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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285628

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabbits , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Bacteroides , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Prevotella , Bacteroidetes , Ruminococcus , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dysbiosis , Inflammation , Mice, Inbred C57BL
2.
Braz. dent. j ; 33(3): 47-54, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1384034

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and biological properties of an experimental tricalcium silicate-based repair cement containing diclofenac sodium (CERD). For the physicochemical test, MTA, Biodentine and CERD were mixed and cement disc were prepared to evaluate the setting time and radiopacity. Root-end cavity were performed in acrylic teeth and filled with cements to analyze the solubility up to 7 days. Polyethylene tubes containing cements were prepared and calcium ions and pH were measured at 3h, 24h, 72h and 15 days. For the biological test, SAOS-2 were cultivated, exposed to cements extracts and cell proliferation were investigated by MTT assay at 6h, 24h and 48h. Polyethylene tubes containing cements were implanted into Wistar rats. After 7 and 30 days, the tubes were removed and processed for histological analyses. Parametric and nonparametric data were performed. No difference was identified in relation to setting time, radiopacity and solubility. Biodentine released more calcium ion than MTA and CERD; however, no difference between MTA and CERD were detected. Alkaline pH was observed for all cements and Biodentine exhibited highest pH. All cements promoted a raise on cell proliferation at 24h and 48h, except CERD at 48h. Biodentine stimulated cell metabolism in relation to MTA and CERD while CERD was more cytotoxic than MTA at 48h. Besides, no difference on both inflammatory response and mineralization ability for all cement were found. CERD demonstrated similar proprieties to others endodontic cements available.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as propriedades físico-químicas e biológicas de um cimento reparador experimental à base de silicato de tricálcio contendo diclofenaco de sódio (CERD). Para o teste físico-químico, MTA, Biodentine e CERD foram manipulados e discos de cimentos foram preparados para avaliar o tempo de presa e a radiopacidade. Retrocavidades foram feitas em dentes de acrílico e preenchidas com cimentos para análise de solubilidade por 7 dias. Tubos de polietileno contendo cimentos foram preparados e os íons cálcio e o pH foram mensurados às 3h, 24h, 72h e 15 dias. Para o teste biológico, SAOS-2 foram cultivadas, expostas aos extratos de cimentos e a proliferação celular foi investigada pelo ensaio de MTT às 6h, 24h e 48h. Tubos de polietileno contendo cimentos foram implantados em ratos Wistar. Após 7 e 30 dias, os tubos foram removidos e processados para análises histológicas. Dados paramétricos e não paramétricos foram realizados. Nenhuma diferença foi identificada em relação ao tempo de presa, radiopacidade e solubilidade. Biodentine liberou mais íons de cálcio do que MTA e CERD; no entanto, nenhuma diferença entre MTA e CERD foi detectada. O pH alcalino foi observado para todos os cimentos e o Biodentine exibiu o pH mais alto. Todos os cimentos promoveram aumento na proliferação celular às 24h e 48h, exceto o CERD às 48h. Biodentine estimulou o metabolismo celular em relação ao MTA e CERD, enquanto CERD foi mais citotóxico do que MTA em 48h. Além disso, nenhuma diferença foi encontrada na resposta inflamatória e na capacidade de mineralização para todos os cimentos. CERD demonstrou propriedades semelhantes a outros cimentos endodônticos disponíveis.

3.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 13(n.esp1): 1-7, set. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1397236

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar e analisar os anti-inflamatórios não esteroides tópicos para o alívio da dor artrítica, benefícios para idosos. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados no mês de maio de 2020, mediante consulta às bases de dados MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Web of Science, SCOPUS e índice bibliométrico LILACS, acessados por meio do Portal Periódicos da Comissão de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior, utilizando os descritores: idoso (Aged/elderly), anti-inflamatório não esteroide (Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal) artrite (Arthritides/Polyarthritis). No qual foram selecionados 13 artigos sem limitador para tempo e idioma. Resultados: Detectou se que as variáveis mais evidenciadas foram: inglês (100%); artigos indexados na MEDLINE/PubMed (69,2%); pais com mais publicações Inglaterra (46%). Destaca-se que 69,3% dos artigos foram ensaios clínicos randomizados controlados; anti-inflamatório tópico mais usado diclofenaco sódico (61,5% seguido do cetoprofeno (38,7%). Conclusão: Concluiu se o diclofenaco e o cetoprofeno apresentam eficácia e segurança no alívio da dor artrítica, e baixa toxicidade cutânea local. (AU)


Objective To identify and analyze topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the relief of arthritic pain, benefits for the elderly. Methods: This is an integrative review carried out on the databases in May 2020, by consulting the MEDLINE / PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Web of Science, SCOPUS and LILACS bibliometric index databases, accessed through the Portal Journals of the Higher Education Personnel Improvement Commission, using the descriptors: elderly (Aged / elderly), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non Steroidal) arthritis (Arthritides / Polyarthritis). In which 13 articles were selected without time and language limitations. Results: It was found that the most evident variables were: English (100%); articles indexed in MEDLINE / PubMed (69.2%); parents with the most publications in England (46%). It is noteworthy that 69.3% of the articles were randomized controlled clinical trials; most commonly used topical anti-inflammatory diclofenac sodium (61.5% followed by ketoprofen (38.7%). Conclusion: Diclofenac and ketoprofen were concluded to be effective and safe in relieving arthritic pain and low local skin toxicity. (AU)


Objetivo: Identificar y analizar medicamentos antiinflamatorios no esteroideos tópicos para el alivio del dolor artrítico, beneficios para los ancianos. Métodos: Esta es una revisión integradora realizada en las bases de datos en mayo de 2020, consultando las bases de datos del índice bibliométrico MEDLINE / PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Web of Science, SCOPUS y LILACS, a las que se accede a través del Portal Revistas de la Comisión de Mejoramiento del Personal de Educación Superior, utilizando los descriptores: artritis de edad avanzada (Ancianos / ancianos), antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (agentes antiinflamatorios, no esteroideos) (artritis / poliartritis). En el que se seleccionaron 13 artículos sin limitaciones de tiempo e idioma. Resultados: se encontró que las variables más evidentes fueron: inglés (100%); artículos indexados en MEDLINE / PubMed (69,2%); padres con más publicaciones en Inglaterra (46%). Es de destacar que el 69,3% de los artículos fueron ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorios; diclofenaco sódico antiinflamatorio tópico más utilizado (61.5% seguido de ketoprofeno (38.7%). Conclusión: Se concluyó que el diclofenaco y el ketoprofeno son efectivos y seguros para aliviar el dolor artrítico y la baja toxicidad local de la piel. (AU)


Subject(s)
Aged , Arthritis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
4.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(4): 621-624, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394153

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) a chronic idiopathic oral mucosal disease. But yet the etiology and pathogenesis of RAS are not exactly known, it is thought that inflammation play an important role in the pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the role of systemic inflammation among the possible etiological factors of RAS and to find the possible diagnostic correlation between Systemic Immune Inflammation Index (SII). Methods: Patients who were consulted the otolaryngology outpatient clinic and diagnosed with RAS between 2019-2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Platelet/Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR) and SII values were calculated based on the results of complete blood count. Demographic and hematological parameters between control and RAS groups were compared. The statistical significance level was considered as <0.05. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the control and RAS groups in terms of sex and age distributions (p = 0.566 and p = 0.173, respectively). SII, NLR and PLR values were significantly higher in the RAS group compared to the controls (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). A very strong correlation between SII and NLR, moderately strong correlation between SII and PLR and moderate correlation between NLR and PLR values were detected (respectively ρ: 0.813, 0.719, 0.532; p-values <0.001). Conclusion: SII, NLR and PLR has significantly higher levels in the RAS group compared to the control group, that it supports the role of systemic inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of RAS. In addition, the results show that SII is a valuable marker for inflammation. Level of evidence: 4. HIGHLIGHTS RAS is a chronic, idiopathic, ulcerative oral mucosal disease. SII is a new and inexpensive biomarker that can easily be calculated using the platelet, neutrophil, and lymphocyte count. SII may be a valuable marker to demonstrate the role of systemic inflammation in RAS etiopathogenesis. Vascular, thrombotic, and inflammatory processes are thought to have a role in RAS activation.


Resumo Objetivo: A estomatite aftosa recorrente (EAR) é uma doença crônica idiopática da mucosa oral. Embora sua etiologia e patogênese não sejam totalmente conhecidas, acredita-se que a inflamação possa desempenhar um papel importante. O objetivo deste estudo é demonstrar o papel da inflamação sistêmica entre os possíveis fatores etiológicos da estomatite aftosa recorrente e encontrar uma possível correlação diagnóstica com o índice de inflamação imunológica sistêmica, SII. Método: Foram analisados retrospectivamente pacientes avaliados no ambulatório de otorrinolaringologia e diagnosticados com estomatite aftosa recorrente entre 2019-2021. A relação neutrófilos/linfócitos, a relação plaquetas/linfócitos e os valores de SII foram calculados com base nos resultados do hemograma completo. Parâmetros demográficos e hematológicos dos grupos controle e de pacientes foram comparados. O nível de significância estatística foi considerado como <0,05. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos controle e com estomatite aftosa recorrente quanto à distribuição por sexo e idade (p = 0,566 e p = 0,173, respectivamente). Os valores de SII, a relação neutrófilos/linfócitos e a relação plaquetas/linfócitos foram significantemente maiores no grupo de pacientes em relação aos controles (p <0,001, p <0,001 e p = 0,001, respectivamente). Foi detectada uma correlação muito forte entre SII e relação neutrófilos/linfócitos, uma correlação moderadamente forte entre SII e relação plaquetas/linfócitos e uma correlação moderada entre valores da relação neutrófilos/linfócitos e relação plaquetas /linfócitos (ρ: 0,813, 0,719, 0,532 respectivamente; p-valores <0,001). Conclusão: SII, relação neutrófilos/linfócitos e relação plaquetas/linfócitos apresentam níveis significantemente maiores no grupo com estomatite aftosa recorrente quando comparados ao grupo controle, o que corrobora o papel da inflamação sistêmica na sua etiopatogênese. Além disso, os resultados mostram que o SII é um marcador inflamatório valioso. Nível de evidência: 4. HIGHLIGHTS A estomatite aftosa recorrente é uma doença ulcerativa crônica idiopática da mucosa oral. O SII (do inglês Systemic Immune Inflammation Index) é um biomarcador novo e de baixo custo que pode ser facilmente calculado que usa a contagem de plaquetas, neutrófilos e linfócitos. O SII pode ser um marcador valioso para demonstrar o papel da inflamação sistêmica na etiopatogênese da estomatite aftosa recorrente. Acredita-se que processos vasculares, trombóticos e inflamatórios tenham um papel na ativação da estomatite aftosa recorrente.

5.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 49(3)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388613

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la enfermedad de hígado graso no alcohólico (EHGNA) se caracteriza por la acumulación de gotas lipídicas (GL) y sobre expresión de la proteína de GL Perilipina 1 (PLIN1) en los hepatocitos. En su patogénesis y progresión participan NF-ĸB, caspasa-1 y citoquinas proinflamatorias como IL-1β. La medicina popular del norte de Chile utiliza la planta Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) contra enfermedades. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de un extracto hidroalcohólico de lampaya (EHL) sobre la expresión de marcadores inflamatorios y proteínas asociadas a las GL en hepatocitos tratados con ácidos grasos. Métodos: se incubó hepatocitos HepG2 con 0,66 mM de ácido oleico (AO) y 0,33 mM de ácido palmítico (AP) por 24 o 48 horas en presencia o no de EHL. Se evaluó la expresión proteica de NF-ĸB, PLIN1 y caspasa-1 por Western blot y la expresión de ARNm de IL-1β por qPCR. Resultados: los hepatocitos tratados por 48 h con AO/AP mostraron un aumento en la expresión de IL-1β que fue revertido por la co-incubación con EHL. Conclusión: estos antecedentes aportan nueva evidencia respecto a la actividad biológica del EHL en un modelo de alteraciones metabólicas e inflamatorias, asociadas a la EHGNA, inducidas por AO/AP en hepatocitos humanos.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the accumulation of lipid droplets (LD) and overexpression of the LD-associated protein Perilipin 1 (PLIN1). NF-ĸB, caspase-1 and proinflammatory cytokine such as IL-1β participate in the pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD. Traditional medicine in northern Chile uses the plant Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) against diseases. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a hydroalcoholic extract of lampaya (HEL) on the expression of inflammatory markers and LD-associated proteins in hepatocytes treated with fatty acids. Methods: HepG2 hepatocytes were incubated with 0.66 mM oleic acid (OA) and 0.33 mM palmitic acid (PA) for 24 or 48 h in the presence or not of HEL. The protein expression of NF-ĸB, PLIN1 and caspase-1 was evaluated by Western blot while the mRNA expression of IL-1β was assessed by qPCR. Results: hepatocytes treated for 48 h with OA/AP showed an increase in IL-1β expression that was reversed by co-incubation with HEL. Conclusion: These antecedents provide new evidence regarding the biological activity of HEL in a model of metabolic and inflammatory alterations, associated with NAFLD, induced by OA/PA in human hepatocytes.

6.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 28(1): 85-104, ene.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389146

ABSTRACT

Resumen La estomatitis aftosa recurrente (EAR) es una patología ulcerativa crónica idiopática, que, aunque no llega a comprometer la vida de los pacientes, si puede desmejorar su calidad de vida. Presenta una alta incidencia en la población con un alto porcentaje de recurrencia. Atendiendo a su importancia, el objetivo de esta revisión es brindar una actualización respecto a las terapias farmacológicas y con láser para el manejo de la estomatitis aftosa recurrente. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos PubMed, Science Direct, EBSCO HOST y LILACS desde enero de 2010 a octubre de 2020, identificando publicaciones en inglés y español. Los artículos que fueron incluidos debían estar relacionadas con la estomatitis aftosa y su tratamiento, enfocándose en el manejo farmacológico o con láser. La estrategia de búsqueda arrojó 4536 citas bibliográficas, de las cuales fueron incluidas 19 en esta presente revisión. La mayoría de los estudios fueron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados donde la población objeto fueron adultos que demostraron el uso de antiinflamatorios, inmunomoduladores, anticuerpos monoclonales, antisépticos, anestésicos, entre otros, para el manejo de la estomatitis aftosa recurrente. De los artículos analizados se pudo concluir que la terapia farmacológica debe ser instaurada de manera particular, de acuerdo a la clínica y antecedentes del paciente. Los fármacos de primera elección son de uso tópico, reservando los de uso sistémico para casos moderados o severos y para pacientes con tratamiento refractarios, asimismo, las recomendaciones coadyuvantes como alimentación e higiene pueden ayudar a la resolución de la enfermedad. La terapia láser surge como alternativa de tratamiento con bajo riesgo y buenos resultados para la EAR.


Abstract Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is an idiopathic chronic ulcerative pathology. Although it does not compromise the life of the patients, it can impair their quality of life. It presents a high incidence in the population and a high percentage of recurrence. In view of its importance, the aim of this review is to provide an update on pharmacological and laser therapies that are being implemented for the management of RAS. A bibliographic search of literature that was published between January 2010 and October 2020 was performed in PubMed, Science Direct, EBSCOhost, and LILACS databases, identifying publications in English and Spanish languages. The articles that were included had to be related to aphthous stomatitis and its treatment, focusing on pharmacological or laser management. 4536 bibliographic citations were found and 19 of them were included in this review. Most of the studies were randomized clinical trials in which the target population were adults that reported the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, immunomodulators, monoclonal antibodies, antiseptics, anesthetics, among others for the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. From the articles analyzed, it was possible to conclude that pharmacological therapy should be established in a particular way according to the patient's symptoms and medical record. The first-choice drugs are of topical use, reserving those of systemic use for moderate or severe cases and for patients with refractory treatment. Likewise, adjuvant recommendations such as nutrition and hygiene can help in the resolution of the disease. Laser therapy emerges as an alternative treatment with low risk and positive results for recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

7.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 59(2): 288-295, Apr.-June 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383844

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Polysaccharides from edible mushrooms possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. Recent studies indicated that necroptosis plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and mediates increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. Objective: Therefore, it is imperative to determine the impact of polysaccharide extract from Lentinula edodes (L. edodes) on inflammatory cytokines in experimental model of colitis in mice. Methods: Female C57BL/6 mice divided into three or four mice per group were used for this study. Polysaccharide sample was orally administered to mice prior to (7 days) and during colitis induction with 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (7 days), followed by additional 3 days of administration. Changes in body weight and colon length were used as markers for colitis, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) expressions, as well as necroptosis were analyzed in the colon of colitis mice. Data obtained were analysed by Tukey-Kramer and two-tailed standard t tests. Results: The results indicated that the polysaccharide sample suppressed colitis in mice using effects on the body weight and colon length as markers. Also, it was demonstrated that necrostatin-1, a specific inhibitor of necroptosis, suppressed the expression of interleukin (IL)-8, a pro-inflammatory chemokine, in Caco-2 cells induced necroptosis induced by zVAD and TNF-α, an indication that necroptosis may be involved in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, the polysaccharide sample suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and interferon (IFN)-γ in the colon of mice. Conclusion: These results suggested that the suppressive effects of the polysaccharide sample on inflammatory cytokines expression may contribute to its anti-colitis effect, and so may serve as a potent therapeutic agent against inflammatory bowel disease.


RESUMO Contexto: Polissacarídeos de cogumelos comestíveis possuem atividades imunomodulatórias, anti-inflamatórias e anti-tumorais. Estudos recentes indicaram que a necroptose desempenha um papel na patogênese de doenças inflamatórias e regula o aumento da expressão de citocinas inflamatórias. Objetivo: Torna-se imprescindível determinar o impacto do extrato de polissacarídeo de Lentinula edodes (L. edodes) em citocinas inflamatórias em modelo experimental de colite em camundongos. Métodos: Foram utilizados para este estudo os camundongos C57BL/6 femininos divididos em três ou quatro camundongos por grupo. A amostra de polissacarídeo foi administrada oralmente em camundongos antes (7 dias) e durante a indução de colite com sulfato de dextran sulfato de sódio (7 dias), seguido por 3 dias adicionais de administração. Alterações no peso corporal e comprimento do cólon foram utilizadas como marcadores para colite, e citocinas pró-inflamatórias e tumores receptor fator 1 (TNFR1), bem como necroptose foram analisadas no cólon de camundongos colite. Os dados obtidos foram analisados por testes Tukey-Kramer e testes padrão t de duas caudas. Resultados: Os resultados indicaram que a amostra de polissacarídeo suprimiu colite em camundongos usando efeitos sobre o peso corporal e o comprimento do cólon como marcadores. Além disso, foi demonstrado que a necrostatina-1, inibidora específica da necroptose, suprimiu a expres são de interleucina (IL)-8, uma quimiocina pró-inflamatória, em células caco-2 induzidas necroptose induzidas por zVAD e TNF-α, uma indicação de que a necroptose pode estar envolvida na expressão de citocinas pro-inflamatórias. Além disso, a amostra de polissacarídeo suprimiu a expressão de citocinas pró-inflamatórias, como o fator de necrose tumoral (TNF)-α, IL-6, IL-1β e interferon (IFN)-γ no cólon dos camundongos. Conclusão: Esses resultados sugeriram que os efeitos supressivos da amostra de polissacarídeo na expressão de citocinas inflamatórias podem contribuir para o seu efeito anti-colite, podendo, portanto, servir como um potente agente terapêutico contra doença inflamatória intestinal.

8.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 59(2): 170-176, Apr.-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383846

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Data related to SARS-CoV-2 exposure rates in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are scarce. Objective - Our aim was to determine the prevalence of serological markers of SARS-Cov-2 and the predictive factors for positivity in patients with IBD. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, observational study carried out from May to September 2020. SARS-CoV-2 serological markers were determined using chemiluminescence immunoassay in 233 IBD patients without evidence of COVID-19 symptoms. Patient age was 36.6±11.1 years, 118 patients were male (50.6%), and 63.1% had Crohn's disease. Patient clinical data were extracted from individual electronic medical records and complemented by a structured interview. Results: Twenty-six out of the 233 patients with IBD had positive serum markers for SARS-CoV-2 (11.2%). Female sex (P<0.003), extra-intestinal manifestations (P=0.004), use of corticosteroids (P=0.049), and previous contact with individuals with flu-like symptoms (P<0.001) or confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 (P<0.001), were associated with a significant increased rate of positive SARS-Cov-2 serological markers. No significant difference was observed regarding to adherence to protection measures and positivity of SARS-Cov-2 serological markers (P>0.05). Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 previous infection in IBD patients was not that uncommon, and its prevalence was 11.2% in our series. Positivity to SARS-CoV-2 serological markers was associated with female sex, extra-intestinal manifestations, use of corticosteroids, and contact with individuals with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to confirm these findings.


RESUMO Contexto: Dados relacionados às taxas de exposição ao SARS-CoV-2 em pacientes com doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DII) são escassos. Objetivo Nosso objetivo foi determinar a prevalência de marcadores sorológicos do SARS-Cov-2 e os fatores preditivos de positividade em pacientes com DII. Métodos: Este foi um estudo transversal observacional realizado no período de maio a setembro de 2020. Os marcadores sorológicos SARS-CoV-2 foram determinados por imunoensaio de quimioluminescência em 233 pacientes com DII sem evidência de sintomas de COVID-19. A idade dos pacientes foi 36,6±11,1 anos, 118 pacientes eram do sexo masculino (50,6%) e 63,1% tinham doença de Crohn. Os dados clínicos dos pacientes foram extraídos de prontuários médicos eletrônicos individuais e complementados por meio de uma entrevista estruturada. Resultados: Vinte e seis dos 233 pacientes com DII apresentaram marcadores sorológicos positivos para SARS-CoV-2 (11,2%). Sexo feminino (P<0,003), manifestações extra-intestinais (P=0,004), uso de corticosteroides (P=0,049) e contato prévio com indivíduos com sintomas gripais (P<0,001) ou diagnóstico confirmado de COVID -19 (P<0,001), foram associados a um aumento significativo da taxa de positividade para marcadores sorológicos do SARS-Cov-2. Não foi observada diferença significativa em relação à adesão às medidas de proteção e positividade dos marcadores sorológicos para o SARS-Cov-2 (P>0,05). Conclusão: A infecção prévia pelo SARS-CoV-2 não é tão incomum em pacientes com DII e sua prevalência em nossa série foi de 11,2%. A positividade aos marcadores sorológicos SARS-CoV-2 foi associada ao sexo feminino, manifestações extra-intestinais, uso de corticosteroides e contato com indivíduos com suspeita ou diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. Estudos com períodos de acompanhamento mais longos são necessários para confirmar esses achados.

9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 59(2): 238-243, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383855

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises the spectrum between Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), a condition whose prevalence in countries such as Brazil has increased significantly in recent years. Changes in the intestinal epithelial barrier function and, consequently, an increase in intestinal permeability, have been suggested as important factors in the pathogenesis of different autoimmune conditions, including IBD. Therefore, there is a need for a practical tool to assess gut barrier integrity in these patients. Objective: To study factors associated with serum zonulin levels, a marker of intestinal permeability, in patients with IBD. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study that included 117 patients with IBD and 32 healthy controls. Disease activity was assessed by the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) in UC and by the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI) in CD subjects. Zonulin levels were measured by ELISA and inflammatory cytokines by Cytometric Bead Array, using commercially available kits. Results: The mean age of IBD patients was 44.0±15.9 years, 66.7% were female, 57 subjects were diagnosed with CD and 60 with UC. At evaluation, clinical remission was observed in 56.7% of CD patients and in 59.2% of UC subjects. No differences were observed in zonulin levels when comparing IBD patients with the control group (95.28 ng/mL vs 96.61 ng/mL, P=0.573) and when comparing patients with CD to those with UC (79.68 ng/mL vs 106.10 ng/mL, P=0.887). Among IBD group, zonulin concentrations were higher among females, correlated positively with body mass index (BMI) and age; and negatively with hemoglobin and hematocrit. In patients with UC, zonulin correlated negatively with hemoglobin, hematocrit, and albumin; and positively with BMI and SCCAI. Among CD patients, zonulin was positively correlated with age and BMI, but not with HBI. No correlations were observed between zonulin and circulating cytokines in IBD patients. Conclusion: In this cohort mostly comprised of patients in clinical remission, serum zonulin levels were not higher in patients with IBD than healthy controls, and correlated with variables not linked to baseline disease, such as sex, age and BMI. However, zonulin correlated with clinical and laboratory parameters of disease severity and activity among subjects with UC, but not among patients with CD. These findings indicate a potential role for zonulin as a biomarker in IBD, particularly in UC.


RESUMO Contexto: A doença inflamatória intestinal (DII) compreende o espectro entre a doença de Crohn (DC) e a colite ulcerativa, condição esta cuja prevalência em países como o Brasil vem aumentando significativamente nos últimos anos. Alterações na função da barreira epitelial intestinal e, consequentemente, um aumento da permeabilidade intestinal, têm sido sugeridos como fatores importantes envolvidos na patogênese de diferentes condições autoimunes, dentre elas, a DII. Desta forma, existe a necessidade de uma ferramenta prática para avaliar a integridade da barreira epitelial intestinal nestes pacientes. Objetivo: Estudar os fatores associados com os níveis séricos de zonulina, um marcador da permeabilidade intestinal, em pacientes com DII. Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal que incluiu 117 pacientes com DII e 32 indivíduos que compuseram o grupo controle. A atividade da doença foi avaliada pelo Simple Cliniical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) na colite ulcerativa e pelo índice de Harvey-Bradshaw (IHB) em pacientes com DC. Os níveis de zonulina foram quantificados por ELISA e os níveis das citocinas inflamatórias pelo Cytometric Bead Array, utilizando kits comercialmente disponíveis. Resultados: A média de idade dos pacientes com DII foi de 44,0±15,9 anos, 66,7% eram do sexo feminino, 57 pacientes eram portadores de DC e 60 pacientes eram portadores de colite ulcerativa. No momento da avaliação clínico-laboratorial, 56,7% dos pacientes com DC encontravam-se em remissão clínica e, dentre os pacientes com colite ulcerativa, 59,2% deles assim se encontravam. Não foram observadas diferenças nos níveis séricos de zonulina entre pacientes com DII e grupo controle (95,28 ng/mL vs 96,61 ng/mL; P=0,573), assim como entre pacientes com DC e pacientes com colite ulcerativa (79,68 ng/mL vs 106,10 ng/mL, P=0,887). Dentre os pacientes com DII, as concentrações de zonulina foram mais elevadas no sexo feminino e correlacionaram-se positivamente com o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e com a idade, correlacionando-se negativamente com os níveis de hemoglobina e hematócrito. Nos pacientes com colite ulcerativa, as concentrações de zonulina correlacionaram-se negativamente com os parâmetros hemoglobina, hematócrito e albumina e, positivamente, com o IMC e com o SCCAI. Dentre os pacientes com DC, a zonulina sérica correlacionou-se positivamente com a idade e com o IMC, mas não com o IHB. Não foram observadas correlações entre os níveis de zonulina e as citocinas circulantes nos pacientes com DII. Conclusão: Nesta coorte constituída majoritariamente por pacientes em remissão clínica, os níveis séricos de zonulina não se mostraram aumentados em pacientes com DII em relação a indivíduos controles e correlacionaram-se com variáveis não relacionadas à doença de base, como com o sexo, com a idade e com o IMC. No entanto, os níveis séricos de zonulina correlacionaram-se com parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais de gravidade e atividade da doença dentre os pacientes com colite ulcerativa, mas não dentre os pacientes com DC. Estes achados indicam um potencial papel da zonulina sérica como um biomarcador na DII, principalmente na colite ulcerativa.

10.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(3): e147-e150, junio 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1370740

ABSTRACT

El síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico en niños y adolescentes relacionado temporalmente con la COVID-19 (SIM-C) es una entidad poco frecuente en pediatría, que emerge en relación con la pandemia por el coronavirus de tipo 2 causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2) y fue descripto por primera vez en mayo de 2020. Debido al escaso tiempo de evolución de esta enfermedad, hay aspectos sobre su fisiopatología, pronóstico y posibilidad de recurrencia, que aún se desconocen. Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente de 12 años que cursó un cuadro compatible con SIM-C en enero de 2021, con buena evolución clínica posterior. Luego presentó una reinfección por SARS-CoV-2 a los 5 meses de la infección inicial (junio de 2021), con síntomas leves y sin recurrencia del SIM-C.


The multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children temporally related to COVID-19 (MIS-C) is a rare disease in pediatrics, which emerges related to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and was initially described in May 2020. Given the short time of evolution of this disease, little is known about the pathophysiology, prognosis, and the possibility of recurrence. We present a clinical case of a 12-year-old patient who presented symptoms compatible with MIS-C in January 2021, with good subsequent clinical evolution. He developed reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 at five months later (June 2021), with mild symptoms and without recurrence of MIS-C


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Pandemics , Reinfection
11.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 79(3): 170-179, may.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394021

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Existen pocos reportes de síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda (SDRA) con COVID-19 en pacientes pediátricos. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las características de los pacientes pediátricos críticamente enfermos con COVID-19, la frecuencia del SDRA, la mecánica ventilatoria y los resultados de la posición prona. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio retrospectivo y observacional de los pacientes ingresados del 1 de abril al 30 de septiembre de 2020. Resultados: Ingresaron 34 pacientes a la unidad de terapia intensiva pediátrica (UTIP) con prueba positiva para SARS-CoV-2. De ellos, 13 presentaron SDRA, 11 requirieron ventilación mecánica invasiva y siete fueron pronados como estrategia de oxigenación. Todos los pacientes clasificados como SDRA graves fueron pronados. La obesidad fue la comorbilidad más importante. Las complicaciones asociadas con SDRA fueron el síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico (p < 0.05) y la lesión renal aguda (p < 0.05). La procalcitonina fue mayor en los pacientes con SDRA, al igual que los días de estancia en la UTIP (p < 0.05). El éxito de la maniobra de pronación se alcanzó 8 horas después.Los resultados observados fueron los siguientes relación presión arterial de oxígeno/fracción inspirada de oxígeno 128 vs. 204, índice de oxigenación 8.9 vs. 5.9, distensibilidad pulmonar estática 0.54 vs. 0.70 ml/cmH2O/kg, y presión meseta 24 vs. 19 cmH2O (p < 0.05). El uso de narcóticos fue mayor en el grupo de SDRA más pronación que en los no pronados (124 vs. 27 h; p < 0.01). La mortalidad asociada con SARS-CoV-2 fue del 5.8%. Conclusiones: El SDRA se presentó en el 38.2% de los niños admitidos a UTIP, y con mayor frecuencia en los pacientes con obesidad. La maniobra de pronación aplicada en los casos severos, mejoró la oxigenación de la mécanica pulmonar. Ninguno de los pacientes falleció por SDRA.


Abstract Background: There are only a few reports of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 in pediatrics. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of critically ill pediatric patients with COVID-19, the frequency of ARDS, ventilatory mechanics and results of prone position. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, observational study of patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between April 1 to September 30, 2020. Results: Thirty-four patients were admitted to pediatric intensive care unit, 31.7% were SARS-CoV-2 positive. 13 presented ARDS, 11 required invasive mechanical ventilation, and seven were pronated as an oxygenation strategy. All patients classified as severe ARDS were pronated. Obesity was the most important comorbidity. The complications associated with ARDS were multisystemic inflammatory syndrome (8 vs. 4; p < 0.05) and acute kidney injury (8 vs. 3; p < 0.05). Procalcitonin was higher in patients with ARDS, as were the days of stay in PICU (p < 0.05). The success of the pronation maneuver was achieved 8 hours later , with the following results: arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen ratio 128 vs. 204, oxygenation index 8.9 vs. 5.9, static lung compliance 0.54 vs. 0.70 ml/cmH2O/kg, plateau pressure 24 vs. 19 cmH2O (p < 0.05). The use of narcotics was higher in the group with ARDS plus pronation 124 vs. 27 hours in the non-pronated (p < 0.01). Mortality associated with SARS-CoV-2 was 5.8%. Conclusions: ARDS was presented in 38.2% of the children admitted to PICU and was more frequent in obese patients. Pronation, performed in severe cases, improved oxygenation and lung mechanics indexes. No patient died of ARDS.

12.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 34(2): 295-299, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394904

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A síndrome da encefalopatia posterior reversível é uma rara síndrome clínica e radiológica caracterizada por edema vasogênico da matéria branca dos lobos occipital e parietal, que geralmente são simétricos, resultante de uma manifestação secundária de disfunção aguda do sistema cerebrovascular posterior. Descrevemos um caso de síndrome de encefalopatia posterior reversível secundária à infecção por SARS-CoV-2 em um menino de 9 anos de idade que desenvolveu insuficiência respiratória hipoxêmica aguda e necessitou de ventilação mecânica assistida. A criança desenvolveu síndrome inflamatória multissistêmica e foi monitorada na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica, tendo-lhe sido fornecidos ventilação mecânica e agentes vasoativos para suporte hemodinâmico. Além disso, desenvolveu manifestações clínicas pulmonares e extrapulmonares juntamente de manifestações neuropsiquiátricas que necessitavam de seguimento cuidadoso, tendo sido verificadas por ressonância magnética cerebral para intervenção oportuna. Atualmente, há poucos relatos de crianças com síndrome da encefalopatia posterior reversível associada à síndrome inflamatória multissistêmica.


ABSTRACT Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a rare clinical and radiological syndrome characterized by vasogenic edema of the white matter of the occipital and parietal lobes, which are usually symmetrical, resulting from a secondary manifestation of acute dysfunction of the posterior cerebrovascular system. We describe a case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection in a 9-year-old boy who developed acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and required assisted mechanical ventilation. The child developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome, and he was monitored in the pediatric intensive care unit and was provided mechanical ventilation and vasoactive agents for hemodynamic support. Additionally, he developed pulmonary and extrapulmonary clinical manifestations along with neuropsychiatric manifestations that required close follow-up and were verified using brain magnetic resonance imaging for timely intervention. Currently, there are few reports of children with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome associated with multisystem inflammatory syndrome.

13.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(2): 178-186, Apr.-June 2022. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394409

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background and Aims The present systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to estimate the safety and effectiveness of ustekinumab in the treatment of Crohn disease (CD) in clinical trials and observational studies. Methods We retrieved all the related publications from the PubMed, Cochrane, EBSCO, Google Scholar and EMBASE databases using a systematic search strategy. We only included clinical trials and observational studies that were published in English. Results Only 31 studies that met the eligibility criteria out of the 733 identified studies were included. The overall clinical response rate in the cohort studies was of 0.539 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.419-0.659), and in the clinical trials it was of 0.428 (95%CI: 0.356-0.501). The pooled clinical remission rate was of 0.399 (95%CI: 0.295-0.503) in randomized control trials (RCTs,) and of 0.440 (95%CI: 0.339-0.542) in cohort studies. The rate of adverse effects was of 0.158 (95%CI: 0.109-0.207) in cohort studies and of 0.690 (95%CI: 0.633-0.748) in RCTs. Conclusion Ustekinumab is effective in the treatment of CD. However, more research is required on the safety profiles because there was considerable variation among the included studies. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Ustekinumab/therapeutic use , Remission Induction , Treatment Outcome , Ustekinumab/adverse effects , Infections
14.
Infectio ; 26(2): 137-144, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356259

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Sintetizar las características epidemiológicas y clínicas de los niños de COVID-19 con EK, KLD y MIS-C. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en 4 bases de datos y preprints hasta el 31 de Mayo del 2021. Se incluyeron reportes/series de caso que evaluaron las caracte rísticas clínicas del EK, KLD o MIS-C en pacientes pediátricos con COVID-19. Resultados: Se incluyeron 16 estudios (seis informes de casos y diez series de casos, 367 pacientes en total, 58 pacientes con EK, 87 con KLD y 290 pacientes con MIS-C); con edades entre los 6 meses y los 10 años, y el 62% eran mujeres. Se observó COVID-19 positivo en 75,2%. Respecto a EK, KLD y MIS-C, las características clínicas repor tadas fueron compatibles con los cuadros diagnósticos estandarizados en el contexto de COVID-19. La duración de la hospitalización fue de 5 a 14 días para EK y de 4,3 a 13 para MIS-C. Once pacientes con MIS-C (2,8%) necesitaron ECMO. Seis pacientes con MIS-C fueron reportados muertos. Ocho estudios reportaron pacientes en la UCI. Conclusiones: EK o KLD puede asociarse a COVID-19 en niños, y pueden complicarse con MIS-C. El tiempo de hospitalización es prolongado si se presenta EK o KLD asociado a COVID-19 en niños.


Abstract Objective: To synthesize the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 children with MIS-C, KLD and EK. Methods: Databases and preprints were searched until May 31, 2021. Reports/case series that evaluated the clinical features of EK, KLD, or MIS-C in pediatric patients with COVID-19 were included. Results: Sixteen studies were included (six case reports and ten case series, 367 patients total, 58 patients with EK, 87 with KLD, and 290 patients with MIS-C); with ages ranging from 6 months to 10 years, and 62% were female. Positive COVID-19 was observed in 75.2%. Regarding EK, KLD and MIS-C, the reported clinical characteristics were compatible with the standardized diagnostic pictures in the context of COVID-19. The duration of hospitalization was 5 to 14 days for EK and 4.3 to 13 for MIS-C. Eleven patients with MIS-C (2.8%) needed ECMO. Eleven patients with MIS-C (2.8%) needed ECMO. Six patients with MIS-C were reported dead. Eight studies reported patients in the ICU. Conclusions: Children with COVID-19 develop EK or KLD, and can be complicated by MIS-C. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment measures are needed.

15.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 323-342, mayo 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396881

ABSTRACT

Copaifera spp. essential oil (EOC) was extracted by hydrodistillation of Copaifera oleoresin (COR). The EOC was characterized by GC/MS and a novel EOC-loaded nanoemulsion was developed to enhance the EOC solubility and to evaluate its utility as antinflammatory. EOC contain 14 volatile compounds (including ß-caryophyllene: 51.52%) having a required HLB of 11. The Surfactant: EOC: Water ratio of 13:15:75 (%, w:w:w) produced the optimal formulation (particle size: 94.47 nm). The EOC-loaded nanoemulsion presented a pseudoplastic/thixotropic behavior with excellent shelf stability for 6 months. The anti-inflammatory effect of the nanoemulsion was more potent than that of the EOC, and statistically equal to diclofenac (50 mg/kg). The EOC-loaded nanoemulsion showed no oral acute toxicity (in mice) at 2000 mg/kg; hence, it is considered a nontoxic product. The development of the EOC-loaded nanoemulsion added value to both the COR and the EOC by providinga suitable formulation that could be used as an anti-inflammatory product.


El aceite esencial (EOC) fue extraído por hidrodestilación de oleoresina de Copaifera spp. El EOC fue caracterizado químicamente por GC/MS. Se formuló una nanoemulsión con EOC para mejorar la solubilidad del EOC y evaluar su utilidad como antiinflamatorio. El EOC contiene 14 compuestos volátiles (incluido el ß-cariofileno: 51,52%) con un HLB requerido de 11. La relación Tensioactivo: EOC: Agua de 13:15:75 (%, p:p:p) produjo la formulación óptima (tamaño de partícula: 94,47 nm).. La nanoemulsión cargada con EOC presentó un comportamiento pseudoplástico/tixotrópico con una excelente estabilidad en almacenamiento durante 6 meses. El efecto antiinflamatorio de la nanoemulsión fue más potente que el del EOC y estadísticamente igual al diclofenaco (50 mg/kg). La nanoemulsión cargada con COE no mostró toxicidad aguda oral (en ratones) a 2000 mg/kg; por lo tanto, se considera un producto no tóxico. El desarrollo de la nanoemulsión cargada con EOC agregó valor tanto al COR como al EOC al proporcionar una formulación adecuada que podría usarse como un producto antiinflamatorio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Rheology , Surface-Active Agents , Temperature , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Emulsions/pharmacology , Nanoparticles , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
16.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385251

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Determinar los biomarcadores inflamatorios del líquido sinovial (LS) de pacientes adultos con trastornos intraarticulares (TI) de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM) y su capacidad diagnóstica. Métodos: Se realizó búsqueda electrónica/manual de artículos (2010-2019) en paralelo por dos investigadores. La calidad de los estudios, se determinó por medio de CONSORT y STROBE y el sesgo según criterios Cochrane RoB 2 en ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y Escala Newcastle-Ottawa en estudios observacionales. Se estudiaron pacientes con TI de la ATM y determinación de biomarcadores del LS. Resultados: De 264 artículos encontrados, 6 cumplieron los criterios inclusión-exclusión, incluyendo 262 pacientes, [OA=153, 93 con desplazamientos discales (DD) y 16 con OA+DD]. Todas las muestras fueron obtenidas por artrocentesis y detectadas por ELISA. Se determinaron 19 biomarcadores en pacientes con OA; 9 en DD y 2 en diagnosticados con OA+DD. El incremento de biomarcadores en el LS de la ATM se asocia con TI. Conclusión: Los biomarcadores detectados con mayor frecuencia en LS de pacientes con TI de ATM fueron IL-1β, IL-6 y TNF-α y en segunda frecuencia TGF-β1, MMP-3 e IFN-γ. Dada la inconsistencia de los protocolos utilizados la evidencia fue débil, imposibilitando asociar biomarcadores con diagnóstico de TI determinado, ni efectuar análisis estadístico.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the evidence of inflammatory biomarkers present in the synovial fluid (SF) of adult patients with intra-articular disorders (ID) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and their diagnostic ability. Methods: Electronic/manual search of articles (2010-2019) was performed. Data were extracted in duplicate. The quality of the studies was determined by CONSORT, STROBE and risk of bias was determined by Cochrane RoB 2 and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The populations studied were patients with TMJ ID and with studies of SF biomarkers. Results: Out of 264 articles found, 6 met the inclusion-exclusion criteria, including 262 patients, 93 with disc displacements (DD) and 16 with OA+DD. All samples were obtained by arthrocentesis and detected by ELISA. Nineteen biomarkers were evaluated in patients with OA, 9 in patients with DD and 2 in those diagnosed with OA+DD. Increased inflammatory biomarkers in the SF of TMJ are associated with ID. Conclusion: The most frequent biomarkers detected in SF of patients with TMJ ID were IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and in second frequency TGF-β1, MMP-3 and IFN-γ. Given the inconsistency of the protocols used, the evidence was weak, making it impossible to associate biomarkers with a given IT diagnosis, or to perform statistical analysis.

17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(2): 80-88, abril 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363652

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La evidencia actual indica que la gravedad de la enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés) es menor en la población pediátrica, los datos locales aún son limitados. Objetivo: caracterizar los aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de la infección por COVID-19 en menores de 18 años en Argentina. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal, observacional y analítico de casos confirmados de COVID-19 entre 0 y 18 años asistidos entre marzo de 2020 y marzo de 2021 en 19 centros pediátricos de referencia de Argentina. Se realizó un análisis multivariado para identificar las variables predictoras de cuadros graves. Resultados. Se incluyeron 2690 casos de COVID-19: 77,7 % residentes del área metropolitana de Buenos Aires, 50,1 % de sexo masculino, mediana de edad de 5,6 años. El 90 % ocurrió entre las semanas epidemiológicas 20-47 del 2020; 60,4 % con antecedente de contacto con personas con COVID-19; y 96,6 % en el entorno familiar. El 51,4 % presentó síntomas respiratorios; 61,6 % síntomas generales; 18,8 % síntomas gastrointestinales; 17,1 % síntomas neurológicos; 7,2 % otros y 21,5 % fueron asintomáticos. El 59,4 % fue hospitalizado; 7,4 fueron graves o críticos. Se registraron 57 casos de síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico. El antecedente de asma, displasia broncopulmonar, cardiopatía congénita, desnutrición moderada a grave, obesidad, enfermedad neurológica crónica y/o edad menor de 6 meses resultaron predictores independientes de gravedad. Residir en barrios vulnerables resultó protector. Conclusiones. Más de la mitad de los casos refirieron antecedente de contacto con personas con COVID-19 en el entorno familiar. La hospitalización no respondió a criterios clínicos de gravedad. La gravedad se encuentra asociada a la existencia de ciertas comorbilidades.


Introduction. The current evidence indicates that the severity of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is lower in the pediatric population but local data are still limited. Objective: To characterize the clinical and epidemiological aspects of COVID-19 infection in patients younger than 18 years in Argentina. Population and methods. Cross-sectional, observational, and analytical study of confirmed COVID-19 patients aged 0-18 years seen between March 2020 and March 2021 at 19 referral children's hospitals of Argentina. A multivariate analysis was done to identify predictors of severe cases. Results. A total of 2690 COVID-19 cases were included: 77.7% lived in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires; 50.1% were males; patients' median age was 5.6 years. Of them, 90% were seen during epidemiological weeks 20-47 of 2020; 60.4% had a history of contact with COVID-19 patients; and 96.6% in their family setting. Also, 51.4% had respiratory symptoms; 61.6%, general symptoms; 18.8%, gastrointestinal symptoms; 17.1%, neurological symptoms; 7.2%, other symptoms; and 21.5% were asymptomatic. In addition, 59.4% of patients were hospitalized and 7.4% had a severe or critical course. A total of 57 patients developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome. A history of asthma, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart disease, moderate to severe malnutrition, obesity, chronic neurological disease and/or age younger than 6 months were independent predictors of severity.Livinginavulnerableneighborhoodwas a protective factor. Conclusions. More than half of cases referred a history of contact with COVID-19 patients in the family setting. Hospitalization was not based on clinical criteria of severity. Severity was associated with the presence of certain comorbidities


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Pandemics , Preliminary Data
18.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 44(2): 171-177, Apr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374585

ABSTRACT

Objective: To date, no study has investigated whether autogenous and reactive obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) types are different entities in terms of oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. The aim of this study is to compare them in terms of these features. Methods: The study was conducted in subjects with reactive OCD (n=19), autogenous OCD (n=14), and a control group (n=17). All participants were non-smokers. Sociodemographic data were collected and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ), and Overvalued Ideas Scale (OVIS) were administered. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), paraoxonase (PON1), total oxidant status (TOS), and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured. Results: There were no significant differences in TAS, TOS, or oxidative stress index (OSI) between the OCD and control groups. PON1 and hs-CRP levels were higher in the OCD group, whereas IL-6 and IL-10 levels were lower. Comparison across the three groups revealed no differences in TAS, TOS, OSI, or PON1 levels; however, hs-CRP was significantly higher while IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly lower in the reactive group compared to controls. Conclusion: Our results show that, although inflammatory processes may play a role in OCD, the autogenous and reactive subtypes do not differ from each other in these respects. The classification of OCD into autogenous and reactive subtypes should be reevaluated.

19.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(2): 200-206, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376527

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Drug-eluting stents (DES) coated with rapamycin or paclitaxel as antiproliferative substances significantly reduced the incidence of clinical restenosis and had fewer side effects after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, DES coated with rapamycin or paclitaxel still cause restenosis due to abnormal tissue growth which remained a therapeutic problem, particularly in certain subgroups, possibly due to drug concentrations. This study examined the impact of different concentrations of rapamycin and paclitaxel on cytokine, cell viability and proliferation in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC)-derived foam cells. Methods: The foam cell model was established in vitro by incubating HASMC with 20 µg/mL oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) for 48 hours. Subsequently, foam cells were treated with different concentrations (0.01 µg/mL, 0.1 µg/mL, 0.5 µg/mL, 1 µg/mL, 5 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL) of rapamycin or paclitaxel for 48 hours, to measure cytokine, cell viability and proliferation by ELISA and MTT, respectively. Finally, viability and proliferation were measured by MTT after the foam cells were treated with 1 µg/mL rapamycin or paclitaxel combined with cytokine antibody for 48 hours. Results: After incubation of HASMC with ox-LDL, the ratios of cholesterol ester and total cholesterol increased significantly (55.29%) (P<0.01). Lipid staining with Oil Red O showed many lipid vacuoles and red dye particles in the cells. Meanwhile, cell viability and proliferation significantly increased compared with the control. This indicated that HASMC had been transformed into foam cells (P<0.01) while rapamycin or paclitaxel concentrations ≥0.1 µg/mL can significantly decrease the foam cell proliferation (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and 1 µg/mL of rapamycin or paclitaxel appeared the most effective concentration. As for cytokines, rapamycin or paclitaxel concentrations ≥1 ug/mL could significantly increase the level of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (P<0.05 or P<0.01), which was enhanced with the increase of drug concentration. However, rapamycin or paclitaxel concentrations ≥1 µg/mL could significantly reduce the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-35 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) (P<0.05 or P<0.01), which decreased with the increase of drug concentration. In addition, rapamycin or paclitaxel combined with anti-IL-1β, anti-IL-6, anti- TNF-α or anti-IL-35 had no significant effect on foam cell proliferation compared to the drug alone. However, rapamycin or paclitaxel combined with anti-IL-10 or anti-TGF-β can significantly enhance foam cell proliferation (P<0.01). In addition, there was no difference in the effects of the same concentrations of rapamycin and paclitaxel on foam cells. Conclusion: Although rapamycin or paclitaxel can reduce foam cell proliferation, too high or too low concentrations could decrease effectiveness. In particular, a high dose can induce foam cells to increase inflammatory cytokines secretion, reduce anti-inflammatory cytokines secretion, and thus affect the inhibiting proliferation. For rapamycin- and paclitaxel-eluting stents, this conclusion may explain the clinical observation of in-stent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. DES coated with an appropriate concentration of rapamycin or paclitaxel may, at least to some extent, contribute significantly to reducing incidence of late in-stent restenosis.

20.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 214-219, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364976

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Various studies are ongoing related to the radioprotective agents. Herbal preparations are currently becoming popular because of their beneficial effects with fewer side effects compared to the synthetic/semi-synthetic medicines, and Nigella sativa oil (NSO) is only one of them. Objective To investigate NSO for its antioxidant effects on the heart tissue of rats exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). Methods Thirty six male albino Wistar rats, divided into four groups, were designated to group I (IR plus NSO group) that received both 5 Gray of gamma IR to total cranium and NSO; group II (IR alone group) that received IR plus saline, group III (control group of NSO) that received saline and did not receive NSO or IR; group IV (control group) that received only sham IR. Alterations in Total antioxidant status (TAS) and Total oxidant status (TOS), Oxidative stres index (OSI), Sulhydryl group (SH), Lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), Paraoxonase (PON) levels, Arylesterase (ARE) and Ceruloplasmin (CER) activities in homogenized heart tissue of rats were measured by biochemical methods. Results In heart tissue of the rats in the IR alone group (group II) LOOH, TOS and OSI levels were found to be higher, ARE activity and TAS level were found to be lower than all of the other groups (p < 0.01). These results also support that IR increases oxidative stress and NSO's protective effect. Conclusion NSO would reduce the oxidative damage in the irradiated heart tissue in the experimental rat model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Radiation-Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Nigella sativa , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Heart/radiation effects , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , Radiation-Protective Agents/analysis , Rats, Inbred Strains , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/radiation effects , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Cardiotoxicity/drug therapy , Heart/drug effects , Phytotherapy
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