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Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e220616, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1393329


The use of selective barriers as resorbable membranes has become a routine clinical procedure for guided bone regeneration. Therefore, the production of membranes with a low inflammatory potential during their resorption process has become the goal of a considerable number of researches. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of poly (L- lactic acid) (PLLA) and biocelulose membranes (BC) inserted in the subcutaneous tissue on the dorsum of rats. Methods: Fifteen animals underwent surgical procedures for the insertion of 4 types of membranes: COL (Collagen membrane) ­ Control Group; BC (Biocellulose membrane); BCAg (Biocellulose membrane impregnated with Silver); PLLA (Poly (L-lactic acid) membrane). All membrane types were inserted into each animal. Animals were euthanized after 3, 7, and 15 days of the surgical procedure. Descriptive histological analyses were carried out to investigate host tissue reaction to membrane presence by assessing the anti-inflammatory process composition associated with the membrane resorption and the presence of foreign-body reaction or encapsulation. Results: The BC membranes showed a higher degree of inflammation and poor pattern of integration with the surrounding tissues than the PLLA and COL membranes. Conclusion: The PLLA and COL membranes present better biocompatibility than the BC membranes

Animals , Rats , Biocompatible Materials/analysis , Bone Regeneration , Materials Testing , Lactic Acid , Subcutaneous Tissue , Membranes , Cellulose , Inflammation
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 92(3): 371-376, jul.-sep. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393833


Resumen Considerando la alta incidencia de las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) en México y el mundo, la presente revisión proporciona un panorama general sobre la relación entre el desarrollo de periodontitis y la patogenia de estas enfermedades, describiendo aspectos sobre la alteración de la microbiota oral y los mecanismos asociados con el establecimiento de la respuesta inmunitaria local y sistémica en los pacientes con ECV. Además, proporciona las bases para considerar el análisis de la microbiota de la cavidad oral como un blanco terapéutico potencialmente útil en la regulación de la respuesta inmunitaria, lo que permitiría conseguir mejores pronósticos en pacientes con ECV.

Abstract Considering the high incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide, the present review provides a general panorama of the relation between the pathogenesis of these diseases and the development of periodontitis. Specific associations are described between an altered oral microbiota (and associated mechanisms) and the local and systemic immune response in patients with CVD. Additionally, the basis is established for considering an imbalance in the microbiota of the oral cavity as a potentially useful therapeutic target for the regulation of the immune response, which could possibly allow for better therapeutic outcomes in the case of patients with CVD.

Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(4): 500-510, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385267


Abstract Background: The use of combined oral contraceptives (COC) is a risk factor for atherosclerotic disease, and physical exercise can minimize this condition. Objective: To verify if high intensity interval training (HIIT) promotes changes in the lipid and inflammatory profile of women using COC. Methods: Sequential crossover study with women aged 20-30 years, classified as irregularly active by the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), when using COC. A physical-clinical assessment was performed with anthropometric measurements, VO2max, and analysis of lipid and inflammatory profile. Participants were divided into 2 groups: the initial intervention group (GII), which began practicing HIIT for 2 months, and the posterior intervention group (GIP), which remained inactive for the same period. The GII and GIP would then alternate their conditions. The collected data was divided into: Initial moment (IM), post-exercise moment (PEM) and post-inactivity (PIM). The statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, adopting a significance level of p <0.05 . Results: Twelve women were evaluated. After crossing the GII and GIP data, there was a difference in the C-reactive protein values between the IM of 4 (1.6-6.3 mg/dL) vs. PEM 2 (1.5-5 mg/dL); as well as between the PEM vs. the PIM= 4 (1.5-5.8 mg/dL), with a p -value = 0.04 in the comparisons. There was no change between the "moments" of the lipid profile, although it was possible to notice a reduction in resting HR and an increase in indirect VO2max. Conclusion: The HIIT program was able to reduce the inflammatory profile, but it did not alter the lipid profile of irregularly active women using COC.

Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Contraceptives, Oral, Combined/adverse effects , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , High-Intensity Interval Training , Cross-Sectional Studies , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Heart Disease Risk Factors
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(4): 530-536, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385261


Abstract Background: Although electrical and structural remodeling has been recognized to be important in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation, the mechanisms underlying remodeling process are unknown. There has been increasing interest in the involvement of inflammatory molecules and adipokines released from the epicardial fat tissue in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. Objectives: In our study, we aimed to investigate the relationship of atrial fibrillation with increased epicardial adipose tissue, inflammatory molecules released from this tissue and omentin. Methods: Thirty-six patients who were followed up with a diagnosis of permanent AF at the cardiology outpatient clinic 33 individuals without atrial fibrillation (controls) were included in the study. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness of patients was measured by echocardiography. Serum omentin, IL 6, IL 1 beta, TNF alpha and CRP levels were measured. Man-Whitney U test was performed for comparisons and significance was established at 5% (p<0.05). Results: Epicardial adipose tissue thickness was significantly greater in the patient group (6mm [4-5.5]) than controls (4mm [3-5.5]) (p <0.001). No significant difference was found in the concentrations of omentin or inflammatory molecules between the groups. Conclusion: No relationship was found between atrial fibrillation and serum levels or omentin or inflammatory markers. A relationship between epicardial adipose tissue thickness measured by echocardiography and atrial fibrillation was determined.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pericardium/anatomy & histology , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Adipose Tissue , Echocardiography , Biomarkers , Adipokines/physiology
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(4): 621-624, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394153


Abstract Objectives: Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) a chronic idiopathic oral mucosal disease. But yet the etiology and pathogenesis of RAS are not exactly known, it is thought that inflammation play an important role in the pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the role of systemic inflammation among the possible etiological factors of RAS and to find the possible diagnostic correlation between Systemic Immune Inflammation Index (SII). Methods: Patients who were consulted the otolaryngology outpatient clinic and diagnosed with RAS between 2019-2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Platelet/Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR) and SII values were calculated based on the results of complete blood count. Demographic and hematological parameters between control and RAS groups were compared. The statistical significance level was considered as <0.05. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the control and RAS groups in terms of sex and age distributions (p = 0.566 and p = 0.173, respectively). SII, NLR and PLR values were significantly higher in the RAS group compared to the controls (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). A very strong correlation between SII and NLR, moderately strong correlation between SII and PLR and moderate correlation between NLR and PLR values were detected (respectively ρ: 0.813, 0.719, 0.532; p-values <0.001). Conclusion: SII, NLR and PLR has significantly higher levels in the RAS group compared to the control group, that it supports the role of systemic inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of RAS. In addition, the results show that SII is a valuable marker for inflammation. Level of evidence: 4. HIGHLIGHTS RAS is a chronic, idiopathic, ulcerative oral mucosal disease. SII is a new and inexpensive biomarker that can easily be calculated using the platelet, neutrophil, and lymphocyte count. SII may be a valuable marker to demonstrate the role of systemic inflammation in RAS etiopathogenesis. Vascular, thrombotic, and inflammatory processes are thought to have a role in RAS activation.

Resumo Objetivo: A estomatite aftosa recorrente (EAR) é uma doença crônica idiopática da mucosa oral. Embora sua etiologia e patogênese não sejam totalmente conhecidas, acredita-se que a inflamação possa desempenhar um papel importante. O objetivo deste estudo é demonstrar o papel da inflamação sistêmica entre os possíveis fatores etiológicos da estomatite aftosa recorrente e encontrar uma possível correlação diagnóstica com o índice de inflamação imunológica sistêmica, SII. Método: Foram analisados retrospectivamente pacientes avaliados no ambulatório de otorrinolaringologia e diagnosticados com estomatite aftosa recorrente entre 2019-2021. A relação neutrófilos/linfócitos, a relação plaquetas/linfócitos e os valores de SII foram calculados com base nos resultados do hemograma completo. Parâmetros demográficos e hematológicos dos grupos controle e de pacientes foram comparados. O nível de significância estatística foi considerado como <0,05. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos controle e com estomatite aftosa recorrente quanto à distribuição por sexo e idade (p = 0,566 e p = 0,173, respectivamente). Os valores de SII, a relação neutrófilos/linfócitos e a relação plaquetas/linfócitos foram significantemente maiores no grupo de pacientes em relação aos controles (p <0,001, p <0,001 e p = 0,001, respectivamente). Foi detectada uma correlação muito forte entre SII e relação neutrófilos/linfócitos, uma correlação moderadamente forte entre SII e relação plaquetas/linfócitos e uma correlação moderada entre valores da relação neutrófilos/linfócitos e relação plaquetas /linfócitos (ρ: 0,813, 0,719, 0,532 respectivamente; p-valores <0,001). Conclusão: SII, relação neutrófilos/linfócitos e relação plaquetas/linfócitos apresentam níveis significantemente maiores no grupo com estomatite aftosa recorrente quando comparados ao grupo controle, o que corrobora o papel da inflamação sistêmica na sua etiopatogênese. Além disso, os resultados mostram que o SII é um marcador inflamatório valioso. Nível de evidência: 4. HIGHLIGHTS A estomatite aftosa recorrente é uma doença ulcerativa crônica idiopática da mucosa oral. O SII (do inglês Systemic Immune Inflammation Index) é um biomarcador novo e de baixo custo que pode ser facilmente calculado que usa a contagem de plaquetas, neutrófilos e linfócitos. O SII pode ser um marcador valioso para demonstrar o papel da inflamação sistêmica na etiopatogênese da estomatite aftosa recorrente. Acredita-se que processos vasculares, trombóticos e inflamatórios tenham um papel na ativação da estomatite aftosa recorrente.

Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(4): 525-533, Jul.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394742


Abstract Introduction: This study investigated the correlation between the levels of long noncoding ribonucleic acids (lncRNAs) AF131217.1 and coronary slow flow (CSF). Methods: A total of 22 patients in the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) group diagnosed with CSF from January 2018 to December 2018 were enrolled in this study. Coronary flow velocity was determined using the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame count (TFC) method. Results: LncRNA AF131217.1 expression in the CSF model was activated. Mean TFC was positively correlated with lncRNA AF131217.1 levels and hsCRP levels. LncRNA AF131217.1 induced inflammation factor levels in the in vitro model. Micro ribonucleic acid (miR)-128-3p is a target spot of lncRNA AF131217.1 on the inflammation in vitro model via Kruppel-like factor (KLF) 4. MiR-128-3p reduced inflammation factor levels (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1β, and IL-18). Conclusion: Thus, lncRNA AF131217.1 promoted inflammation in the regulated CSF via KLF4 by miR-128-3p.

Odontol. vital ; (36)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386461


Resumen La periodontitis es una enfermedad multifactorial caracterizada por una respuesta inflamatoria desarrollada por el huésped frente a los microorganismos de la biopelícula bacteriana. El proceso localizado en la cavidad oral puede influir en el huésped a nivel sistémico provocando resultados adversos en el embarazo como parto prematuro, hipertensión materna y bajo peso del niño al nacer. Objetivo: Analizar el estado actual del conocimiento sobre los mecanismos probables que vinculan la periodontitis con resultados adversos en el embarazo. Material y métodos: Se efectuó una revisión de la literatura y una búsqueda de artículos publicados durante el periodo comprendido entre los años 2016 y 2021 en las bases de datos MEDLINE, PUBMED, SciELO, LILACS, idioma inglés y/o español. Las búsquedas se realizaron utilizando los siguientes términos: Periodontitis, mediadores de inflamación, complicaciones del embarazo, parto prematuro. Resultados: Se analizaron un total de 24 publicaciones, incluidas revisiones de la literatura, revisiones sistemáticas, estudios de cohorte, estudios de casos y controles y estudio observacionales, que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Conclusión: La periodontitis es un factor de riesgo evitable por lo que se recomienda intensificar las medidas de prevención y tratamiento, en embarazadas y en mujeres en edad fértil.

Abstract Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease characterized by an inflammatory response developed by the host against the microorganisms of the bacterial biofilm. The localized process in the oral cavity can influence the host systemically causing adverse pregnancy outcomes such as premature delivery, maternal hypertension, and low birth weight. Objective: To analyze the current state of knowledge about the probable mechanisms that link periodontitis with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Material and methods: A literature review and a search for articles published during the period between 2016 and 2021 was carried out in the MEDLINE, PUBMED, SciELO, LILACS, English and / or Spanish databases. Searches were conducted using the following terms: Periodontitis, inflammatory mediators, pregnancy complications, preterm delivery. Results: 24 publications were analyzed, including literature reviews, systematic reviews, cohort studies, case-control studies, and observational studies, which met the inclusion criteria. Conclusion: Periodontitis is an avoidable risk factor, therefore it is recommended to intensify prevention and treatment measures in pregnant women and women of childbearing age.

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(6): 838-841, June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387150


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is one of the most important health problems affecting the significant rate of world population and it may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. C-reactive protein to lymphocyte count ratio (CLR) is used in estimating inflammatory burden. Therefore, this study aimed to compare CLR values between CHC patients and healthy controls and between CHC patients with and without fibrosis. METHODS: Patients with CHC infection who visited outpatient and inpatient internal medicine clinics of our institution between January 2021 and December 2021 were enrolled to this retrospective study. CLR of the patients with CHC and healthy controls were compared. We further compared CLR of CHC patients with and without fibrosis. RESULTS: Median CLR of CHC and control subjects was 2.61 (5.13%) and 0.31 (0.37%), respectively. CLR of the CHC group was significantly increased compared to the CLR of the controls (p<0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between CLR and APRI score (r=0.15, p=0.04). The sensitivity and specificity of CLR in determining CHC above 0.58% level were 84% and 82%, respectively (AUC: 0.884, p<0.001, 95%CI 0.84-0.93). In subgroup analysis, CLR was 3.97 (6.6%) for CHC patients with fibrosis and 1.7 (4.4%) for CHC subjects without fibrosis (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Increased CLR in patients with CHC may be an alarming finding of liver fibrosis, as CLR is associated with both CHC and hepatic fibrosis.

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(6): 820-826, June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387161


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a metabolic disorder associated with insulin resistance and subclinical inflammation. Dermcidin, an antimicrobial peptide, involves in insulin resistance and inflammatory processes. Dermcidin suppresses the secretion of insulin production from the liver/pancreas and also increases insulin resistance. We aimed to discover whether dermcidin levels were altered in polycystic ovary syndrome women compared to controls and determine the link of dermcidin with hormonal-metabolic parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome women. METHODS: The current research was designed as a case-control study and Rotterdam 2003 criteria were used for diagnosing polycystic ovary syndrome. A total of 75 subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome and 75 age- and body mass index-matched subjects as controls were enrolled in the study. The insulin resistance state was determined using a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were assessed to define inflammation. RESULTS: Circulating dermcidin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dermcidin levels were significantly increased in polycystic ovary syndrome subjects compared to controls (172.53±42.41 ng/mL vs. 108.44±31.69 ng/mL, p<0.001). Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were markedly increased, whereas quantitative insulin sensitivity check index levels were notably decreased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared to controls. Linear regression analysis revealed that dermcidin exhibited an independent link with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, whereas dermcidin displayed an inversely independent link with quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. CONCLUSION: Increased dermcidin levels were associated with insulin resistance and inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome women, suggesting that dermcidin may play a role in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome.

Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388736


Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar el rendimiento del Gram, la glucosa y los leucocitos en líquido amniótico para el diagnóstico de respuesta inflamatoria fetal y materna en pacientes con parto pretérmino. Método: Estudio de rendimiento de pruebas diagnósticas. Se incluyeron 63 pacientes a quienes se les realizó amniocentesis por sospecha de infección intraamniótica. Se estudió la placenta y se comparó con el Gram, la glucosa y el recuento de leucocitos en líquido amniótico para ver su relación con la respuesta inflamatoria. Se evaluaron la sensibilidad, la especificidad, las razones de verosimilitud (LR, likelihood ratio), los valores predictivos y el valor de kappa. Resultados: Las pruebas con mejor rendimiento fueron en conjunto la glucosa 50/mm3 en líquido amniótico, con una especificidad del 94,3% (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 84,6-98,1), LR + 8,83 (IC95%: 2,5-31,2) y kappa de 0,48 (IC95%: 0,15-0,82). También se consideró la propuesta de un nuevo punto de corte para el recuento de leucocitos en líquido amniótico en la respuesta inflamatoria fetal. Conclusiones: La combinación del recuento de leucocitos en líquido amniótico y los valores de glucosa mejora el rendimiento para el diagnóstico de respuesta inflamatoria fetal en comparación con la histopatología de la placenta, lo que proporciona información útil para el enfoque de los recién nacidos.

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the performance of Gram, glucose and leukocytes in amniotic fluid for the diagnosis of fetal and maternal inflammatory response in patients with preterm delivery. Method: A diagnostic performance test study was carried out. Sixty-three patients with preterm labor were included who underwent amniocentesis due to suspected intra-amniotic infection. Histopathology of the placenta was studied and compared with the Gram result, glucose and leukocyte count in amniotic fluid, and their relationship with the maternal and fetal inflammatory response. Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, predictive values, and kappa were evaluated. Results: The tests with the best performance were overall glucose 50/mm3 in amniotic fluid for the diagnosis of the fetal inflammatory response, with a specificity of 94.3% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 84.6-98.1%), likelihood positive ratio 8.83 (95% CI: 2.5-31.2) and kappa of 0.48 (95% CI: 0.15-0.82). A new cut-off point for leukocyte count in amniotic fluid to diagnose fetal inflammatory response was proposed. Conclusions: The combination of amniotic fluid leukocyte count and amniotic fluid glucose values improves performance for the diagnosis of inflammatory response compared with placental histopathology, providing useful information for newborns approach.

Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389841


Resumen El tumor miofibroblástico inflamatorio (TMI) es una patología muy poco frecuente. Los TMI localizados en laringe pueden ocasionar disfonía o sensación de cuerpo extraño. El diagnóstico se realiza a través de pruebas de imagen y visualización directa con obtención de muestras para estudio histopatológico. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 43 años, con antecedentes personales de carcinoma indiferenciado de nasofaringe, tratado con radioterapia y quimioterapia, que acude a revisiones periódicas en consulta de otorrinolaringología. Se objetiva por nasofibroscopia una lesión rugosa en cuerda vocal izquierda. Se realiza biopsia con fibroscopio de canal, compatible con tumoración fusocelular atípica, con áreas celulares y mixoides, sospechosa de malignidad, con necesidad de completar estudio inmunohistoquímico. En comité de tumores de cabeza y cuello se decide cirugía programada (laringectomía supracricoidea con cricohioidoepiglotopexia) y posterior tratamiento adyuvante con quimioterapia y/o radioterapia, según resultados del estudio histopatológico. Como conclusión, el TMI es una patología que se encuentra predominantemente en el pulmón, siendo rara la afectación laríngea. Su pronóstico es favorable y el diagnóstico histopatológico es de vital importancia. El diagnóstico correcto va seguido de una escisión local amplia para prevenir la recurrencia, sin embargo, el tratamiento debe adaptarse a la ubicación del tumor y al estado del paciente.

Abstract Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a very rare pathology. IMTs located in the larynx can cause dysphonia or foreign body sensation. The diagnosis is made through imaging tests and direct visualization and confirmation with samples for histopathological study. We present the case of a 43-year-old woman with a personal history of undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, who attended periodic check-ups in an otolaryngology clinic. A rough granulomatous lesion was observed by nasofibrolaryngoscopy in the left vocal cord. A canal fibroscope biopsy is performed, compatible with an atypical spindle cell tumor, with cellular and myxoid areas, suspicious of malignancy, requiring an immunohistochemical study to be completed. The head and neck tumor committee decides on scheduled surgery (supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy) and subsequent adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, according to the results of the histopathological study. As a conclusion finally, the IMT is a pathology found predominantly in the lung, laryngeal involvement being rare. Its prognosis is favorable and the histopathological diagnosis is of vital importance to be able to be differentiated from other malignant neoplasms. The correct diagnosis is followed by a wide local excision to prevent recurrence, however, treatment must be tailored to the location of the tumor and the condition of the patient.

Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(2): 100-108, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1381416


Las investigaciones realizadas durante el último siglo relacionadas con la descripción de la Microbiota Intestinal (MI) sugieren una relación concreta entre su composición y la salud del huésped. Su desregulación denominada disbiosis intestinal ha sido asociada a distintos tipos de enfermedades gastrointestinales, metabólicas, oncológicas e incluso psiquiátricas. Destacan numerosos reportes que han informado la condición de disbiosis en la obesidad, tanto en modelos animales como humanos de distintos grupos etarios y regiones del mundo. A su vez, la composición del microbioma también ha logrado asociarse a las diferentes comorbilidades de la obesidad, postulando que la MI posee influencia en la disfunción del tejido adiposo (TA), entendiendo que corresponde al principal modulador de la patogénesis de la obesidad. Sin embargo, aún no es posible establecer una explicación mecanicista plausible. Actualmente, la utilización de tecnologías multiómicas, junto con la evaluación de variables fisiológicas, nos podrían proporcionar una mejor comprensión a la incógnita planteada. Frente a esto, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar los últimos avances en la comprensión de la influencia de la microbiota intestinal en el TA y su contribución a los mecanismos relacionados con la patogénesis de la obesidad. Entre los principales mecanismos identificados, la evidencia reporta nexos fisiológicos entre la composición de la MI y la modulación de inflamación, permeabilidad intestinal y adipogénesis. Las vías implicadas derivan de la influencia de la disbiosis intestinal en el accionar de ácidos grasos de cadena corta, claudinas, macrófagos, oligosacáridos, entre otros. Los mecanismos implicados, principalmente estudiados en modelos animales, deberían ser considerados para su evaluación en próximos estudios longitudinales y experimentales en humanos con el fin de obtener una mayor comprensión sobre la implicancia de cada mecanismo en la patogenia global de la obesidad(AU)

The investigations carried out during the last century related to the description of the Gut Microbiota (GM) suggest a concrete relationship between its composition and the health of the host. Its deregulation called intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with different types of gastrointestinal, metabolic, oncological and even psychiatric diseases. Numerous reports that have described the condition of dysbiosis in obesity stand out, both in animal and human models of different age groups and regions of the world. In turn, the composition of the microbiome has also been associated with the different comorbidities of obesity, postulating that MI has an influence on adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction, understanding that it corresponds to the main modulator of the pathogenesis of obesity. However, it is not yet possible to establish a plausible mechanistic explanation. Currently, the use of multi-omics technologies, together with the evaluation of physiological variables, could provide us with a better understanding of the question raised. In view of this, this review aims to review the latest advances in understanding the influence of the intestinal microbiota on AT and its contribution to the mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of obesity. Among the main mechanisms identified, the evidence reports physiological links between the composition of GM and the modulation of inflammation, intestinal permeability and adipogenesis. The pathways involved derive from the influence of intestinal dysbiosis on the action of short-chain fatty acids, claudins, macrophages, oligosaccharides, among others. The mechanisms involved, mainly studied in animal models, should be considered for evaluation in future longitudinal and experimental studies in humans in order to obtain a better understanding of the implication of each mechanism in the global pathogenesis of obesity(AU)

Adipose Tissue , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Obesity/pathology , Energy Metabolism , Adipogenesis , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 384-389, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377397


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the most common type of stroke. Inflammation is the primary factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Use of immature granulocytes (IGs) has been recommended as a new indicator of systemic inflammation. However, data on the association between echocardiographic epicardial fat tissue thickness (EFT) and IGs in patients with AIS are limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the presences of IGs, epicardial fat tissue and AIS. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in a tertiary-care university hospital in Antalya, Turkey. METHODS: Our study included 53 AIS patients and 41 healthy controls with age and gender compatibility. Blood samples and transthoracic echocardiography of all participants were compared. RESULTS: IG levels were significantly higher in patients with AIS than in controls (0.62 ± 0.36 versus 0.28 ± 0.02, P < 0.001). The mean EFT was 3.74 ± 0.61 mm in the control group and 6.33 ± 1.47 mm in the AIS patient group. EFT was significantly greater in AIS patients than in controls (P < 0.001). For the optimum cut-off value for IG (0.95), the area under the curve (AUC) was determined to be 0.840; sensitivity was determined to be 81.1% and specificity, 92.5%. For the optimum cut-off value for EFT (4.95 mm), the AUC was determined to be 0.953; sensitivity was determined to be 90.6% and specificity, 90%. CONCLUSIONS: IG and echocardiographic EFT are clinical markers that can be used to predict AIS risk.

Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Echocardiography , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Granulocytes , Inflammation
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(5): 579-585, May 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376175


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Severe inflammation is reportedly associated with subsequent cardiovascular events, including in patients with coronary artery disease. This study aimed to examine the prognostic value of systemic immune-inflammation index and determine mortality and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic coronary total occlusion. METHODS: Our study evaluated 366 consecutive coronary total occlusion patients. The clinical end points were all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events, which include target vessel revascularization, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular events during 105 months follow-up. RESULTS: The study findings showed 59 (16.1%) all-cause death, 22 (6%) target vessel revascularization cases, 32 (8.7%) myocardial infarction cases, and 13 (3.6%) cerebrovascular events cases, with a median follow-up of 49 months (26-74). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that systemic immune-inflammation index was not associated with target vessel revascularization, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular events. Multivariate Cox regression analysis found systemic immune-inflammation index to be associated with all-cause death. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a lower survival rate and myocardial infarction-free survival time in patients with higher systemic immune-inflammation index scores. CONCLUSION: Although systemic immune-inflammation index is a preferable tool for the detection of mortality, it failed to give adverse outcomes. Larger multicenter studies are thus warranted to investigate the effect of systemic immune-inflammation index on clinical outcomes.

Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(4): 399-404, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374462


ABSTRACT Background: Characterized by demyelination, inflammation and axonal damage, multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common disorders of central nervous system led by the immune system. There is an urgent and obvious need for biomarkers for the diagnosis and follow-up of MS. Objective: To investigate serum levels of sestrin2 (SESN2), a protein that responds to acute stress, in MS patients. Methods: A total of 85 participants, 40 patients diagnosed previously with relapsing-remitting MS and 45 healthy controls, were included. Serum SESN2 parameters were investigated in blood samples drawn from each participant in the patient and control groups. Results: SESN2 levels were significantly lower in MS patients than in controls (z: -3.06; p=0.002). In the ROC analysis of SESN2, the predictive level for MS was 2.36 ng/mL [sensitivity, 72.50%; specificity, 55.56%; p=0.002; area under the curve (AUC)=0.693]. For the cut-off value in both groups, SESN2 was an independent predictor for MS [Exp (B)=3.977, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.507-10.494 and p=0.013]. Conclusions: The decreased expression of SESN2 may play a role in MS pathogenesis, and SESN2 could be used as a biomarker for MS and as immunotherapeutic agent to treat MS.

RESUMO Antecedentes: Caracterizada por desmielinização, inflamação e dano axonal, a esclerose múltipla (EM) é uma das doenças mais comuns do sistema nervoso central liderada pelo sistema imunológico. Há uma necessidade urgente e óbvia de biomarcadores para o diagnóstico e acompanhamento da EM. Objetivo: Investigar os níveis séricos de sestrina2 (SESN2), uma proteína que responde ao estresse agudo, em pacientes com EM. Métodos: Foram incluídos 85 participantes, 40 pacientes com diagnóstico prévio de EM recorrente-remitente e 45 controles saudáveis. Os parâmetros do SESN2 sérico foram investigados em amostras de sangue coletadas de cada participante nos grupos de paciente e controle. Resultados: os níveis de SESN2 foram significativamente mais baixos em pacientes com EM do que em controles (z: -3,06; p=0,002). Na análise ROC do SESN2, o nível preditivo para MS foi 2,36 ng/mL [sensibilidade, 72,50%; especificidade, 55,56%; p=0,002; área sob a curva (AUC)=0,693]. Para o valor de corte em ambos os grupos, SESN2 foi um preditor independente para MS [Exp (B)=3,977, intervalo de confiança de 95% (95%CI) 1,507-10,494; p=0,013]. Conclusões: A expressão diminuída de SESN2 pode desempenhar um papel na patogênese da EM, e SESN2 poderia ser usado como um biomarcador para EM e como agente imunoterapêutico para o tratamento de EM.

Braz. dent. j ; 33(2): 83-90, Mar.-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1374629


Abstract This paper aimed to assess the influence of adhesive restoration interface on the diffusion of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), indirect toxicity, and pro-inflammatory mediators expression by odontoblast-like cells, after in-office tooth whitening. Dental cavities prepared in bovine enamel/dentin discs were adhesively restored and subjected or not to hydrolytic degradation (HD). A whitening gel with 35% H2O2 (WG) was applied for 45 min onto restored and non-restored specimens adapted to artificial pulp chambers giving rise to the groups: SD- intact discs (control); SD/HP- whitened intact discs; RT/HP- restored and whitened discs; and RT/HD/HP- restored and whitened discs subjected to HD. The extracts (culture medium + WG components diffused through enamel/dentin/restoration interface) were collected and applied to odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells. The study evaluated the amount of H2O2 in the extracts, as well as the cell viability (CV), cell morphology (CM), and gene expression of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α and COX-2) by the pulp cells exposed to the extracts (ANOVA and Tukey tests; 5% significance). All whitened groups presented lower CV than SD (control; p<0.05). The highest CV reduction and gene expression of TNF-α and COX-2 was observed in the RT/HD/HP group in comparison with SD/HP and RT/HP (control; p<0.05). CM alterations occurred in all whitened groups. The intensity of these cell side effects was directly related with the amount of H2O2 in the extracts. We concluded that adhesive restoration of dental cavity increases the H2O2 diffusion after in-office whitening, enhancing the indirect toxicity of this therapy and trigger pro-inflammatory overexpression by MDPC-23 cells.

Resumo Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da interface de uma restauração adesiva na difusão do peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2), toxicidade indireta e expressão de mediadores pró-inflamatórios por células odontoblastóides, após clareamento dental em consultório. Cavidades dentárias preparadas em discos de esmalte / dentina foram restauradas com adesivo e submetidas ou não à degradação hidrolítica (HD). Um gel clareador com 35% H2O2 (WG) foi aplicado por 45 min em discos restaurados e não restaurados adaptados às câmaras pulpares artificiais dando origem aos grupos: SD- discos intactos (controle); SD / HP - Discos intactos clareados; RT / HP - discos restaurados e clareados; e RT / HD / HP - discos restaurados, clareados e submetidos a HD. Os extratos (meio de cultura + componentes WG difundidos através da interface esmalte/dentina/restauração) foram coletados e aplicados em células odontoblastóides MDPC-23. Foi avaliada a quantidade de H2O2 nos extratos, bem como a viabilidade (CV), morfologia (CM) e expressão gênica de mediadores inflamatórios (TNF-α e COX-2) pelas células pulpares expostas aos extratos (ANOVA e testes de Tukey; 5% de significância). Todos os grupos clareados apresentaram menor CV do que SD (controle; p <0,05). A maior redução CV e expressão gênica de TNF-α e COX-2 foi observada no grupo RT / HD / HP em comparação com SD / HP e RT / HP (controle; p <0,05). Alterações na CM ocorreram em todos os grupos clareados. A intensidade desses efeitos celulares teve relação direta com a quantidade de H2O2 nos extratos. Concluímos que a presença de uma cavidade contendo restauração adesiva aumenta a difusão de H2O2 após o clareamento em consultório, o que, por sua vez, aumenta a toxicidade indireta dessa terapia e desencadeia a expressão de mediadores pró-inflamatórios pelas células pulpares MDPC-23.