients in the HLAP group had lower CD4 +%, while higher levels of IL-2 on day 1 ( P<0.05), and had also lower CD4 +%, while higher levels of IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 on day 3 ( P<0.05). Furthermore, IL-6 and IL-10 levels of the HLAP group were significantly increased compared to the NHLAP group on day 5 ( P<0.05). IL-10 levels in the SAP subgroup were significantly higher than those in the NSAP subgroup on day 1 ( P<0.05). Compared with the NSAP subgroup, the SAP subgroup had elevated levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ on day 3 (all P<0.05), and had lower CD4 +%, while increased levels of IL-6 and IL-10 on day 5 (all P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that IL-10 was an immune indicator of independent risk factor for severe AP in the HLAP group on day 1 ( OR=1.139, 95% CI: 1.038-1.251, P<0.05). Finally, ROC analysis showed that the area under the curve of IL-10 to assess HLAP with severe AP was 0.772, and the best cut-off value for predicting severe AP was 5.6 pg/mL, with a sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity of 68.8%. Conclusions:Changes of CD4 +% and cytokines are different between the HLAP and NHLAP groups. IL-10 can be used as a predictor of early disease severity in patients with HLAP.

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1322-1338, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929351

ABSTRACT

Lipid metabolism disorders contribute to hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. It is ideal to develop drugs simultaneous improving both hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Nitazoxanide is an FDA-approved oral antiprotozoal drug with excellent pharmacokinetic and safety profile. We found that nitazoxanide and its metabolite tizoxanide induced mild mitochondrial uncoupling and subsequently activated AMPK in HepG2 cells. Gavage administration of nitazoxanide inhibited high-fat diet (HFD)-induced increases of liver weight, blood and liver lipids, and ameliorated HFD-induced renal lipid accumulation in hamsters. Nitazoxanide significantly improved HFD-induced histopathologic changes of hamster livers. In the hamsters with pre-existing hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis, nitazoxanide also showed therapeutic effect. Gavage administration of nitazoxanide improved HFD-induced hepatic steatosis in C57BL/6J mice and western diet (WD)-induced hepatic steatosis in Apoe -/- mice. The present study suggests that repurposing nitazoxanide as a drug for hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis treatment is promising.

8.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 193-203, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929228

ABSTRACT

Metabolic syndrome (MS) involves people with the following risk factors: obesity, hypertension, high glucose level and hyperlipidemia. It can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of MS in the world's adult population is about 20%-25%. Today, there is much care to use medicinal plants. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) as well as curcumin which is derived from the rhizome of the plant, has been shown beneficial effects on different components of MS. Thus, the purpose of this manuscript was to introduce different in vitro, in vivo and human studies regarding the effect of turmeric and its constituent on MS. Moreover, different mechanisms of action by which this plant overcomes MS have been introduced. Based on studies, turmeric and its bioactive component, curcumin, due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, have antidiabetic effects through increasing insulin release, antihyperlipidemic effects by increasing fatty acid uptake, anti-obesity effects by decreasing lipogenesis, and antihypertensive effects by increasing nitric oxide. According to several in vivo, in vitro and human studies, it can be concluded that turmeric or curcumin has important values as a complementary therapy in MS. However, more clinical trials should be done to confirm these effects.


Subject(s)
Curcuma , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rhizome
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942775

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of piperine on human breast cancer cells. Methods: The effect of piperine on proliferation and migration of human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, was investigated using colony formation assays, wound healing assays, Matrigel migration assays, flow cytometry, RT-qPCR, and Western blotting assays. Results: Piperine inhibited the growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and suppressed colony formation. Cell reduction at the G 0 / G 1 phase and cell arrest at the G 2 /M phase were observed in breast cancer cells. However, the significant effect was only demonstrated in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, cancer cell migration was suppressed by piperine at low concentration. RT-qPCR and Western blotting assays showed that piperine downregulated Rac1 gene and protein expression. Conclusions: Piperine could inhibit growth and migration of breast cancer cells by reducing Rac1 gene and protein expression.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942774

ABSTRACT

Objective: To enhance the pharmaceutical potential and oral bioavailability of quercetin contents of Allium cepa peel extract by novel nanosuspension technology. Methods: Nanoprecipitation approach was successfully used for the formulation of nanosuspension. To obtain pharmaceutical-grade nanosuspension with minimum particle size and polydispersity index, sodium lauryl sulphate was selected as a stabilizer. Important formulation parameters were statistically optimized by the response surface methodology approach. The optimized nanosuspension was subjected to stability and in vitro dissolution testing and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and zeta sizer. To evaluate the preeminence of nanosuspension over coarse suspension, comparative bioavailability studies were carried out in male albino rats. The pharmaceutical potential of developed nanosuspension was evaluated by antioxidant, antimicrobial, and toxicity studies. Results: The optimized nanosuspension showed an average particle size of 275.5 nm with a polydispersity index and zeta potential value of 0.415 and -48.8 mV, respectively. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the average particle size of nanosuspension was below 100 nm. The formulated nanosuspension showed better stability under refrigerated conditions. Nanosuspension showed an improved dissolution rate and a 2.14-fold greater plasma concentration of quercetin than coarse suspension. Moreover, the formulated nanosuspension exhibited enhanced antioxidant and antimicrobial potential and was non-toxic. Conclusions: Optimization of nanosuspension effectively improves the pharmaceutical potential and oral bioavailability of Allium cepa extract.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941600

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of ethyl acetate gum resin extract of Boswellia serrata on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation and oxidative damage in hepatic and renal tissues of rats. Methods: The rats were divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS+Boswellia serrata extracts (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg). LPS (1 mg/kg) and the extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, 30 min before LPS) were administered intraperitoneally for 3 weeks. The levels of liver enzymes, albumin, total protein, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), interleukin (IL)-6, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total thiol groups and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured. Results: The levels of liver enzymes, creatinine, and BUN, IL-6, MDA in the LPS group were markedly increased (P<0.001) while albumin, total protein, and total thiol concentration, as well as SOD and CAT activities, were decreased compared with the control group (P<0.05 or 0.01). Boswellia serrata extracts diminished the levels of liver enzymes, creatinine, BUN, IL-6, and MDA (P<0.01 and P<0.001), and elevated the concentration of total protein and total thiol and SOD and CAT activities (P<0.05 or 0.01). Conclusions: The ethyl acetate gum resin extract of Boswellia serrata reduces LPS-induced inflammatory reactions and oxidative damage, thus ameliorating hepatic and renal function.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941599

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the antioxidative and antidiabetic effects of Harpephyllum caffrum bark infusion as well as its effects on glucogenic and nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme activities in FeSO 4 - induced oxidative stress in rat hepatic tissue. Methods: Harpephyllum caffrum infusion was prepared from dried plant materials (40 g) infused in boiling water (400 mL) for 20 min at room temperature. The antioxidative and inhibitory activities against carbohydrate digestive enzymes of the infusion were determined using established protocols. The liver tissues of rats were used for glucose uptake assay and to evaluate the infusion's effect on endogenous antioxidant, glucogenic, and nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme activities in FeSO 4 -induced hepatic injury. Results: The Harpephyllum caffrum infusion significantly reduced ferric iron (FRAP) and free radicals (OH • and DPPH) in a dose- dependent manner. It inhibited -amylase and -glucosidase activities and increased glucose uptake in hepatic tissues. FeSO 4 significantly decreased glutathione concentration, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities while increasing malondialdehyde level, glycogen phosphorylase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and adenosine triphosphatase activities. However, treatment with Harpephyllum caffrum infusion reversed FeSO 4 -induced changes. Characterization of the infusion revealed the presence of catechol, O-pyrocatechuic acid, mequinol, maltol, and glycoside derivatives. Conclusions: The Harpephyllum caffrum infusion demonstrates antidiabetic and antioxidative potentials in in vitro models of type 2 diabetes as depicted by its ability to inhibit carbohydrate digestive enzymes, mitigate oxidative imbalance, and regulate glucogenic and nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme activities in oxidative hepatic injury.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941598

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, play important roles in regulating host defense against pathogenic infections. This review provides information on the role of miRNAs in the antimycobacterial immune response and summarizes their possible diagnostic utility. It was compiled using scientific literature retrieved from such databases as PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and PubMed Central. Relevant articles published in the English language until December 2020 were taken into consideration. It has been revealed that specific host miRNAs induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis can target diverse factors and pathways in immune signaling to ensure longer pathogen survival inside the phagocytes. The potential use of miRNAs in tuberculosis diagnosis or therapeutic strategies has been attracting increasing attention in recent years. However, despite considerable efforts devoted to miRNA profiling, further studies are needed to elucidate the full potential of miRNAs as novel tuberculosis biomarkers or therapeutic targets.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941597

ABSTRACT

Objective: To elucidate the cytotoxic effect of the secondary metabolites of Barrientosiimonas humi (B. humi) on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and its underlying mechanisms of action. Methods: The extract was obtained from the fermentation of B. humi and fractionation of the crude extract was conducted via column chromatography. Cytotoxicity of the B. humi extract was determined by using MTT assay and real-time cellular analysis. Morphological changes, cell cycle profiles, mode of cell death, and caspase expressions of control and treated breast cancer cells were determined. Results: The ethyl acetate extract isolated from B. humi was cytotoxic against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. One of the dichloromethane (DCM) fractions, designated as DCM-F2, exhibited the strongest activity among all the fractions and thereby was selected for further studies. DCM-F2 had selective cytotoxicity on target cells by inducing apoptosis, particularly in the early stage, and cell cycle arrest. Treated cells caused inhibition of cell cycle progression at 72 h leading to a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the G0/G1 population. DCM-F2 treated MDA-MB-231 cells showed caspase-dependent apoptosis, whereas DCM-F2 treated MCF-7 cells showed a caspase-independent apoptosis pathway. Five compounds were successfully isolated from B. humi. Cyclo (Pro-Tyr) was the most cytotoxic and selective compound against MCF-7 cells. Conclusions: B. humi ethyl acetate extract exhibits significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells via induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941596

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the protective role of Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract in a depression model through modulating oxidant/antioxidant enzyme system and inflammatory status. Methods: Phytochemical constituents of Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively along with HPLC. Rats were divided into six groups. The normal control and the intoxicated groups received normal saline, and the standard group received imipramine, while the remaining groups received 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract. All groups received treatments for 14 d. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were then administered i.p. (0.83 mg/kg) to all groups except the normal control group. After 24 h, anxiety and depression-like behaviors were evaluated by performing behavioral analysis (open field, tail suspension, forced swim, sucrose preference test), and determining total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, catalase, and biochemical parameters [malondialdehyde, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6]. Results: Phytochemical studies confirmed the presence of phenols and flavonoids and HPLC analysis showed the presence of gallic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic, and caffeic acid. Total oxidant status was significantly decreased, while total antioxidant capacity was significantly increased in the Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract treated groups. Moreover, Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract diminished malondialdehyde, IL-6, and TNF-alpha levels, while increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione activities. Conclusions: Glinus lotoides ethanolic crude extract shows significant antidepressant activity by modulating oxidative and biochemical parameters that supports its folkloric use in traditional systems of medicine.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941595

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the anti-tumor effects of Pistacia atlantica methanolic extract (PAME) compared with cyclophosphamide against Ehrlich solid tumors in mice. Methods: Swiss albino mice (n=40) were divided into five groups: normal control mice, mice with Ehrlich solid tumors treated with normal saline, mice with Ehrlich solid tumors treated with cyclophosphamide intraperitoneally once a day for 14 d, or 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg PAME orally once a day for 14 d. Tumor growth inhibition, body weight, tumor markers, liver and kidney enzymes, oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, tumor necrosis factor-alpha level (TNF-α), and apoptosis-regulatory gene expression were evaluated. Results: Treatment of mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumors with PAME at 50 and 100 mg/kg orally significantly decreased tumor volume, body weight, tumor markers, liver and kidney enzymes, oxidative stress markers and TNF-α level in comparison with mice with Ehrlich solid tumors receiving normal saline. whereas PAME at 50 and 100 mg/kg/day significantly elevated the level of antioxidant enzymes (P<0.05). Conclusions: Pistacia atlantica methanolic extract has potent antitumor activity in mice. Therefore, the extract might be considered as an alternative anticancer agent against tumors, however, additional studies especially in the clinical setting are required to confirm this finding.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941594

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate hypertriglyceridemia and hepatomegaly caused by Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus (FSS) and Schisandra chinensis Fructus (FSC) oils in mice. Methods: Mice were orally administered a single dose of Schisandrae Fructus oils. Serum and hepatic triglyceride (TG), triglyceride transfer protein (TTP), apolipoprotein B48 (Apo B48), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), alanine aminotransfease (ALT) and liver index were measured at 6-120 h post-dosing. Results: FSS and FSC oil caused time and dose-dependent increases in serum and hepatic TG levels, with maximum increases in the liver (by 297% and 340%) at 12 h post-dosing and serum (244% and 439%) at 24-h post-dosing, respectively. Schisandrae Fructus oil treatments also elevated the levels of serum TTP by 51% and 63%, Apo B48 by 152% and 425%, and VLDL by 67% and 38% in mice, respectively. FSS and FSC oil treatments also increased liver mass by 53% and 55% and HGF by 106% and 174%, but lowered serum ALT activity by 38% and 22%, respectively. Fenofibrate pre/ co-treatment attenuated the FSS and FSC oil-induced elevation in serum TG levels by 41% and 49% at 48 h post-dosing, respectively, but increased hepatic TG contents (by 38% and 33%, respectively) at 12 h post-dosing. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence to support the establishment of a novel mouse model of hypertriglyceridemia by oral administration of FSS oil (mainly increasing endogenous TG) and FSC oil (mainly elevating exogenous TG).

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941593

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the anticoagulant, antiplatelet and antioxidant activities of protein extract of kenaf seed (PEKS). Methods: Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography techniques were employed for protein characterization. Antioxidant activity of PEKS was assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The protective effect of PEKS on sodium nitrite (NaNO 2) induced oxidative stress was evaluated using the in vitro red blood cell model, while the effect of PEKS on diclofenac-induced oxidative stress was examined in vivo in rats. Platelet-rich plasma and platelet-poor plasma were used for anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities of PEKS. Results: PEKS revealed similar protein bands on SDS-PAGE under reduced and non-reduced conditions. Several acidic proteins were present in native PAGE. PEKS showed antioxidant properties by scavenging DPPH with an IC 50 of 24.58 μg. PEKS exhibited a protective effect on NaNO 2 induced oxidative stress in red blood cells by restoring the activity of stress markers. In addition, PEKS alleviated diclofenac-induced tissue damage of the liver, kidney, and small intestine. PEKS showed an anticoagulant effect in both in vivo and in vitro experiments by enhancing normal clotting time. PEKS did not affect prothrombin time but increase activated partial thromboplastin time. Furthermore, PEKS inhibited adenosine diphosphate and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation. Conclusions: PEKS protects tissues from oxidative stress and exhibits antithrombotic activity.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941592

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) denotes a spectrum of fatty liver disease in individuals without significant alcohol consumption. NAFLD is set to be the most common etiology of serious liver diseases in numerous nations when accompanied by obesity and type 2 diabetes. It is further histologically categorized into the non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL; steatosis without hepatocellular injury) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which is characterized by the coexistence of hepatic steatosis and inflammation and is accompanied by hepatocyte injury (ballooning), either with or without fibrosis. NAFL is considered the benign and reversible stage arising from the excessive accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes. However, NASH is a more progressive stage of NAFLD, due to the increased risks of evolving more serious diseases such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma. This concept, however, has been lately challenged by a hypothesis of multiple parallel hits of NAFLD, in which steatosis and NASH are separate entities rather than two points of the NAFLD spectrum, not only from a set of histological patterns but also from a pathophysiological perspective. The current review highlights the epidemiology and pathophysiology of NAFLD, and its progression towards steatohepatitis, with special focus on the novel imminent therapeutic approaches targeting the molecular aspects and the pathogenic pathways involved in the development, and progression of NAFLD.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941591

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of the hexane solvent fraction of Halymenia durvillei (HDHE) on triple-negative breast cancer. Methods: The phytochemical profile of HDHE was investigated by GC-MS. The cytotoxicity of HDHE against MDA-MB-231 cells was determined. The apoptotic and autophagic effects of HDHE were analyzed. The expression of molecular markers controlling apoptosis, autophagy, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was determined. Results: HDHE contains a mixture of fatty acids, mainly hexadecanoic acid. HDHE at a cytotoxic concentration induced apoptotic death of MDA-MB-231 cells through mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, and induction of apoptosis markers, and increased the expression of proteins related to DNA damage response. HDHE also induced the expression of LC-3, a marker of autophagic cell death at a cytotoxic concentration. Moreover, HDHE modulated the expression of ER stress genes. Conclusions: The hexadecanoic acid-enriched extract of Halymenia durvillei promotes apoptosis and autophagy of human triple-negative breast cancer cells. This extract may be further explored as an anticancer agent for triple-negative breast cancer.

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