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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850880

ABSTRACT

Objective: The inclusion compound of silymarin-SBE-β-CD was prepared. Methods: Phase solubility method was used to screen the inclusion materials of cyclodextrin and determine the type of inclusion. The technological conditions of silymarin inclusion complex were optimized by orthogonal design. The solubility of inclusion was determined and its structure was characterized by means of microscope, infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. Results: Due to its higher solubilization effect on silymarin, SBE-β-CD was determined as inclusion material. The ratio of drug to cyclodextrin was coated in the mode of 1:n. The process optimized by orthogonal design was as follow: molar ratio of silymarin to SBE-β-CD of 1:8, inclusion temperature of 60 ℃, and inclusion time of 3 h. Microscope, infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the inclusion compound was formed and the drug existed in the inclusion compound as amorphous. Conclusion: The inclusion compound of silymarin-SBE-β-CD has been successfully prepared, which can significantly improve the solubility of the drug, and provide experimental basis for its clinical application.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-858470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the crystal forms of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and preparations of felodipine from different sources, and explore the relationship between quality and efficacy of felodipine and its crystal form. METHODS: Crystal form characterization of the active pharmaceutical ingredient from different sources was carried out by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The Origin software was used to analyze the crystal forms of felodipine in the sample preparations from different sources. Biological evaluation in vivo was conducted by using whole animals. RESULTS: There were some differences in the crystal state of the active pharmaceutical ingredient from different sources, but the main components were basically the same, all of which were type I. Biological studies showed significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of felodipine sustained release tablets from different sources. Among them, the ρmax, tmax, t1/2, and AUC0-t had maximal 1.8, 1.4, 8.2 and 1.5 times of differences. CONCLUSION: Although the main crystal forms of felodipine bulk drug from different origins are consistent, the crystal state significantly changes after the preparation process. This finding is of important scientific significance to guide the improvement of process and product quality.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-696013

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to develop in-line monitoring of extraction process of Lonicerajaponica in the extraction process trajectory of Re-Du-Ning (RDN) injection.Several batches of near-infrared (NIR) spectrum dates were collected and multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) method was in conjunction with.The results showed that using score,Hotelling T2 and DModX control chart,various normal and abnormal behaviors of the test batches were detected in time by comparison with the extraction process trajectory.It was concluded that the process trajectory for in-line quality control based on NIR spectrum dates and MSPC could indicate the changes of process.It was a feasible technology tool of the total process quality control during traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) manufacturing process.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-693334

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the change in infrared(IR)spectral information and to screen out the classification of major compounds affecting information difference in IR spectra of Trichosanthes before and after steaming. Methods The similarity between the original IR fingerprint and the first derivative IR fingerprint of Trichosanthes and their steamed products was calculated by using the Computer Aided Similarity Evaluation System. The principal component analysis(PCA)model and the partial least squares dis-criminant analysis(PLS-DA)model of IR spectral data of Trichosanthes before and after steaming were established by using SIMCA-P 11 statistical software for PCA and PLS-DA,and the classification of major compounds affecting information difference in IR spectra of Trichosanthes before and after steaming was selected by 3D scatter plot,load 3D scatter plot and variable important in project(VIP) value. Results The similarity between the original IR fingerprint and first derivative IR fingerprint of Trichosanthes and their steamed products were 0.9165 and 0.2832. Seven VIP>1 spectral peaks were screened out by using SIMCA-P 11 statistical software,of which,the absorption peak of 1456 cm-1 was νc=c,the absorption peak of 1726 cm-1 was νc=o and the VIP values were 1.6290 and 1.4256 respectively. Conclusion The categories of compounds of Trichosanthes before and after steaming did not change,but the chemical components changed. Compounds of Trichosanthes before and after steaming affect the difference in IR spectral information may mainly contain C=C-C=C or C=O or both of them.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-616605

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the application value of near infrared spectrum (NIRS) in the detection of epidural and subdural hematoma in clinic.Methods Thirty-four patients with subdural and epidural hematomas (study group) confirmed by CT or MRI and 14 healthy volunteers (contrast group) were selected.The NIRS equipment which was produced by Institute of Automation of Chinese Academy of Sciences were used to assess the intracranial hematomas.Taking CT or MRI results as the golden standard,the diagnostic efficiency of NIRS for subdural and epidural hematomas were evaluated.Results For the diagnosis of subdural and epidural hematomas,the sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 91.18%(31/34),71.43% (10/14),85.42%(41/48),88.57%(31/35) and 76.92% (10/13),respectively.Conclusion NIRS is a good device to predict intracranial subdural and epidural hematomas with high sensitivity and positive predictive value,which is helpful for early diagnosis and therapy in clinic.

6.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 3850-3851,3852, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-605562

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To provide theoretical basis for the detection of paracetamol by infrared spectroscopy. METHODS:0.002-0.02 g paracetamol was accurately weighed,added into 0.2 g potassium bromide,respectively,fully ground and well mixed, potassium bromide pressing plate method was used for to-be-tested test sample. Using hollow cathode lamp as light,scanning fre-quency was 30 times,resolution was 0.5 cm-1,scan range was 4000-400 cm-1,infrared absorption spectrum was determined and recorded to select the characteristic absorption peaks,then determine the optimized characteristic absorption peaks. Linear and non-linear models were respectively established by using mathematics modeling methods. RESULTS:1 016 cm-1 absorption peak with weaker absorbance but stronger features was selected for the analysis. According to the model establishing and calculation,the accu-racy of the nonlinear model was much higher than the linear model,r=0.942. CONCLUSIONS:Nonlinear quantitative model for quantitatively determining the content of paracetamol is feasible,and suitable for the on-destructive and rapid on-line quality control of paracetamol.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-462967

ABSTRACT

In order to improve the precision and robustness in determination of soluble solids content ( SSC) of ‘Fuji ’ apple by NIR spectroscopy and eliminate the effect of origin variability on the accuracy of NIR calibration models for the SSC, sample set partitioning based on joint x-y distances ( SPXY) was used to select representative subset from the apple samples of 4 different origins. As a comparison, partial least square ( PLS) was used to establish local origin and hybrid origin models for the prediction of SSC in apple. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling ( CARS ) and successive projections algorithm ( SPA ) were implemented to select effective variables of the NIR spectroscopy of SSC of apple. The results indicated that the PLS model established based on the 4 origin apple samples performed better than local origin and other hybrid origin models. The model could be effectively simplified using 16 characteristic variables selected by CARS-SPA method from full-spectrum which had 3112 wavelengths. The correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0. 978 and 0. 441 oBrix, respectively for SSC. It was found that the model developed by more samples of different origins combined with effective wavelengths showed good prediction ability for apple sample of unknown origin, which indicated that it could significantly reduce the origin effect on the robustness of NIR models for SSC of apple.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-854347

ABSTRACT

Chrysanthemum indicum, with excellent pharmaceutical prospects, widely distributes in China. At present, the study found that the main chemical constituents of C. indicum include flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, and terpenoids. The infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, ultra performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, related molecular biological technology, and other modern analysis technology are widely used in the quality evaluation on C. indicum. In this paper, the research progress in the chemical constituents and quality evaluation of C. indicum is reviewed, providing the scientific basis for its further development and utilization.

9.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 253-258, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-860467

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish and validate an infrared spectrometry method coupled with cluster analysis, principal component analysis and discriminant analysis for identifying different kinds of Hippocampus. METHODS: Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer was used to analyze the ethanol extracts from 35 samples of Hippocampus collected from different geographical locations. Similarity analysis and cluster analysis were used to establish the reference fingerprint spectra, and principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were used for identifying different kinds of Hippocampus. RESULTS: The samples of the same species had similar characteristic peaks of infrared spectra and could be clustered together. Based on the result of principal component analysis, the absorption peaks (3305.4-3297.7 cm-1, 2919.7-2915.9 cm-1, 2852.2-2848.4 cm-1, 1656.6-1652.7 cm-1, 1542.8-1538.9 cm-1, 1456.0-1452.2 cm-1 and 1045.2-1041.4 cm-1) were the main characteristic peaks and were used to develop the discrimination function for distinguishing different species of Hippocampus. The accuracy of the discrimination function was 93.55%. The established method had good stability, precision and reproducibility, and was a very reliable and useful method for distinguishing different species and assessment of the quality of Hippocampus. CONCLUSION: The established IR fingerprints of Hippo-campus's ethanol extracts coupled with mathematical statistics theory can be applied to identify different kinds of Hippocampus. More importantly, the research has provided a new thought for traditional Chinese medicine identification by using mathematical model.

10.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 1540-1545, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-860226

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish a validated infrared spectrum method coupled with cluster analysis, principal component a-nalysis and discriminant analysis for identifying different kinds of Syngnathus. METHODS: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was performed on the ethanol extracts from 33 samples of Syngnathus collected from different geographical locations. Similarity analysis and cluster analysis were used to establish the reference fingerprint spectra, and principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were used for identifying different kinds of Syngnathus. RESULTS: The experimental results indicated that the samples of same species had the similar characteristic peaks of infrared spectra and could be clustered together. Based on the result of principal component analysis, the absorption peaks(3010.4-3006.5 cm-1, 1745.3-1741.4 cm-1, 1467.6-1463.7 cm-1, 1417.4-1413.6 cm-1, 1168.7-1164.8 cm-1, 723.2-719.3 cm-1, 2925.5-2919.7 cm-1, 2854.2-2850.3 cm-1) were the main characteristic peaks and were used to develop the discrimination function for distinguishing different species of Syngnathus. The accuracy of the discrimination function could reach 98.75%. The established method in the experiment had a good stability, precision and reproducibility, and was a very reliable and useful method for distinguishing different species and assessment of the quality of Syngnathus. CONCLUSION: The established IR fingerprints of Syngnathus's ethanol extracts coupled with mathematical statistics theory could be applied to identify different kinds of Syngnathus. But more importantly, the research job provides a new thought for traditional Chinese medicine identification by using mathematical model.

11.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 530-532, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-434972

ABSTRACT

Objective According to the infrared spectrum of renal stone composition analysis,discuss the relationship between gender,age and kidney stone.Methods Kidney stone composition analysis of 408 cases had been done in our hospital from the 2002 to 2011 by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.There were 271 males (66.4%) and 137 females (33.6%).Results There were 359 cases with calcium stones,accounting for 88.0% (359/408); 197 cases with calcium oxalate stones alone,accounting for 48.3%; 180 cases with phosphate stones,accounting for 44.1%; 211 cases with mixed composition stones,accounting for 51.7%.Main chemical composition of the stones were:calcium oxalate 48.3%,carbonate apatite 34.8%,urates 5.4%,ammonium magnesium phosphate 4.4%,ammonium carbonate eutectic 3.4%,brushite 1.5%,cystine 2.0% and protein 0.3%.Male patients accounted for 66.4% of all cases and the peak onset age was 30-59 years; Female patient accounted for 33.6% of all cases and the peak onset age was 50-59 years.Conclusions Calcium oxalate and phosphate are the most common components of kidney stones.Males age between 30-59 years and females age between 50-59 years may suffer from of kidney stone formation.

12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 57(3): 567-588, sep. 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-637893

ABSTRACT

Velvet worm taxonomy from Santander, Colombia and thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy of the adhesive secretion (Onychophora: Peripatidae). Onychophoran worms are terrestrial organisms that have changed relatively little since the mid-Cambrian. We collected Macroperipatus geagy in coffee plantations at "Hacienda El Roble", Santander, Colombia, and here redescribe the species based on 15 individuals. A digital three-dimensional reconstruction of the ventral side of the body indicates that the primary and accessory papillae lack a defined distribution pattern. Diagnostic characters: one main tooth and one accessory tooth in the outer jaw, and one main tooth, one accessory tooth and seven denticles in the internal jaw. Measurements: length (X=45.66 mm; SD=26.10), weight (X= 0.95 g; SD= 2.21) and number of lobopods (X= 28.13 pairs; SD= 1.30). We present a taxonomic key for six species of Macroperipatus. The liquid adhesive secretion lost 60% of the initial weight at 70 oC (solid: 13% close to 90 oC). The stability phase of the liquid secretion was within 90-280 oC (100 oC -205 oC in the solid secretion). The starting degradation temperature of the sample was 355 oC. Heat flow changes in the solid and liquid secretions were confirmed by the sample behavior during thermogravimetric analysis. The percentage of β sheets calculated by infrared spectrum was 59%. In comparison with Nephila spiders, the onychophoran secretion lost more weight and entered the phase of degradation at lower temperatures. This secondary structure of proteins gives the onychophoran adhesive secretion a tensile strength and extensibility similar to those of the silk produced by spiders for prey-capture. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3): 567-588. Epub 2009 September 30.


Redescribimos taxonómicamente el gusano Macroperipatus geagy Bouvier 1899, a partir de 15 especímenes recolectados en los cafetales de hacienda El Roble, Santander, Colombia. De acuerdo con la reconstrucción en tres dimensiones de la superficie dorsal del cuerpo, las papilas primarias y accesorias de M. geagy se distribuyen sin formar un patrón determinado. Características diagnósticas: un diente accesorio y un diente principal en la mandíbula externa; y un diente principal, un diente accesorio y siete dentículos en la sierra de la mandíbula interna. Cuerpo: longitud (X=45.66; S=26.10 mm), peso (X= 0.95; S= 2.21) y pares de lobopodos (X= 28.13; S= 1.30). Se elaboró una clave para seis especies de Macroperipatus. La secreción adhesiva en estado líquido perdió 60% del peso inicial al alcanzar los 70 ºC, la muestra sólida perdió el 13% del peso cerca de los 90 ºC, la fase de estabilidad térmica de la secreción estuvo entre los 90 y 280 ºC en la secreción líquida y entre los 100 y 205 ºC en la sólida. La temperatura de inicio de la degradación de las muestras se registró a los 355 ºC. En comparación con la araña Nephila sp., el onicóforo perdió mayor porcentaje de peso y alcanzó la fase de degradación a temperaturas más bajas. Los cambios en el flujo de calor en la secreción adhesiva sólida y líquida de M. geagy fueron confirmados con el comportamiento de las muestras en el análisis de termogravimetría. La proporción de láminas beta calculado en el espectro infrarrojo de la secreción adhesiva fue del 59%. La presencia de este tipo de conformación de la estructura secundaria de las proteínas en la secreción adhesiva de M. geagy conferiría extensibilidad y resistencia a la tracción, en similitud con las fibras de seda tejidas por las arañas para depredación.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bodily Secretions/chemistry , Invertebrates/classification , Colombia , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Invertebrates/anatomy & histology , Invertebrates/physiology , Spectrophotometry, Infrared/methods , Thermogravimetry/methods
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-473406

ABSTRACT

MS96A type spectrum analyzer was applied to determine the spectral characteristic of near infrared radiated by moxa stick moxi-bustion, ginger-partitioned moxibustion, garlic-partitioned moxibustion and Aconium Carmichaeli-par titioned moxibustion. The spectrum of moxa stick moxibustion was relatively discrete and several wave crests are appeared. But in the spectrum of ginger-partitioned moxibustion, garlic-partitioned moxibustion or Aconium Carmichaeli-partitioned moxibustion, a specific and relatively steady wave crest formed respectively. It was concluded different indirect moxibustion could bring respective spectrum of near infrared and have the relevant physiologic and biochemical effects.

14.
China Pharmacy ; (12)2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-528344

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To study the compatible stability of gatifloxacin for injection in combination with aciclovir for injection in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% glucose injection.METHODS:Changes in appearance and pH value of gatifloxacin in combination with aciclovir within 8 hours after mixing were observed and determined under room temperature(20?1)℃,respectively,and the precipitates in the mixture underwent infrared spectrum analysis.RESULTS:White flocculent precipitate was noted in the mixture within 1 hour of mixing,which was proved as a new substance by infrared spectrum analysis. CONCLUSIONS:There is incompatibility between gatifloxacin for injection and aciclovir for injection.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-584964

ABSTRACT

In this paper, a newly-designed device is introduced, which uses non-dispersive infrared absorption technique to acquire anesthesia gas concentration signal and to perform side-stream measurement in the air way. The microcontroller is adopted to implement data acquisition, data processing and then to transmit the data to the PC screen, thus the real-time continuous invasive concentration monitoring of the anesthesia gas in the patient's respiratory air can be realized during a surgical operation.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-500228

ABSTRACT

The pearly gallstone was discharged after Treatment with Magnetic Field (TMF). The pearly gallstones are measured with FT-IR spectrometer. The results demonstrate that mostly composition of this gall-stones is cholesterol and intermixture with some protean and inorganic calcium salt. Nature pearls is mostly composed with calcium carbonate. Their compositions are different. The pearly gall-stones show sandwich of cholesterol crystal in structure.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-589011

ABSTRACT

The conventional invasive tissue blood oxygen content measurement is poor in continuity.The weakness of the signal,strong interference and random transmission of the photon in tissues make the measurement difficult.Recently,near infrared spectrum technology has been applied to tissue blood oxygen content measurement.This paper presents a hardware design method for tissue blood oxygen content measurement by near infrared spectrum technology.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-682610

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate a new method for identification of traditional Chinese medicine injection by FTIR. METHODS: For the steadiness of spectra, the factors of effecting spectrum's information quality were all investigated scientifically over the experiment procedures and instrumental setting, such as the preparation of samples, resolution ratio, scanning times, repeating scanning times, etc. The traditional Chinese medicine injections were used as the analytical samples such as Radix Isatidis, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Flos Carthami, Radix Astragali and Herba Houttuyniae. RESULTS: Although all these original spectrums were similar at a certain degree, the FTIR combined with computer aided analysis, such as the cluster analysis and derivative spectrometry comparability calculation could be used to identify these injections. CONCLUSION: The method of identification by FTIR is non destructive testing, cheap, clean, fast, simple and convenient. The result indicates this method is suitable for establishing identification database of traditional Chinese medicine injections.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-580104

ABSTRACT

AIM: To determine baicalin of scutellaria-extract rapidly by FT-NIRS and data analysis software. METHODS: The correction model was set up based on partial least square and was used to predict baicalin of scutellaria-extract in the samples. RESULTS: Cross validation and test samples determination showed that the co-rrelation coefficient(R2) of this correction model was 95.05,the RMSECV was 0.861,respectively. CONCLUSION: It is fast and convenient.The correction model could be used to predict baicalin of scutellaria-extract rapidly.It can offer reference to content determination of other extracts of Chinese herbs.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-577871

ABSTRACT

AIM:To study the feasibility of online monitoring and controlling of the key process of column chromatographic separation in the production of Salvianolate by combining near-infrared(NIR) spectrum and HPLC fingerprinting. METHODS: Partial Least Square(PLS) regression was used to model the correlation of NIR spectra with the concentrations of salvianolic acid B,and the influences of light path,wavelength selection,and preprocessing method on the PLS model were investigated systematically. RESULTS: A 2 mm light path was better than 1 mm one,and with 2 mm light path,the optimal wave-number was in the range of 6 102.1-5 446.3 cm~(-1) and the optimal preprocessing method was the vector normalization.The root mean-square error of PLS model on test samples was 0.234 mg/mL,and R~2 was 0.995 2. CONCLUSION: This method is proved to be fast,convenient,and precise.It can be used to online monitoring and quality control of the manufacturing of Salvianolate.

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