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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 13-24, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913164

ABSTRACT

Tumor immune checkpoint therapy is a clinical treatment strategy developed based on the new principle of the inhibition of negative immune regulation. In this article, the tumor immune checkpoint therapy and the drug delivery strategies were reviewed, mainly including immunity and tumor therapy, tumor immune checkpoint therapy and its mechanism of action, clinical application of tumor immune checkpoint therapy and therapeutic drugs, immune resistance of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PDL1) treatment and countermeasures, drug delivery strategies for tumor immune checkpoint therapeutic agents, etc. As a revolutionary new immunotherapy strategy, tumor immune checkpoint therapy has shown obvious superior therapeutic efficacy in a variety types of tumor. However, tumor immune checkpoint therapy is also faced with a big challenge, namely, immunotherapy resistance. With the discovery of new mechanism, the continuous development of new therapeutic drugs and delivery strategies, tumor immune checkpoint therapy is expected to further improve the clinical efficacy of tumor.

2.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 745-757, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923013

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To sy stematically evaluate the relations hip between immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC),and to provide evidence-based reference for clinical application of ICIs and safety evaluation. METHODS PubMed,Embase,Cochrane Library , Web of Science ,CNKI,Wanfang database ,VIP and CBM were searched to collect prospective or retrospective cohort studies on the correlation between irAEs and efficacy of ICIs in the treatment of NSCLC. The retrieval time was from the inception to June 30th,2021. After literature screening and data extraction ,Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to evaluate the quality of included literatures. Meta-analysis and publication bias analysis were performed by using RevMan 5.3 software;Stata 15.0 software was used for sensitivity analysis. RESULTS A total of 7 957 patients were included in 31 studies. Meta-analysis showed that the objective response rate (ORR)[RR=2.34,95%CI(1.98,2.76),P<0.000 01],progression-free survival (PFS)[HR=0.49,95%CI (0.44,0.55),P<0.000 01] and overall survival (OS)[HR=0.45,95%CI(0.39,0.53),P<0.000 01] of irAEs group as well as ORR[RR=1.88,95%CI(1.57,2.25),P<0.000 01],PFS [HR =0.59,95%CI(0.50,0.69),P<0.000 01] and OS [HR =0.58,95%CI (0.48,0.70),P<0.000 01] of this group at 6th week were all significantly higher or longer than non irAEs group. According to organ specificity ,severity and quantity of irAEs,subgroup analysis showed that skin ,gastrointestinal and endocrine system ,mild irAEs(grade 1-2)and one or more than 2 kinds of irAEs were significantly correlated with the improvement of PFS and OS (P< 0.05),while liver and lung ,severe irAEs(≥ grade 3)were not significantly correlated with the improvement of PFS and com OS (P>0.05). Sensitivity analysis results showed that the results of the above-mentione d meta-analysis were relatively robust. The results of publication bias showed that there was may be some possibility of publication bias in this study. CONCLUSIONS For NSCLC patients treated with ICIS ,the occurrence of irAEs may be related to their good prognosis. The irAEs may be a predictor of the efficacy of ICIs.

3.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(3): 305-310, may.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346111

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los inhibidores del punto de control inmunológico (IPCi) son utilizados en los últimos años en el tratamiento de neoplasias malignas avanzadas, con ellos se ha logrado un aumento significativo de la supervivencia; sin embargo, su uso se ha asociado a incremento del riesgo de enfermedades autoinmunes. Objetivo: Describir la incidencia y las características clínicas de los pacientes tratados con IPCi que desarrollaron tiroidopatía. Métodos: Se revisaron retrospectivamente los expedientes de todos los pacientes que recibieron IPCi en los últimos tres años y se identificaron aquellos que desarrollaron anomalías tiroideas. Resultados: La prevalencia de tiroiditis fue de 7 %, con una incidencia de 21.4 % pacientes/mes. La mediana del tiempo para el desarrollo de tiroiditis fue de 63 días. La mayoría de los pacientes presentó síntomas leves o moderados y no requirió hospitalización, si bien todos menos uno desarrollaron hipotiroidismo permanente y requirieron terapia de reemplazo hormonal con levotiroxina. Conclusiones: La disfunción tiroidea secundaria a inmunoterapia es una entidad común en nuestra población. El cuadro clínico suele ser leve y no requiere suspender el tratamiento; sin embargo, debido a la alta incidencia de este evento adverso, los médicos no oncólogos deben estar familiarizados con su diagnóstico y tratamiento, para brindar un manejo multidisciplinario.


Abstract Introduction: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are a group of drugs that have been used in recent years for the treatment of advanced malignancies such as melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and other tumors, significantly increasing survival. However, the use of ICI has been associated with an increased risk of autoimmune diseases, with endocrine organs, specifically the thyroid, being highly susceptible to this phenomenon. Objective: To describe the incidence and clinical characteristics of patients treated with ICI who develop thyroid disease. Methods: The medical records of all patients who received ICI treatment within the last three years were retrospectively reviewed, with those who developed thyroid abnormalities being identified. Results: The prevalence of thyroiditis was 7 %, with an incidence of 21.4 % of patients-month. Median time for the development of thyroiditis was 63 days. Most patients had mild or moderate symptoms and did not require hospitalization, although all but one developed permanent hypothyroidism and required hormone replacement therapy with levothyroxine. Conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction secondary to immunotherapy is a common entity in our population. Clinical presentation is usually mild and does not require treatment discontinuation; however, due to the high incidence of these adverse events, non-oncology specialists must be familiar with the diagnosis and treatment of these alterations in order to provide multidisciplinary management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroiditis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
4.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 272-2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876686

ABSTRACT

Primary liver cancer (liver cancer) is one of the main indications of liver transplantation in China. Nevertheless, the 5-year survival rate of liver transplant recipients is lower than 50%. Recurrence and metastasis after operation are the main causes affecting the long-term survival of the recipients. At present, immunotherapy, represented by programmed cell death protein 1(PD-1)/programmed cell death protein-ligand 1(PD-L1) immune checkpoint inhibitor, has achieved remarkable clinical efficacy in the treatment of middle-stage and advanced liver cancer. However, whether it can be applied in recipients with recurrence and metastasis after liver transplantation for liver cancer remains controversial. The main reason is that it may cause acute rejection at the same time. In this article, the research progresses on the application of immunotherapy in recipients with recurrence and metastasis after liver transplantation for liver cancer were reviewed, aiming to improve the survival rate of recipients undergoing liver transplantation forliver cancer.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 734-742, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876527

ABSTRACT

With a deepening understanding of cancer treatment, immune checkpoint inhibitors are recognized widely as a novel fundamental remedy for various malignancies with effectiveness and safety. With the development of pharmacometrics, model-informed drug development (MIDD) has emerged to accelerate the process of clinical research for new drugs and improve the accuracy of decision-making in new drug research, especially for immune checkpoint inhibitors. As a typical illustration, the research development of pembrolizumab is presented in this review to highlight the application of MIDD, which may provide a reference for the development of other new antitumor drugs.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876168

ABSTRACT

Objective:Nivolumab is one of the most common programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors used as an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI). It brings significant therapeutic effects but often accompanied by serious drug toxicity. The pulmonary toxicities of nivolumab are not clear. This study aims to systematically explore the nivolumab-associated pulmonary toxicities and provide reference for clinical treatment. Methods:Data were extracted from US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database from January 1, 2016 to September 30, 2019. Two types of disproportionality analysis, information component (IC) and reporting odds ratio (ROR), were applied in nivolumab-associated pulmonary adverse events (AEs) signal detection. Results:A total of 28 489 309 records were extracted from FAERS database and 8 181 records were associated with nivolumab. Analysis was conducted in 179 AEs and 86 signals were detected. Notably, potent signals were detected in radiation pneumonitis (IC025: 3.99, ROR025: 17.25), pneumonitis (IC025: 3.34, ROR025: 10.64) and bronchial fistula (IC025: 2.94, ROR025: 8.78). Nivolumab-associated pulmonary toxicities were more frequently reported in dyspnoea (IC025: 0.50, ROR025: 1.44), pneumonia (IC025: 0.08, ROR025: 1.07) and pneumonitis (IC025: 3.34, ROR025: 10.64). Results of IC and ROR methods were similar to each other. Most pulmonary toxicities were observed in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (N=3 711, 32.13%), malignant melanoma (N=1 658, 14.36%) and renal cell carcinoma (N=731, 6.33%). Conclusion:Significant pulmonary toxicities were detected in patients treated with nivolumab. Thus, it is highly important for clinicians to be vigilant about nivolumab-associated pulmonary AEs and be prepared to take immediate action for patient safety.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875866

ABSTRACT

@#[Abstract] Objective: To investigate the effects of antibiotics on the treatment efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) with Meta-analysis. Methods: Literatures regarding the effects of antibiotics on the treatment efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in NSCLC were searched in Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embase, EBSCO, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database(CBM) and Chinese Journal Full-text Database(CNKI). RevMan 5.3 software was used in this Meta-analysis. Results: Fourteen articles involving 2 505 NSCLC patients were included in this study. Meta-analysis showed that the application of antibiotics could significantly shorten the PFS (HR=1.14, 95%CI =1.04-1.26, P=0.005) and OS (HR=1.30, 95%CI =1.14-1.47, P<0.0001) of NSCLC patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Conclusion: Application of antibiotics before, concurrently or after immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of NSCLC may significantly shorten PFS and OS, resulting in adverse effect on treatment efficacy.

8.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 729-735, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875656

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the ru les and characteristics of pembrolizumab-induced immune-related myocarditis , and to provide reference for rational drug use in clinic. METHODS :Using“pembrolizumab/keytruda”“myocarditis”“cardiotoxicity” “Pembrolizumab/Keytruda”“Cardiac toxicity ”“Myocarditis”“Cardiotoxity”“Cardiotoxicity”as Chinese and English retrieval words , CBM,VIP,CNKI,Wanfang database ,PubMed,Wiley Online Library and Embase database were searched on the case reports of pembrolizumab-induced immune-related myocarditis during the inception to Aug. 2020. After eliminating the suspected case literature and repetitive literature ,gender,age,medication cause ,medical history ,drug combination ,drug dosage ,occurrence time of ADR ,clinical manifestation ,intervention measure and outcome of patients in the included literature were analyzed. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS:A total of 15 literatures were included ,involving 13 English literatures and 2 Chinese literatures. Totally 15 patients were involved ,including 12 males and 3 females,with an average age of 71.35 years. There were 4 cases of non-small cell lung cancer ,4 cases of melanoma ,2 cases of bladder cancer ,1 case of urothelial cancer ,1 case of multiple osteosarcomas,1 case of gastric cancer ,1 case of thymic cancer ,1 case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. There were 6 patients with previous medical history ,of which 5 had no history of heart disease and 1 had hypertension and hyperlipidemia ;there were 9 patients recorded the combined use of drugs ;the dosage and frequency of pembrolizumab were recorded in 12 patients. Immunological myocarditis of 93.3% patients occurred after the first to second cycle of pembrolizumab administration ,and the average occurrence time was 15.5 days after the last administration. The most common clinical symptoms were dyspnea ,fatigue, dizziness or syncope. 9 patients showed cardiac block on electrocardiogram. All patients were treated with glucocorticoids when they developed immune-associated myocarditis ,and 5 patients died after hospitalization ;another one patient was restarted with pembrolizumab for one cycle after control of immune-related myocarditis ,but developed a recurrence of myocarditis and died of myocarditis ADR. It is suggested that baseline examination and routine monitoring of cardiac function should be done well when patients are treated with pembrolizumab. Once the patient is su spected to have immune-related myocarditis ,they should timely improve the cardiograms and other cardiac function-relatedtests,and start the treatment of high-dose glucocorticoids as 198177) soon as possible ,and are alert to the risk of death due to recurrence of myocarditis after readministration.

9.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 437-443, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873418

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in China, and due to the lack of specific symptoms, more than half of these patients are in the advanced stage at the time of initial diagnosis. Targeted therapy and systemic chemotherapies are the main treatment methods for advanced HCC with limited efficacy. In recent years, immunotherapy has been developed rapidly. This article introduces the current status of the immune checkpoint inhibitors, programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors, in the treatment of HCC, summarizes the latest data of several clinical trials, and analyzes the safety and efficacy of monotherapy and combination therapy. The analysis shows that immunotherapy has become one of the important methods for systemic treatment, and combination therapy can significantly improve the outcome of HCC with a manageable safety profile, which is an important direction for future development.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872593

ABSTRACT

@# With the development of new technology and the innovation of research mode, tumor immunological research has achieved rapid development, and tumor immunotherapy has also shown remarkable clinical efficacy, jointly promoting the improvement of tumor immunology from mechanism research to clinical transformation and from single discipline to multi-disciplinary integration. However, multiple challenges still exist in tumor immunological research, such as the animal model replication for clinical tumor study, the complexity of tumor intrinsic regulation and its relationship with host microenvironment, and the screening of immunotherapy targets and the prediction of treatment effect. These problems limit the further development and application of tumor immunology, but also bring research opportunities to basic and clinical immunology researchers. Therefore, this review summarizes the research status and challenges as well as looks into the future of tumor immunity and immunotherapy in five aspects: the change of research model,the innovation of mechanism, the exploration of research objects, the screening and evaluation of therapeutic targets, as well as the application and innovation of new technologies.

11.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 357-364, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880281

ABSTRACT

Treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, the efficacy of monotherapy is still limited. Nowdays, combination strategy has drawn great attention. Anti-angiogenic agents are widely used in treating advanced NSCLC, which can not only suppress the growth and metastasis of tumor by suppressing tumor vessels, and also have synergic effect with other anti-tumor agents because they can normalize vessels and regulate immune micro-environment. This article summarizes the underlying mechanism of combining anti-angiogenic agents and other anti-tumor agents, reviews the clinical trials on the combination strategy including monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitor, so as to provide a potential strategy for treating advanced NSCLC.
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12.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 271-278, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880267

ABSTRACT

Hyperprogressive disease (HPD) is a novel pattern of progression caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). It is characterized by a dramatic tumor surge and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Up to now, the definition of HPD is still controversial across various studies. Although it has been indicated that HPD has related to multiple clinicopathological features and genetic alterations, it is lack of biomarker to predict its occurrence, and the potential mechanism remains unknown. This review is to summarize current data on HPD specialized in the field of non-small cell lung cancer. And we expect to provide helpful clinical strategies for oncologists using ICIs.
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13.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 204-211, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880259

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy is one of the main strategies of anti-tumor therapy at present, in which immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the most widely used drug. ICIs resistance is mediated by a variety of cytokines and immune cells, and the mechanism is complex, which is the main reason for the failure of immunotherapy in cancer patients. Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), as a class of epigenetic regulatory drugs, plays an important role in regulating cell cycle, proliferation, differentiation, and activity. In recent years, Studies have found that HDACi can not only regulate cell biological characteristics, but also closely related to the improvement of tumor ICIs drug resistance. Therefore, the study on how HDACi enhances the efficacy of ICIs is of great significance to tumor immunotherapy. This article will review the research progress of HDACi combined with ICIs in treating malignant tumors and their related mechanism.
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14.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 196-203, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880258

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer has the highest incidence rate and mortality in China, even in the world, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 85%. The growth and metastasis of tumor depend on the generation of blood vessels, and anti-angiogenic therapy is playing an increasingly important role, however, no significant improvement was observed in the underwent anti-angiogenic agents used for patients alone. In recent years, the application of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) has significantly improved the prognosis of some lung cancer patients, however, the objective response rate of patients receiving ICI alone is low. While anti-angiogenic agents and ICI both regulate the tumor immune microenvironment and have a potential synergistic mechanism, showing a bright prospect in the combined application of anti-tumor therapy. In this review, we focused on the research and application of anti-angiogenic agents in combination with ICI in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

15.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 188-195, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880257

ABSTRACT

With the development of precise medicine, targeted therapy has greatly improved the survival and prognosis of patients in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with oncogenic drivers. However, no matter which kinds of targeted therapy are inevitable to develop therapeutic resistance, treatment options upon exhaustion of targeted therapies are limited. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) can bring long-term survival to some patients with advanced NSCLC because of its unique long tailing effect. More and more studies have shown that ICIs can also benefit NSCLC patients with oncogenic drivers. However, the timing of ICIs intervention, the therapeutic regimen and the predictive biomarkers are actually debated, underscoring the need to explore the potential interest of ICIs in these populations.
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16.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 161-166, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has been widely used in the treatment of lung cancer. There are controversies in clinical practice for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and high programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression receiving ICIs monotherapy or combination chemotherapy.@*METHODS@#This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 49 patients with advanced NSCLC and high PD-L1 expression. Immunohistochemistry was performed with 22C3 antibody, and the expression level of PD-L1 was evaluated according to tumor proportion score (TPS). Objective response rate (ORR) and progression free survival (PFS) were compared by groups of different clinical characteristics.@*RESULTS@#ORR of monotherapy and combination therapy group was 47.1% (8/17) and 43.8% (14/32), respectively, without statistical difference (P=0.825). The median PFS of monotherapy and combination therapy group was 8.0 months and 6.8 months, respectively, without statistical difference (P=0.502). Statistical analysis of predictors of immunotherapy for the patients showed first-line immunotherapy had better ORR than subsequent immunotherapy (12/19, 63.2% vs 10/30, 33.3%, P=0.041), however no difference in PFS. And there were no differences in ORR or PFS among groups of age, gender, smoking status, performance status (PS), pathological type, tumor size and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The therapeutic effect is similar between ICIs monotherapy and combination chemotherapy for patients with advanced NSCLC and high PD-L1 expression. ORR of first-line immunotherapy was better in patients with advanced NSCLC and high PD-L1 expression. The optimal treatment for this population remains further prospective clinical studies.

17.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 141-160, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Perioperative treatment has become an increasingly important aspect of the management of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Small-scale clinical studies performed in recent years have shown improvements in the major pathological remission rate after neoadjuvant therapy, suggesting that it will soon become an important part of NSCLC treatment. Nevertheless, neoadjuvant immunotherapy may be accompanied by serious adverse reactions that lead to delay or cancelation of surgery, additional illness, and even death, and have therefore attracted much attention. The purpose of the clinical recommendations is to form a diagnosis and treatment plan suitable for the current domestic medical situation for the immune-related adverse event (irAE).@*METHODS@#This recommendation is composed of experts in thoracic surgery, oncologists, thoracic medicine and irAE related departments (gastroenterology, respirology, cardiology, infectious medicine, hematology, endocrinology, rheumatology, neurology, dermatology, emergency section) to jointly complete the formulation. Experts make full reference to the irAE guidelines, large-scale clinical research data published by thoracic surgery, and the clinical experience of domestic doctors and publicly published cases, and repeated discussions in multiple disciplines to form this recommendation for perioperative irAE.@*RESULTS@#This clinical recommendation covers the whole process of prevention, evaluation, examination, treatment and monitoring related to irAE, so as to guide the clinical work comprehensively and effectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Perioperative irAE management is an important part of immune perioperative treatment of lung cancer. With the continuous development of immune perioperative treatment, more research is needed in the future to optimize the diagnosis and treatment of perioperative irAE.

18.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 112-123, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880249

ABSTRACT

Inhibition of immune checkpoints is at the forefront of immunotherapy for lung cancer. However, a high percentage of lung cancer patients do not respond to these immunotherpy or their responses are transient, indicating the existence of immune resistance. Emerging evidence suggested that the interactions between cancer cells and immune system were continuous and dynamic. Here, we review how a range of cancer-cell-autonomous characteristics, tumor-microenvironment factors, and host-related influences account for heterogenous responses. Furthermore, with the identification of new targets of immunotherapy and development of immune-based combination therapy, we elucidate the methods might useful to overcome resistance.

19.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 131-140, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880247

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy, in particular immune checkpoint inhibitors, has significantly improved the survival outcomes of advanced lung cancer patients and changed the treatment mode of lung cancer. In this article, we reviewed the mechanism of immunotherapy, the clinical trials that changed treatment guidelines, the important biomarkers, immune-related adverse events, and descripted the future of immunotherapy of advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
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20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2595-2602, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887825

ABSTRACT

Nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 6 (NR2F6) is a member of orphan nuclear receptors, which is expressed in major tissues and organs of the human body, and plays an important role in the regulation of various biological functions and gene expressions. Recent studies have shown that the expression of NR2F6 was up-regulated in a variety of malignant tumors and showed significant correlations with cancer progression. These findings triggered the widespread interest in understanding the relationship between NR2F6 and cancer development and progression. In addition, the latest studies have underscored that NR2F6 was involved in enhancing antitumor immune responses that could serve as a potential target for immune regulation. This review summarizes the biological functions of NR2F6 and its role in tumors, with the aim to provide new insights into effective cancer therapies.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Neoplasms/genetics , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/genetics , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics
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