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1.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 85-90, mar. 2022. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362717

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de una mujer en la quinta década de la vida que ingresa al servicio de urgencias con manifestaciones gastrointestinales consistentes en vómito e hipo. Después de múltiples estudios e intervenciones por especialistas, se piensa en el origen central de los síntomas. Se realiza una resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) cerebral que permite el enfoque del caso y posterior confirmación del diagnóstico de una enfermedad dentro del espectro de la neuromielitis óptica, positiva para anticuerpos anti-acuaporinas-4. El tratamiento con esteroide y anticuerpo monoclonal (Rituximab) llevan a un control adecuado de la enfermedad.


We present a case report of a woman in her 50s admitted to the emergency room with gastrointestinal manifestations consisting of vomiting and hiccups. After a series of studies and interventions by specialists, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed in order to find the central origin of the symptoms. This allows the approach of the case and subsequent confirmation of the diagnosis of Neuromyelitis optica, positive for anti-acuaporin-4 antibodies. Finally, it seems that treatment with steroids and monoclonal antibodies leads to proper control of the disease.


Se apresenta o caso de uma mulher na quinta década de vida que ingressa ao serviço de urgências com manifestações gastrointestinais consistentes em vômito e soluço. Depois de múltiplos estudos e intervenções por especialistas, se pensa na origemcentral dos sintomas. Se realiza uma ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN) cerebral que permite o enfoque do caso e posterior confirmação do diagnóstico de uma doença dentro do espectro da neuromielite óptica, positiva para anticorpos anti-acuaporinas-4. O tratamento com esteroide e anticorpo monoclonal (Rituximab) levam a um controle adequado da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neuromyelitis Optica , Vomiting , Brain , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Aquaporins , Hiccup , Antibodies
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930162

ABSTRACT

Epimedii folium is a commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for warming the kidney and strengthening the yang qi. It has androgen-estrogen-like effect. It can not only directly act on sexual organs to regulate hormone levels, but also exert sex-hormone-like effect through hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. Its regulation of hormone levels is similar to that of plant hormones. At present, Epimedii folium is commonly used with other TCMs to treat diseases caused by sex-hormone deficiency, such as male spermatopenia, asthenospermia, benign prostatic hyperplasia, functional erectile dysfunction, female premature ovarian failure, perimenopausal syndrome, dysfunctional infertility during ovulation, hyperandrogenemia of PCOS patients, etc.

3.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 394-421, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939861

ABSTRACT

Obesity and aging are two important epidemic factors for metabolic syndrome and many other health issues, which contribute to devastating diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, stroke and cancers. The brain plays a central role in controlling metabolic physiology in that it integrates information from other metabolic organs, sends regulatory projections and orchestrates the whole-body function. Emerging studies suggest that brain dysfunction in sensing various internal cues or processing external cues may have profound effects on metabolic and other physiological functions. This review highlights brain dysfunction linked to genetic mutations, sex, brain inflammation, microbiota, stress as causes for whole-body pathophysiology, arguing brain dysfunction as a root cause for the epidemic of aging and obesity-related disorders. We also speculate key issues that need to be addressed on how to reveal relevant brain dysfunction that underlines the development of these disorders and diseases in order to develop new treatment strategies against these health problems.


Subject(s)
Aging , Brain/metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Hypothalamus/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism
4.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1313-1319, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924354

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To explore the regulatory mechanism of compatibility of ginseng and gecko dispensing granule on kidney yang deficiency model rats. METHODS Male SD rats were randomly divided into normal group (no modeling ,no administration),model group (modeling,no administration ),Jinkui shenqi pill group (modeling,dose of 2.33 g/kg),ginseng group(modeling,dose of 0.53 g/kg),gecko group (modeling,dose of 0.21 g/kg)and compatibility group (modeling,ginseng 0.53 g/kg and gecko 0.21 g/kg). The body mass and anal temperature of rats were measured at different time points ;the serum levels of cAMP ,cGMP,CRH,ACTH,CORT,T,T3,T4,E2,IgG and IgM were measured ;the pathomorphological changes of adrenal gland ,thyroid gland and testis were observed ;mRNA expression of CRH ,thyroid stimulating hormone releasing hormone (TRH)and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)in hypothalamus were detected. RESULTS Compared with model group ,the anal temperature ,the levels of cAMP ,CRH,ACTH,CORT,T3,T and cAMP/cGMP ,T/E2 in serum and mRNA expressions of TRH and GnRH in hypothalamus were significantly increased in the compatibility group (P<0.05 or P<0.01);the levels of cGMP,E2 and IgG in serum and mRNA expression of CRH in hypothalamus decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01); the pathological injuries of adrenal gland ,thyroid gland and testis were all improved. Compared with ginseng or gecko dispensing granules alone ,the anal temperature and T/E 2 of rats in the compatibility group increased significantly ,and mRNA expression of CRH in hypothalamus decreasedsignificantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Thecompatibility of ginseng and gecko dispensing granule has a synergistic regulatory effect on kidney yang deficiency model rats , the mechanism of which may be associated with hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis , hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis , hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis and neuroendocrine immune network formed by immune function. Compatible drugs are better than single drugs.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e234855, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153468

ABSTRACT

Abstract Exposure to the hight-fat diet may alter the control of food intake promoting hyperphagia and obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of this diet on dopamine receptors (drd1 and drd2), proopiomelanocortin (pomc), neuropeptideY (npy) genes expression, and preference food in adult rats. Wistar female rats were fed a hight-fat or control diet during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were allocated into groups: Lactation - Control (C) and High-fat (H). Post-weaning - Control Control (CC), offspring of mothers C, fed a control diet after weaning; Control Hight-fat (CH), offspring of mothers C, fed a hight-fat diet after weaning; Hight-fat Control (HC), offspring of mothers H, fed with control diet after weaning; and Hight-fat Hight-fat (HH), offspring of mothers H, fed a H diet after weaning. The groups CH and HH presented greater expression of drd1 in comparison to the CC. The drd2 of CH and HC presented higher gene expression than did CC. HH presented higher pomc expression in comparison to the other groups. HC also presented greater expression in comparison to CH. The npy of HH presented greater expression in relation to CH and HC. HH and HC have had a higher preference for a high-fat diet at 102º life's day. The high-fat diet altered the gene expression of the drd1, drd2, pomc and npy, and influencing the food preference for high-fat diet.


Resumo A exposição à dieta hiperlipídica pode alterar o controle da ingestão de alimentos, promovendo hiperfagia e obesidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos dessa dieta sobre a expressão gênica dos receptores de dopamina (drd1 e drd2), da proopiomelanocortina (pomc) e neuropeptídeo Y (npy), e preferência alimentar em ratos adultos. Ratas Wistar foram alimentadas com uma dieta hiperlipídica ou controle durante a gestação e lactação. Os descendentes foram alocados em grupos: Lactação - Controle (C) e Hiperlipídica (H). Pós-desmame - Controle Controle (CC), descendentes das genitoras do grupo controle e alimentados com dieta controle após o desmame; Controle Hiperlipídica (CH), descendentes das genitoras do grupo controle e alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica após o desmame; Hiperlipídica Controle (HC), descendentes das genitoras do grupo hiperlipídica e alimentados com dieta controle após o desmame; Hiperlipídica Hiperlipídica (HH), descendentes das genitoras do grupo hiperlipídica e alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica após o desmame. Os grupos CH e HH apresentaram maior expressão de drd1 em comparação ao CC. O drd2 de CH e HC apresentou maior expressão gênica que o CC. HH apresentou maior expressão de pomc em comparação com os outros grupos. O HC também apresentou maior expressão de pomc em comparação ao CH. O npy do HH apresentou maior expressão em relação ao CH e HC. HH e HC tiveram uma preferência maior por uma dieta rica em gordura no 102º dia de vida. A dieta hiperlipídica alterou a expressão gênica dos drd1, drd2, pomc e npy e influenciou na preferência alimentar pela dieta hiperlipídica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Pro-Opiomelanocortin/genetics , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Body Weight , Neuropeptide Y/genetics , Gene Expression , Receptors, Dopamine/genetics , Rats, Wistar , Food Preferences
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909507

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the association between the polymorphisms of the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis related genes SKA2, AVPR1B, CRHR2 and suicide attempts in patients with depression, and the interaction between the genes and environmental factors.Methods:From March 2017 to August 2018, sixty-one patients with depression who were hospitalized for suicide were selected (case group), and 57 subjects matched with the age, gender and education level of the case group (control group) were selected in the same period.Snapshot genotyping technique was used to test the genotypes of case group and control group.Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-Ⅱ) and life event scale (LES) were used to assess the impulsive traits and mental stress of individuals in the past year.Chi-square test and independent sample t-test were used for inter group comparison by SPSS 22.0 software.Gene-environment interaction was analyzed by the generalized multi factor dimensionality reduction. Results:The total scores of BIS-Ⅱ and LES in case group(65.05± 11.14, 34.16±27.23) were higher than those in the control group (53.30 ± 9.07, 11.67±12.64), the differences were statistically significant (both P<0.05). There was no significant difference in gene frequency and allele frequency of SKA2 and CRHR2 between the two groups ( P>0.05). The genotype frequency and allele frequency of rs28373064 of AVPR1B gene were significantly different between the two groups (χ 2=5.763, 4.279, both P<0.05), but there was no significant difference after Bonferroni correction ( P>0.05). The best interaction model in GMDR was the third-order model constructed by rs28373064 of AVPR1B gene, impulsive traits and life events, with the highest accuracy of 0.789 for sample test( P=0.001). In multiple genetic models, rs28373064 of AVPR1B gene was associated with attempted suicide behavior in patients with depression(dominant model: A/G-G/G ( OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.16-0.88, P=0.021), overdominant model: A/G ( OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.15-0.87, P=0.019), log-additive model: A/A, A/G and G/G ( OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.20-0.96, P=0.034)). Conclusion:rs28373064 polymorphism of AVPR1B gene is associated with attempted suicide behavior in patients with depression.AA genotype carriers of AVPR1B gene are more likely to commit suicide under the influence of life events and impulsive.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877651

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning at heart meridian acupoints on the contents of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in lateral hypothalamus area (LHA) and cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) in the rats with acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI), and explore the role and mechanism of LHA and FN in the effect of EA at heart meridian acupoints against acute MIRI.@*METHODS@#Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into a sham-operation group, a model group, an EA heart meridian group and an EA lung meridian group, 12 rats in each group, as well as an LHA plus heart meridian group (damage of bilateral LHA) and an FN plus heart meridian group (damage of bilateral FN), 6 rats in each one. Three days after nucleus destruction, EA was applied to "Shenmen" (HT 7) and "Tongli" (HT 5) in the EA heart meridian group, the LHA plus heart meridian group and the FN plus heart meridian group and EA was applied to "Taiyuan" (LU 9) and "Lieque" (LU 7) in the EA lung meridian group, with 1 V in stimulating voltage and 2 Hz in frequency, lasting 20 minutes each time, once a day, for consecutively 7 days before model replication. Except in the sham-operation group, MIRI rat models were duplicated by ligation of the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery in the rest groups. Using Power lab physiological recorder, ST segment displacement value was recorded before modeling, 30 min after ligation and 120 min after reperfusion separately. The high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection and analysis system was adopted to determine the contents of DA and 5-HT in LHA and FN dialysate after rat modeling in each group.@*RESULTS@#In comparison of ST segment displacement value 30 min after ligation and 120 min after reperfusion among groups, the value in the model group was higher than that in the sham-operation group (@*CONCLUSION@#EA preconditioning at heart meridian acupoints can effectively alleviate myocardial injury in acute MIRI rats, during which, DA and 5-HT in LHA and FN may be the important material basis.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Animals , Cerebellar Nuclei , Dopamine , Electroacupuncture , Hypothalamic Area, Lateral , Myocardial Ischemia , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906435

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the regulatory effects of <italic>Polygala tenuifolia</italic> and licorice-simmered <italic>P. tenuifolia</italic> on learning and memory, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) function and neurotransmitters in rats with heart-kidney imbalance insomnia. Method:The rat model of insomnia induced by multi-factor stimulation was established. After the model being made, the administration groups were given the extracts of <italic>P. tenuifolia</italic> and licorice-simmered <italic>P. tenuifolia</italic> by gavage (dose of 8 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>), while the normal group and model group were given the same volume of normal saline for 7 days. Morris water maze was used to detect the changes of learning and memory ability of rats in each group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol (CORT) in serum of rats from each group. The contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA), <italic>γ</italic>-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamic acid (Glu) in the hypothalamus of rats were determined simultaneously by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Result:Compared with the normal group, the spatial learning and memory ability of rats in the model group<italic> </italic>was decreased, the times and time of staying in target quadrant were significantly reduced (<italic>P<</italic>0.05, <italic>P<</italic>0.01), the levels of CORT, CRH and ACTH in serum were significantly increased (<italic>P<</italic>0.01), the contents of GABA, DA, 5-HT in hypothalamus tissue were significantly decreased (<italic>P<</italic>0.01), and the content of Glu was significantly increased (<italic>P<</italic>0.01). Compared with the model group, the spatial learning and memory ability of rats in the <italic>P. tenuifolia</italic> group and licorice-simmered <italic>P. tenuifolia </italic>group<italic> </italic>were increased, the times and time of staying in the target quadrant were significantly increased (<italic>P<</italic>0.05, <italic>P<</italic>0.01), the levels of CORT, CRH and ACTH in serum were significantly decreased (<italic>P<</italic>0.05, <italic>P<</italic>0.01), the contents of GABA, DA and 5-HT in hypothalamus tissue were significantly increased (<italic>P<</italic>0.05, <italic>P<</italic>0.01), and the content of Glu was significantly decreased (<italic>P<</italic>0.05). The recovery degree of each index in the licorice-simmered <italic>P. tenuifolia</italic> group was better than that in the <italic>P. tenuifolia</italic> group. Conclusion:Both <italic>P. tenuifolia</italic> and licorice-simmered <italic>P. tenuifolia</italic> can improve the learning and memory ability, improve the function of HPA axis, regulate the level of central neurotransmitters, and have the effect of calming the mind and improving the intelligence of rats with heart-kidney imbalance insomnia. The effect of licorice-simmered <italic>P. tenuifolia</italic> is better than that of <italic>P. tenuifolia.</italic>

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905893

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of Sinisan on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrKB), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)/5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR), and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in depressed rats, and explore the antidepressant mechanism of Sinisan based on BDNF/TrKB, 5-HT/5-HT1AR, and HPA axis. Method:A total of 120 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a fluoxetine (0.01 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) group, and low- (1.25 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), medium- (2.5 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), and high-dose (5 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) Sinisan groups, with 20 rats in each group. The depression model was induced by isolation combined with chronic unpredictable mild stimulation(CUMS) in rats except for those in the normal group for 21 days. Rats were then treated correspondingly once a day for 21 days by gavage. Those in the normal group and the model group received an equal volume of normal saline. During the intervention, the model rats were stimulated continuously. The depressive state of CUMS model rats was evaluated by sucrose preference test and open field test. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and corticosterone (CORT) in the plasma and BDNF and 5-HT levels in the hippocampal homogenate. The mRNA expression of hippocampal TrKB, 5-HT1AR, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was detected by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). The protein expression of hippocampal TrKB, 5-HT1AR, GR, and MR was detected by Western blot. The histomorphological changes of the hippocampus were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Result:Compared with the normal group, the model group showed decreased sucrose preference rate (<italic>P</italic><0.01), reduced horizontal and vertical scores in the open field test (<italic>P</italic><0.01), increased plasma content of CRH, ACTH, and CORT (<italic>P</italic><0.01), declining content of BDNF and 5-HT in the hippocampus (<italic>P</italic><0.01), dwindled mRNA and protein expression levels of TrKB, 5-HT1AR, and GR (<italic>P</italic><0.01), elevated mRNA and protein expression of MR (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and damaged hippocampal neurons revealed by HE staining. Compared with the model group, the groups with drug intervention showed increased sucrose preference rate (<italic>P</italic><0.01) and horizontal and vertical scores in the open field test (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), decreased content of plasma CRH, ACTH, and CORT (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), elevated content of hippocampal BDNF and 5-HT (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), elevated mRNA and protein expression levels of hippocampal TrKB, 5-HT1AR, and GR (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), reduced mRNA and protein expression levels of hippocampal MR (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), and recovered hippocampal neurons as revealed by HE staining. Conclusion:Sinisan can exert a significant antidepressant effect by increasing hippocampal BDNF and 5-HT content, up-regulating TrKB, 5-HT1AR, and GR mRNA and protein expression, down-regulating MR mRNA and protein expression, inhibiting HPA axis hypertrophy, and enhancing the regeneration and repair of hippocampal neurons.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Weight loss under hypoxic exposure is related to a reduction in food intake. Decreased gastric Ghrelin levels can reduce food intake, but whether digestive nutritional absorption disorders and dyslipidemia caused by obesity can be regulated through Ghrelin-growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) pathway under intermittent hypoxia is unclear yet. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of intermittent hypoxia exposure on Ghrelin-GHSR pathway in gastric tissues of obese mice. METHODS: Thirty C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into a control group (n=8) and a high fat diet group (n=22, fed with high fat diet). After 8 weeks high fat diet, obesity models were successfully established in 16 mice with high fat diet, and then were randomly divided into an obese control group (n=8) and an obese hypoxic group (n=8, 11.2% oxygen concentration, 8 hours per day, 6 times per week). The mice whose remaining body mass did not exceed the average body weight of the normal control group by 20% were discarded. After intervention, the serum biochemical indicators and Ghrelin level were tested; the Ghrelin and GHSR-1a mRNA expressions were tested by RT-PCR; gastric tissue morphology was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining; the mean absorbance values of Ghrelin and Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (Goat) were measured by immunohistochemistry; the protein expressions of hypothalamic growth hormone secretagogue hormone receptor 1a (GHSR-1a), Ghrelin and Goat were detected by western blot. The study protocol was approved by the Sports Science Ethics Committee of Beijing Sport University, approval No. 2015021. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The body mass of the obese control group was significantly higher than that of the control group and obese hypoxic group after 4-week hypoxic intervention. (2) The blood glucose, total cholesterol, and triacylglycerol levels were obviously higher in the obese control group than the control group. Compared with the obese control group, the blood glucose and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the obese hypoxic group, while the serum Ghrelin level was significantly higher in the obese hypoxic group. (3) The Ghrelin mRNA relative expression in gastric tissue of the obese control group was evidently lower than that of the obese hypoxic group, and the GHSR-1a mRNA expression in the hypothalamus was significantly lower in the obese control group than the control group. (4) The obese hypoxic group had a regular, dense and uniform distribution of gastric fundus gland main cells. (5) The mean absorbance values of Ghrelin and Goat as well as the protein contents of GHSR-1a, Ghrelin and Goat in the obese hypoxic group were evidently higher than those in the obese control group. These results indicate that 4-week hypoxic exposure can significantly increase the expression of Ghrelin and Goat in gastric tissue and GHSR-1a in the hypothalamus, decrease blood glucose level and body mass, and improve the adverse effects of obesity in obese mice.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911409

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the changes of proopiomelanocortin(POMC) expression in hypothalamus and corresponding metabolism in miR-21 knockout mice.Methods:miR-21 knockout or wild-type C57BL/6J mice were divided into diabetic group and control group, respectively. Diabetic mice model were forged with high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin. The changes of body weight and blood glucose in each group were monitored. By the end of the experiment, mice were sacrificed, and POMC protein expression and STAT3 mRNA expression in hypothalamus were detected.Results:There were no significant differences in body weight and blood glucose levels among all groups at baseline( P>0.05). The differences of body weight and blood glucose levels among various groups were compared at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks after the model was established. The results showed that body weight of mice in the diabetes group or miR-21 knockout+ diabetes group was higher than that in the control group at each time point( P<0.05). Moreover, there were significant difference in body weight between diabetes group and miR-21 knockout+ diabetes group at 3 and 12 weeks( P<0.05). The blood glucose levels in diabetes group were significantly higher than those in other groups at each time point( P<0.05). The blood glucose level in miR-21 knockout+ diabetes group was lower than that in diabetes group and higher than control group( P<0.05). POMC protein and STAT3 mRNA levels in diabetes group were significantly lower than those in control group, while those in the miR-21 knockout+ diabetes group were higher than those in the diabetes group. Conclusions:The expression of POMC in hypothalamus of miR-21 knockout mice is higher than that of wild-type diabetic mice. miR-21 knockout can decrease blood glucose level and body weight, and improve energy metabolism of diabetic mice.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885976

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment on the protein expression of c-fos in fastigial nucleus (FN) and lateral hypothalamus area (LHA) in rats with acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI), and to explore the role and mechanism of FN and LHA in EA at the Heart Meridian fighting against acute MIRI reaction. Methods: Seventy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, a model group, an EA-Heart Meridian group and an EA-Lung Meridian group, with 14 rats in each group; an LHA lesion plus EA-Heart Meridian group (LHA+EA-Heart Meridian group) and a FN lesion plus EA-Heart Meridian group (FN+EA-Heart Meridian group), with 7 rats in each group. Except the sham operation group, the left anterior descending branch of coronary artery was ligated to establish acute MIRI rat models in the other 5 groups. In the three groups with EA-Heart Meridian treatment, Shenmen (HT 7) and Tongli (HT 5) were selected; Taiyuan (LU 9) and Lieque (LU 7) were selected in the EA-Lung Meridian group. All the EA groups received EA stimulation prior to modeling, with 1 mA in current intensity and 2 Hz in frequency, 20 min each time, once a day for a total of 7 d. The sham operation group and the model group did not receive EA stimulation. The electrocardiogram was observed in the rats to analyze the ST-segment deviation and cardiac arrhythmia score. The expression of c-fos protein in FN and LHA was detected by immunohistochemistry method. Results: Compared with the sham operation group, the ST-segment deviation, cardiac arrhythmia score and the expression of c-fos protein in the FN and LHA increased significantly in the model group (all P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the ST-segment deviation, cardiac arrhythmia score and the expression of c-fos protein in FN and LHA decreased significantly in the EA-Heart Meridian group (all P<0.05). Compared with the EA-Heart Meridian group, the ST-segment deviation and cardiac arrhythmia score increased significantly in the EA-Lung Meridian group, LHA+EA-Heart Meridian group and FN+EA-Heart Meridian group (all P<0.05); the expression of c-fos in FN increased significantly in the EA-Lung Meridian group and LHA+EA-Heart Meridian group (both P<0.05); the expression of c-fos in LHA increased significantly in the EA-Lung Meridian group and FN+EA-Heart Meridian group (both P<0.05). Conclusion: FN and LHA are involved in the mechanism of EA at Heart Meridian to improve the acute MIRI reactions, and the cerebellum may participate in the improvement of cardiac function by EA through the cerebellum-hypothalamus projection.

13.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(4): e1636, 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360015

ABSTRACT

RESUMO - RACIONAL: Drogas imunossupressoras são indispensáveis para pacientes pós-transplante, diminuindo, significativamente, os riscos de rejeição inerentes a este tipo de procedimento. No entanto, seus efeitos colaterais sobre os núcleos hipotalâmicos envolvidos na regulação da ingestão de alimentos e o efeito no excessivo ganho de peso e suas comorbidades associadas são desconhecidos. OBJETIVO: Analisar a ocorrência de alterações morfológicas dos núcleos paraventricular, área hipotalâmica lateral, dorsomedial, ventromedial e arqueado em ratos Wistar submetidos ao tratamento imunossupressor com Tacrolimus (TAC) ou Micofenolato Mofetil (MMF). MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados Ratos Wistar machos adultos distribuídos, randomicamente, em quatro grupos de acordo com o tratamento oral utilizado por 14 semanas: Controle; Sham (Placebo); Tacrolimus (TAC 1mg/kg peso) e Micofenolato Mofetil (MMF 30mg/kg peso). Ao final do tratamento, os animais foram eutanasiados e seus encéfalos fixados para o processamento histológico. Posteriormente, as lâminas foram fotodocumentadas para o desenvolvimento da análise estereológica dos corpos celulares dos neurônios dos núcleos hipotalâmicos, tendo como parâmetros a densidade neuronal e no número de neurônios. RESULTADOS: Todos os grupos estudados mostraram curva de ganho de peso ponderal durante todo o período de experimento. Não houve diferença significativa na densidade neuronal e no número de neurônios hipotalâmicos dos núcleos hipotalâmicos entre os grupos estudados. Não foram detectadas alterações morfológicas dos corpos celulares dos neurônios hipotalâmicos capazes de serem imputadas ao uso dos imunossupressores envolvidos no estudo. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento dos animais experimentais com os imunossupressores não evidenciou alterações no número e densidade dos corpos celulares dos neurônios dos núcleos hipotalâmicos estudados.


ABSTRACT - BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive drugs are essential for reducing the rejection risk in post-transplant patients, which is commonly associated with this procedure. However, side effects of those drugs on the hypothalamic nuclei involved in the food intake regulation, excessive weight gain, and also associated comorbidities are still unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze possible changes in the neuronal morphology and cell density in the paraventricular nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area, dorsomedial nuclei, and ventromedial and arcuate nuclei in Wistar rats submitted to immunosuppressive treatment with tacrolimus (TAC) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups according to the oral treatment administered for 14 weeks: control, sham (placebo), TAC (1 mg/kg of weight), and MMF (30 mg/kg of weight). After treatment, the animals were sacrificed and their brains fixed for later histological staining. Subsequently, the slides were photodocumented for stereological analysis of the hypothalamic nuclei. RESULTS: All experimental groups showed a weight gain throughout the study. There was no significant difference in neuronal density/number of cells in the hypothalamic nuclei between groups. Morphological changes were not detected in the hypothalamic neurons. CONCLUSION: Treatments with immunosuppressants could not modify the morphological and cell density aspects of the hypothalamic nuclei during this supplementation period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Hypothalamus , Arcuate Nucleus of Hypothalamus , Rats, Wistar , Eating
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880559

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To reveal the effect and mechanism of Jiaotai Pill (, JTP) on insomniac rats.@*METHODS@#The insomniac model was established by intraperitoneal injection of p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA). In behavioral experiments, rats were divided into control, insomniac model, JTP [3.3 g/(kg•d)], and diazepam [4 mg/(kg•d)] groups. The treatment effect of JTP was evaluated by weight measurement (increasement of body weight), open field test (number of crossings) and forced swimming test (immobility time). A high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) method was built to determine the concentration of monoamine transmitters in hypothalamus and peripheral organs from normal, model, JTP, citalopram [30 mg/(kg•d)], maprotiline [40 mg/(kg•d)] and bupropion [40 mg/(kg•d)] groups. Expressions of serotonin transporter (SERT), dopamine transporter (DAT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET) were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot in normal, model and JTP groups. A high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was established to determine the pharmacokinetics, urine cumulative excretion of metformin in vivo, and tissue slice uptake in vitro, which were applied to assess the activity of organic cation transporters (OCTs) in hypothalamus and peripheral organs.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the insomniac model group, the body weight and spontaneous locomotor were increased, and the immobility time was decreased after treatment with JTP (P<0.01). Both serotonin and dopamine contents in hypothalamus and peripheral organs were increased (P<0.01). The norepinephrine content was increased in peripheral organs and decreased in hypothalamus (P<0.05 or P<0.01). At the same time, SERT, DAT, OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 were down-regulated in hypothalamus and peripheral organs (P<0.05). NET was down-regulated in peripheral organs and up-regulated in hypothalamus (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, the activity of OCTs in hypothalamus and peripheral organs was inhibited (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#JTP alleviates insomnia through regulation of monoaminergic system and OCTs in hypothalamus and peripheral organs.

15.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 54(3): 132-139, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147406

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la depresión (DP) tiene una alta prevalencia en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1) y se asocia a repercusiones clínicas negativas como mayor morbimortalidad cardiovascular y complicaciones crónicas. Existen pocos estudios publicados sobre la funcionalidad del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal (H-H-A) en DM1 con DP, y la relación entre la DP y el test de respuesta del cortisol al despertar (RCD) con el control glucémico (CG). Objetivos: analizar la funcionalidad del eje H-H-A a través de la evaluación del RCD en pacientes con DM1 (PD1) con y sin DP. Como objetivos secundarios, conocer la prevalencia de DP en PD1 y ver si existe relación entre el RCD y CG, y entre DP y CG. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional, prospectivo, de corte transversal, multicéntrico, nacional. Se incluyeron PD1 mayores de 18 años; se utilizó cuestionario Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) para diagnóstico de DP. Se tomaron muestras de cortisol salival al despertar y a los 30 minutos (RCD), y se consideró RCD bloqueado si el valor de cortisol de los 30 minutos no aumentaba más del 50% del basal. Además se tomaron muestras de sangre en ayunas para medir glucemia, fructosamina y HbA1c. Resultados: se incluyeron 79 pacientes, 39% hombres, edad promedio 38±15 años, duración de la diabetes de 16±13 años; 53% casados/en pareja y 87% con ingresos económicos estables. El 68% de los PD1 presentó el RCD bloqueado. En PD1 con DP el 85% presentó el RCD bloqueado vs el 60% en los no deprimidos y dicha diferencia fue marginalmente significativa (p=0,05). La prevalencia de DP fue de 39%. No se encontró ninguna relación significativa entre RCD bloqueado y control glucémico (p>0,05). Los PD1 con DP moderada-severa presentaron un peor control glucémico en relación a los PD1 sin depresión (evaluado por glucemia mayor de 120 mg/dl, fructosamina mayor de 285 umol/l; p<0,05) y la relación no fue significativa para HbA1c aunque mostró una tendencia. Conclusiones: en pacientes con DM1 y DP se halló el RCD bloqueado en un alto porcentaje. Dado que la DP se asocia a mayor morbimortalidad cardiovascular, podría utilizarse el test de RCD como biomarcador de DP, y podría servir para estratificar esta sub-población de alto de riesgo. La depresión moderada-severa se asoció a peor control glucémico, por lo tanto, diagnosticar y tratar adecuadamente la DP en PD1 podría contribuir a prevenir la aparición o progresión de complicaciones crónicas.


Introduction: depression (DP) has a high prevalence in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and is associated with negative clinicals consequences like more cardiovascular morbimortality and chronic complications. There are few studies published about the dysregulation of hypothalamopituitary-adrenal axis (H-P-A) in DM1 with DP and the relation between DP and the Cortisol Awakening Response Test (CAR) with the glycemic control (GC). Objectives: examine the functionality of the H-P-A axis using the Cortisol Awakening Response Test (CAR), in patients with DM1 (PD1) with and without DP. Determine the prevalence of DP in PD1 and examine if there is any relation between CAR and GC and DP and poorer GC. Materials and methods: observational, prospective, national, multicenter study. Patients with DM1, older than 18 years old; Patient Health-9 questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to diagnose DP and 2 samples of salivary cortisol, and blood samples for glycemia, glycated albumin and Hba1c. Results: 79 patients with DM1 (PD1) were included, 39% male, mean age 38± 15 years old, an average of 16±13 years evolution of diabetes; 53 % married/couple and 87 % have a regular incomes. 68% of PD1 presented CAR blunted. In PD1 with DP 85% has CAR blunted versus 60% in those without DP, and this difference was marginally significant (p=0.05). The prevalence of DP was 39%. No significant relation was found between CAR blunted and glycemic control (p>0.05).PD1 with Moderate-severe DP showed worse metabolic control than the PD1 without DP (evaluated by glycemia higher than 120 mg/dl, glycated albumin higher than 285 umol/l); p<0.05) and the relation was not significant with HbA1c but it showed a trend. Conclusions: patients with DM1 and DP presented a high prevalence of CAR blunted. DP is related with higher cardiovascular morbi-mortality, thus CAR would be useful as a biomarker of DP and would be used to stratify this population of high risk. DP moderate-severe was related to worse glycemic control, hence diagnose and treat correctly DP in PD1 would contribute to prevent the onset or the evolution of chronic complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Blood Glucose , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Hypothalamus
16.
Acupuncture Research ; (6): 351-356, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-844152

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neuronal circuit of the central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA) and the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) on electroacupuncture (EA)-induced regulation of gastric function by way of CeA-PVN projection. METHODS: The present study included 3 parts: 1) C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control and EA groups (n=6 in each group). EA was applied to right "Weishu"(BL21, Back-shu point) and "Zhongwan"(CV12, Front-mu point) for 20 min, followed by detecting the expression of c-fos in the CeA and PVN by using immunofluorescence staining; 2) Microinjection of anterograde tracer (rAAV-EF1α-DIO-mcherry-WPRE-pA) into the CeA was conducted in GAD2-Cre mice for confirming the projection of GABAergic neurons from CeA to PVN; 3) GAD2-Cre mice were randomly divided into rAAV-DIO-mcherry (intra-CeA injection of rAAV-EF1α-DIO-mcherry-WPRE-pA), rAAV-DIO-hM3D(Gq)-mcherry(intra-CeA injection of rAAV-EF1α-DIO-hM3D(Gq)-mcherry-WPRE-pA) and rAAV-DIO-hM3D(Gq)-mcherry+EA groups(n=6 in each group). The food intake and gastric empty were detected, and the concentration of GABA in the PVN was assayed by using high performance liquid chromatography on the 28th day after intra-CeA injection. RESULTS: 1) The expression of c-fos in the CeA and PVN was significantly increased in the EA group relevant to the control group(P<0.01), suggesting an activation of neurons in both CeA and PVN after EA. 2) Following CeA injection of rAAV-EF1α-DIO-mcherry-WPRE-pA, the densely expressed virus GABAergic neurons were found in CeA and large number of projection fibers found in the PVN, suggesting a direct connection between CeA and PVN. 3) After activating the GABAergic neurons of CeA, the concentration of GABA in the PVN was obviously increased (P<0.01), the food intake and the gastric empty were considerably decreased relevant to the rAAV-DIO-mcherry group(P<0.01). Following EA intervention,the concentration of GABA in the PVN was obviously decreased(P<0.01), the food intake and the gastric empty were significantly increased relevant to the rAAV-DIO-hM3D(Gq)-mcherry group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: EA of BL21 and CV12 (Back-shu and Front-mu acupoints) can increase food intake and gastric empty in GAD2-Cre mice, which may be achieved by suppressing the release of GABA in PVN through CeA-PVN GABAergic neural circuit.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873059

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study on the mechanism of invigorating kidney and strengthening Yang of different processed products of Curculiginis Rhizoma aqueous extracts in rats with kidney-Yang deficiency induced by adenine. Method:Taking Guifu Dihuang pills as the positive drug group (the dosage of 2.466 g·kg-1), after intragastric administration for 4 weeks, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to compare the effects of different processed products of Curculiginis Rhizoma aqueous extracts (the dosage of 2.742 g·kg-1) on the levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and cortisol (COR) in serum of rats with kidney-Yang deficiency induced by adenine. The activity of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) in rat liver and kidney microsomes was determined by Nash colorimetry. Result:All the processed products aqueous extracts could improve the function of hypothalamus-pituitary-target gland axis in rats with kidney-Yang deficiency induced by adenine, and the total score was in the order of Euodiae Fructus juice-processed products (29 points)>salt-processed products (25 points)>rice wine-processed products (23 points)>raw products (17 points)>Zingiberis Rhizoma juice-processed products (11 points). And the different processed products of Curculiginis Rhizoma could increase CYP3A activity of liver and kidney microsomes of kidney-Yang deficiency rats, especially the Euodiae Fructus juice-processed products and salt-processed products. Conclusion:All the processed products of Curculiginis Rhizoma can effectively treat the syndrome of kidney-Yang deficiency in rats, among them, Euodiae Fructus juice-processed products and salt-processed products have more significant effect on invigorating kidney and strengthening Yang.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872759

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of Tianwang Buxin pills on behavior, hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis (HPA axis), hippocampal glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) phosphorylation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in mice with chronic unpredictable stress, and explore its mechanisms for antidepressant-like action. Method:Totally 60 male ICR mice were randomly divided into normal group, chronic stress model group, fluoxetine hydrochloride group (10 mg·kg-1) and Tianwang Buxin pills high, middle and low dose groups (3.6, 1.8, 0.9 g·kg-1). The mice were subjected to the chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) protocol for a period of 28 d to induce depressive-like behavior. Then, a sucrose preference test, open-field test and novelty-suppressed feeding test were performed to detect the behavior changes. The blood, adrenal gland and hippocampus of mice were collected. The contents of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The changes of GSK3β phosphorylation and BDNF expression in hippocampus were detected by Western blot, and the adrenal index was then calculated. Result:As compared with the normal group, the sucrose water preference was significantly decreased (P<0.01), the number of opening activities was significantly reduced (P<0.05), the feeding latency of novelty inhibition was prolonged (P<0.01), the serum ACTH and CORT contents were significantly increased (P<0.05,P<0.01), GSK3β phosphorylation and BDNF expression levels in hippocampus were significantly decreased (P<0.01), and adrenal index was significantly increased in model group (P<0.01). As compared with the model group, Tianwang Buxin pills treatment significantly reversed the CUS-induced behavioral abnormalities in depression model mice (P<0.05, P<0.01), significantly decreased the levels of plasma ACTH and CORT (P<0.01) and adrenal and adrenal gland index (P<0.01), while increased GSK3β phosphorylation and BDNF expression in hippocampus (P<0.05, P<0.01), with its effect similar to that of fluoxetine hydrochloride. Conclusion:Tianwang Buxin pills produced antidepressant-like effects in chronic unpredictable stress mice, and its mechanism may be associated with inhibiting HPA axis activity and up-regulating GSK3β phosphorylation and BDNF protein expression in hippocampus.

19.
Palliative Care Research ; : 355-359, 2020.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-843001

ABSTRACT

We encountered a case where opioids were effective for excessive sweating caused by secondary generalized hyperhidrosis associated with cancer. ​​A 64-year-old woman diagnosed with metastatic renal cell carcinoma was admitted to the palliative care unit with right hip pain caused by bone metastasis and sudden excessive sweating. An increased dose of fentanyl transdermal patch provided pain relief. Excessive sweating seemed to have occurred due to neoplastic fever initially, but antipyretic analgesics and steroids were ineffective. Prophylactic use of immediate-release oxycodone provided excessive sweating relief. Finally, we consider that hypothalamus and fentanyl transdermal patch were involved in excessive sweating. Opioids may suppress sweating by acting on the hypothalamus.

20.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 722-726, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-856980

ABSTRACT

Aim With SD rats as control, to observe the anxiety susceptibility of FH/Wjd rats. Methods The anxiety behavior of 3-month-old SD rats and age-matched FH/Wjd rats were evaluated by elevated plus-maze test and open field test. The contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and its metabolite from the cortex were detected by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, and the metabolic ratios of DA and 5-HT were calculated. The activities of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase (MAO), the contents of corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were detected by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay in cortex. The expression of COMT was detected by polymerase chain reaction. The expression of all genes hippocampus was detected by mRNA-seq. Results As compared with SD rats, in FH/Wjd rats, the closed arms' distance and the total distance were significandy higher in elevated plus-maze; the central distance was significantly shorter, and the total distance was significantly longer in open field. The contents of DA,5-HT and DOPAC in cortex were significantly lower, and there was no significant difference in HVA and 5-HIAA. The ratio of HVA/DA and 5-HIAA/5-HT, the activity of COMT and MAO, the level of CORT and ACTH, the mRNA expression of COMTwere all higher. The differential genes of FH/Wjd rats and SD rats were mainly enriched in the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway. Conclusions Compared with SD rats, FH/Wjd rats have lower DA and 5-HT contents, hypermetabolism, hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, abnormal expression of COMT and gene encoding neuropsychiatric system. Therefore, FH/Wjd rats have obvious anxiety characteristics.

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