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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920538

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the characteristics of exposure to micro- and nano-plastics (MPs) via food ingestion and inhalation among Chinese children including 6-7 years old school children in Pudong New Area of Shanghai. Methods Articles published until March 2021 were searched on PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang and Weipu databases. The exposure levels of MPs by food ingestion and inhalation pathways were estimated by referring to the Chinese children food consumption and breathing rates data. The characteristics of children’s exposure to MPs in China were compared with that in the United States. In addition, the consumption of bottled water, tap water and salt intake among children aged 6-7 years was determined in a cohort of children and adolescents in Pudong New Area of Shanghai. The characteristics of exposure to MPs through food intake and inhalation among them were investigated. Results A total of 5 786 samples from 38 studies were retrieved. Annual intake of MPs among Chinese children was estimated to range from 159 400 to 204 637 MPs from food ingestion, depending on age and sex. When inhalation exposure is also considered, the annual MPs intake increased to 164 635 to 213 032 MPs, which were larger than the values in American persons. Ingestion of MPs posed the largest health risk to male Chinese adults. With the questionnaire survey data, the estimated annual total exposure amount through food intake alone is 116 272‒120 334 MPs for 6 to 7 years old school children in Pudong New Area. With addition of inhalation exposure, the annual total exposure amount is 121 300‒125 983 MPs, which is lower than the average exposure level in the whole country. The discrepancy could be mainly due to the different drinking habits between the local children and others. Overall, tap drinking water, seafood,bottled water, and air represented four substantial vectors of daily MPs exposure in Chinese children. Conclusion Ingestion and inhalation of MPs pose higher health risk to Chinese children in comparison to American children. The level of exposure to MPs among 6 to 7 years old school children in Pudong New Area of Shanghai is lower than that in the same age group of children across the whole country. The attempt to lower the MPs levels in drinking water and seafood would represent the most effective means to help reduce the MPs exposure risk to Chinese children.

2.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 160-164, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913105

ABSTRACT

OBJE CTIVE To establish the finger prints for Yinhuang solution for inhalation and determine the contents of neochlorogenic acid ,chlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid simultaneously. METHODS Using baicalin as reference ,the fingerprints of Yinhuang solution for inhalation were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Relative correction factors of neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid were calculated by slope correction method ,using chlorogenic acid as reference ;the contents of them were calculated according to relative correction factor. The results of quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS)were compared with those of external standard method (ESM). RESULTS There were 18 common peaks in the fingerprints of 10 batches of Yinhuang solution for inhalation ,and their similarities with reference fingerprint were higher than 0.90. A total of 7 common peaks were identified as baicalin ,neochlorogenic acid ,chlorogenic acid , cryptochlorogenic acid ,isochlorogenic acid B ,3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The linear range of neochlorogenic acid ,chlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid were 0.025 0-1.247 4 μg(r=0.999 7),0.039 3-1.178 7 μg(r= 0.999 9),0.031 6-1.184 1 μg(r=0.999 9),respectively. RSDs of precision ,reproducibility and stability tests (48 h)were all lower than 1.0%. The average recoveries were 93.92%(RSD=1.32% ,n=6),94.46%(RSD=1.45%,n=6),93.93%(RSD= 1.57%,n=6). Relative correction factors of neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid were 1.068 and 1.233. The contents of neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid determined by QAMS method were 0.301 8-0.386 3 and 0.262 5-0.362 5 mg/mL, respectively. The contents of neochlorogenic acid ,chlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid by ESM were 0.302 6-0.387 2, 0.231 0- 0.334 0,0.261 6-0.361 3 mg/mL,respectively. The deviations of the content determination results of the two methods(except for chlorogenic acid )were both not higher than 0.20%. CONCLUSIONS Established HPLC fingerprints are stable and feasible. Established QAMS method is accurate and rapid. HPLC fingerprint combined with QAMS can be used for the quality control for Yinhuang solution for inhalation .

3.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 384-393, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347302

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever as práticas clínicas atuais relacionadas à utilização de cânula nasal de alto fluxo por intensivistas pediátricos brasileiros e compará-las com as de outros países. Métodos: Para o estudo principal, foi administrado um questionário a intensivistas pediátricos em países das Américas do Norte e do Sul, Ásia, Europa e Austrália/Nova Zelândia. Comparou-se a coorte brasileira com coortes dos Estados Unidos, Canadá, Reino Unido e Índia. Resultados: Responderam ao questionário 501 médicos, dos quais 127 eram do Brasil. Apenas 63,8% dos participantes brasileiros tinham disponibilidade de cânula nasal de alto fluxo, em contraste com 100% dos participantes no Reino Unido, no Canadá e nos Estados Unidos. Coube ao médico responsável a decisão de iniciar a utilização de uma cânula nasal de alto fluxo segundo responderam 61,2% dos brasileiros, 95,5% dos localizados no Reino Unido, 96,6% dos participantes dos Estados Unidos, 96,8% dos médicos canadenses e 84,7% dos participantes da Índia; 62% dos participantes do Brasil, 96,3% do Reino Unido, 96,6% dos Estados Unidos, 96,8% do Canadá e 84,7% da Índia relataram que o médico responsável era quem definia o desmame ou modificava as regulagens da cânula nasal de alto fluxo. Quando ocorreu falha da cânula nasal de alto fluxo por desconforto respiratório ou insuficiência respiratória, 82% dos participantes do Brasil considerariam uma tentativa com ventilação não invasiva antes da intubação endotraqueal, em comparação com 93% do Reino Unido, 88% dos Estados Unidos, 91,5% do Canadá e 76,8% da Índia. Mais intensivistas brasileiros (6,5%) do que do Reino Unido, Estados Unidos e Índia (1,6% para todos) afirmaram utilizar sedativos com frequência concomitantemente à cânula nasal de alto fluxo. Conclusão: A disponibilidade de cânulas nasais de alto fluxo no Brasil ainda não é difundida. Há algumas divergências nas práticas clínicas entre intensivistas brasileiros e seus colegas estrangeiros, principalmente nos processos e nas tomadas de decisão relacionados a iniciar e desmamar o tratamento com cânula nasal de alto fluxo.


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe current clinical practices related to the use of high-flow nasal cannula therapy by Brazilian pediatric intensivists and compare them with those in other countries. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to pediatric intensivists in North and South America, Asia, Europe, and Australia/New Zealand for the main study. We compared the Brazilian cohort with cohorts in the United States of America, Canada, the United Kingdom, and India Results: Overall, 501 physicians responded, 127 of which were in Brazil. Only 63.8% of respondents in Brazil had a high-flow nasal cannula available, in contrast to 100% of respondents in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. The attending physician was responsible for the decision to start a high-flow nasal cannula according to 61.2% respondents in Brazil, 95.5% in the United Kingdom, 96.6% in the United States, 96.8% in Canada, and 84.7% in India. A total of 62% of respondents in Brazil, 96.3% in the United Kingdom, 96.6% in the United States, 96.8% in Canada, and 84.7% in India reported that the attending physician was responsible for the decision to wean or modify the high-flow nasal cannula settings. When high-flow nasal cannula therapy failed due to respiratory distress/failure, 82% of respondents in Brazil would consider a trial of noninvasive ventilation before endotracheal intubation, compared to 93% in the United Kingdom, 88% in the United States, 91.5% in Canada, and 76.8% in India. More Brazilian intensivists (6.5%) than intensivists in the United Kingdom, United States, and India (1.6% for all) affirmed using sedatives frequently with high-flow nasal cannulas. Conclusion: The availability of high-flow nasal cannulas in Brazil is still not widespread. There are some divergences in clinical practices between Brazilian intensivists and their colleagues abroad, mainly in processes and decision-making about starting and weaning high-flow nasal cannula therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Noninvasive Ventilation , Cannula , United States , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Critical Care
4.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 362-373, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347301

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Determinar la efectividad de la ventilación no invasiva frente a oxigenoterapia convencional en pacientes con insuficiencia respiratoria aguda tras fracaso de la extubación. Métodos: Ensayo clínico pragmático realizado una unidad de cuidados intensivos de marzo de 2009 a septiembre de 2016. Se incluyeron pacientes sometidos a ventilación mecánica > 24 horas, y que desarrollaron insuficiencia respiratoria aguda tras extubación programada, siendo asignados a ventilación no invasiva u oxigenoterapia convencional. El objetivo primario fue reducir la tasa de reintubación. Los objetivos secundarios fueron: mejora de los parámetros respiratorios, reducción de las complicaciones, de la duración de la ventilación mecánica, de la estancia en unidad de cuidados intensivos y hospitalaria, así como de la mortalidad en unidad de cuidados intensivos, hospitalaria y a los 90 días. También se analizaron los factores relacionados con la reintubación. Resultados: De un total de 2.574 pacientes, se analizaron 77 (38 en el grupo de ventilación no invasiva y 39 en el grupo de oxigenoterapia convencional). La ventilación no invasiva redujo la frecuencia respiratoria y cardíaca más rápidamente que la oxigenoterapia convencional. La reintubación fue menor en el grupo de ventilación no invasiva [12 (32%) versus 22(56%) en grupo oxigenoterapia convencional, RR 0,58 (IC95% 0,34 - 0,97), p = 0,039], el resto de los parámetros no mostró diferencias significativas. En el análisis multivariante, la ventilación no invasiva prevenía la reintubación [OR 0,17 (IC95% 0,05 - 0,56), p = 0,004], mientras que el fracaso hepático previo a la extubación y la incapacidad para mantener vía aérea permeable predisponían a la reintubación. Conclusión: El empleo de la ventilación no invasiva en pacientes que fracasa la extubación podría ser beneficiosa frente a la oxigenoterapia convencional.


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the effectiveness of noninvasive ventilation versus conventional oxygen therapy in patients with acute respiratory failure after extubation failure. Methods: A pragmatic clinical trial was conducted in an intensive care unit from March 2009 to September 2016. Patients on mechanical ventilation > 24 hours who developed acute respiratory failure after scheduled extubation were included and were assigned to noninvasive ventilation or conventional oxygen therapy. The primary objective was to reduce the reintubation rate. The secondary objectives were to improve respiratory parameters and reduce complications, the duration of mechanical ventilation, the intensive care unit stay, the hospital stay, and mortality in the intensive care unit, in the hospital, and 90 days after discharge. Factors correlated with reintubation were also analyzed. Results: Of a total of 2,574 patients, 77 were analyzed (38 in the noninvasive ventilation group and 39 in the conventional oxygen therapy group). Noninvasive ventilation reduced the respiratory and cardiac rates more rapidly than conventional oxygen therapy. Reintubation was less common in the noninvasive ventilation group [12 (32%) versus 22 (56%) in the conventional oxygen therapy group, relative risk 0.58 (95%CI 0.34 - 0.97), p = 0.039]. The rest of the parameters did not show significant differences. In the multivariate analysis, noninvasive ventilation protected against reintubation [OR 0.17 (95%CI 0.05 - 0.56), p = 0.004], while liver failure before extubation and the inability to maintain airway patency predisposed patients to reintubation. Conclusion: The use of noninvasive ventilation in patients who failed extubation could be beneficial compared to conventional oxygen therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Airway Extubation , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen , Respiration, Artificial , Intensive Care Units
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): e345-e348, agosto 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281782

ABSTRACT

El talco, un silicato de magnesio hidratado, formó parte durante décadas del cuidado tradicional de lactantes y niños pequeños. Si bien en los niños su inhalación aguda, que suele ser accidental durante el cambio de pañales, no es frecuente, es una condición potencialmente peligrosa, que puede provocar dificultad respiratoria grave e incluso cuadros mortales. Se describe el grave compromiso respiratorio por neumonitis química asociado con la inhalación accidental de talco en un lactante de 14 meses. El niño presentó un cuadro de dificultad respiratoria con requerimiento de asistencia respiratoria mecánica (ARM) durante una semana. En cuanto al tratamiento, no existe un estándar, se utilizaron antibióticos y corticoides sistémicos y aerosolterapia. No presentó complicaciones en otros órganos o sistemas. Su evolución fue favorable, se pudo externar al décimo día de internación y presentó posteriormente episodios aislados de hiperreactividad bronquial.


Talc is a hydrated magnesium silicate. It was part of traditional infant and young child care for decades. In children, its acute inhalation, generally accidental during diaper changes, although not frequent, is a potentially dangerous condition, and can cause severe respiratory distress and even death. We describe the case of a 14-month child who had an accidental inhalation of talc, chemical pneumonitis and severe respiratory compromise. The patient had acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation for one week. There is no standard treatment, we used systemic antibiotics and corticosteroids and aerosol therapy. He did not have complications in other organs or systems. He was hospitalized for ten days. In the follow up, he had isolated episodes of bronchial hyperresponsiveness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Pneumonia/chemically induced , Respiratory Insufficiency/chemically induced , Talc/adverse effects , Pneumonia/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Accidents, Home , Inhalation , Intubation, Intratracheal
6.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(2): 276-281, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289070

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão sérica da proteína 1 relacionada à uteroglobulina na fase inicial após lesões por inalação de fumaça e sua associação com a gravidade da lesão por inalação em pacientes queimados. Métodos: A lesão por inalação de fumaça ou produtos químicos se associa com morbidade e mortalidade. As consequências da inalação resultam de uma resposta inflamatória. A proteína 1 relacionada à uteroglobulina é anti-inflamatória e pode melhorar a inflamação pulmonar. Nossa hipótese é que os níveis de proteína 1 relacionada à uteroglobulina podem refletir a gravidade da doença e predizer o desfecho em pacientes com lesão por inalação. Incluíram-se prospectivamente neste estudo 16 pacientes com diagnóstico de síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo decorrente de lesão por inalação de fumaça. Em todos os pacientes, colheu-se amostra de plasma quando da admissão à unidade de terapia intensiva, para avaliar a gravidade da lesão por inalação dentro de 72 horas. Os níveis plasmáticos de proteína 1 relacionada à uteroglobulina foram determinados em duplicata por meio de ensaio de imunoabsorção ligado à enzima. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 23 ± 5 anos, e a distribuição da lesão por inalação foi: três em grau 1, quatro em grau 2 e nove em grau 3. O nível de proteína 1 relacionada à uteroglobulina foi relacionado ao grau de severidade (grau 1: 0,389 ± 0,053 unidade arbitrária versus grau 2: 0,474 ± 0,0423 unidade arbitrária versus grau 3: 0,580 ± 0,094 unidade arbitrária; p = 0,007). Conclusão: Os níveis plasmáticos de proteína 1 relacionada à uteroglobulina se associam com o grau da lesão pulmonar por inalação.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate serum uteroglobin-related protein 1 expression early after smoke inhalation injuries and its association with the severity of inhalation injury in burned patients. Methods: Smoke or chemical inhalation injury is associated with morbidity and mortality. The consequences of inhalation result from an inflammatory response. Uteroglobin-related protein 1 is an anti-inflammatory protein and may improve lung inflammation. We hypothesized that uteroglobin-related protein 1 levels could reflect disease severity and predict outcome in patients with inhalation injury. Sixteen patients diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to smoke inhalation injury were prospectively included in the study. Plasma was collected upon intensive care unit admission and within 24 hours of the inhalation injury. Bronchoscopies were carried out in all patients to assess the severity of inhalation injury within 72 hours. Uteroglobin-related protein 1 plasma levels were determined in duplicate with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The mean age was 23 ± 5 years, and the inhalation injury distribution was as follows: three of grade 1, four of grade 2, and nine of grade 3. The level of uteroglobin-related protein 1 was related to inhalation severity (grade 1: 0.389 ± 0.053 arbitrary units versus grade 2: 0.474 ± 0.0423 arbitrary units versus grade 3: 0.580 ± 0.094 arbitrary units; p = 0.007). Conclusion: Plasma levels of uteroglobin-related protein 1 are associated with the degree of lung inhalation injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Burns , Smoke Inhalation Injury , Uteroglobin , Intensive Care Units
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(2): 101547, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278565

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of Topical Oxygen Jet Therapy (TOJT) in the treatment of surgical wounds in adult patients who has clinical signs of infection for over 30 days; and to identify the pathogens causing complicated skin and soft tissue infections. Method: Parallel, randomized clinical trials randomly divided into "Control Group" (CG) and "Treatment Group" (TG), which were followed up for 10 consecutive days. Venous antibiotics and dressings were used in both groups. In addition, TOJT were used on the wounds in the TG. The outcome criteria were based on clinical indicators: Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) and Visual Analog Scale Pain (VAS). The paired t-test or Wilcoxon, chi-squared or Fisher's exact test, and Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney tests were used with a significance level of 5%. Results: 73 inpatients were included and followed up: 39 in TG and 34, CG. There were no significant differences in socio-demographic variables or of initial laboratory tests, except for blood glucose that was higher in TG than in CG (p = 0.044). Ten days into treatment, both the area of PUSH wounds (p < 0.001) and the pain scale (p = 0.029) were significantly reduced in TG. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent pathogen (40%) with no significant difference between the two groups. Discussion: Although the follow-up time was of only ten days, a significant improvement was observed in TG. As a limitation of the study, the small sample size precluded the comparison of S. aureus infections between the two groups. Conclusion: TOJT accelerated the healing process, reduced pain and contributed to an improvement in the clinical status of the wounds when compared to CG. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness and relevance of the employed technique. It can be easily incorporated as a routine procedure in hospitals without extra investment.

8.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1227-1229, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911347

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus on pulmonary uptake of sevoflurane.Methods:Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged 40-64 yr, with body mass index of 18.5-22.9 kg/m 2, of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ, undergoing elective surgery with general anesthesia, served as diabetes group (group D). Twenty non-diabetic patients matched by age, gender and surgery were selected as control group (group C). After anesthesia induction and tracheal intubation, sevoflurane was inhaled at a concentration of 2% (oxygen flow 2 L/min). The inhaled concentration (Fi) and exhaled concentration (Fa) at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min of inhalation of sevoflurane were recorded, and the Fa/Fi ratio was calculated.The time required for the Fa/Fi ratio to reach 0.7 was recorded. Results:Compared with group C, the Fa/Fi ratio was significantly increased at each time point, and the time required for the Fa/Fi ratio to reach 0.7 was shortened in group D ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Diabetes mellitus can reduce pulmonary uptake of sevoflurane in the patients.

9.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1212-1217, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911344

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in long-term cognitive impairment induced by multiple exposures to sevoflurane in the neonatal rats.Methods:Sixty SPF healthy neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 12-20 g, were divided into 3 groups ( n=20 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), multiple exposures to sevoflurane for anesthesia group (group S) and ROS inhibitor group (group A). Group S and group A inhaled 3% sevoflurane for 2 h starting from 6, 7 and 8 days after birth, while group C inhaled air.In group A, ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) 150 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected before each anesthesia with sevoflurane.The spontaneous activity was evaluated by open field test on day 35 after birth.The cognitive function was determined by Morris water maze test on day 36 after birth.The rats were sacrificed after the end of Morris water maze test, and the hippocampal tissues were obtained for determination of the apoptosis rate of hippocampal neurons, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) (by flow cytometry) and levels of Cyt c and cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 (by Western blot). The expression of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction.The ultrastructure of mitochondria in hippocampal neurons was observed with a transmission electron microscope. Results:Compared with group C, the escape latency was significantly prolonged, the number of crossing the original platform was reduced, the apoptosis rate of hippocampal neurons and levels of ROS and MMP were increased, the expression of Cyt c, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax mRNA was up-regulated, the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA was down-regulated, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was increased ( P<0.05), mitochondria were swollen, and mitochondrial cristae structure was broken in group S. Compared with group S, the escape latency was significantly shortened, the number of crossing the original platform was increased, the apoptosis rate of hippocampal neurons and levels of ROS and MMP were decreased, the expression of Cyt c, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax mRNA was down-regulated, the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA was up-regulated, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was decreased ( P<0.05), and the mitochondrial swelling and rupture of cristae structure were improved in group A. Conclusion:The mechanism by which multiple exposures to sevoflurane induce long-term cognitive impairment may be related to activating the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in neonatal rats.

10.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1087-1091, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911322

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect of pre-infusion of young rat plasma on cognitive dysfunction induced by sevoflurane in aged rats and the role of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK)-cyclic adenosine monophosphate effector binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway.Methods:One hundred and twenty SPF healthy male Wistar rats, aged 18 months, weighing 550-650 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n=30 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), sevoflurane anesthesia group (group S), young rat plasma group (group P) and ERK inhibitor SL327 group (group SL). The teated plasma 100 μl from 3-month-old young rats was injected via the tail vein in group P and group SL, while the equal volume of normal saline was given via the tail vein in group C and group S, twice a week, for 4 weeks.In S, P and SL groups, 3% sevoflurane was inhaled for 3 h at the end of injection, and ERK inhibitor SL327 50 mg/kg was injected via the tail vein before anesthesia in group SL.The cognitive function was evaluated by Morris water maze test at 1 day before anesthesia and at 3 and 7 days after anesthesia.The rats were sacrificed, and their hippocampi were isolated for determination of the expression of phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK), p-CREB, synapsin, synapsin Ⅰ and synaptophysin and for examination of the ultrastructure of neurons (by transmission electron microscopy). The number of synapses was recorded. Results:Compared with group C, the escape latency was significantly prolonged, the number of crossing the original platform was reduced, the expression of p-ERK, p-CREB, synapsin, synapsin Ⅰ and synaptophysin was down-regulated, and the number of synapses was decreased at each time point after anesthesia in the other 3 groups ( P<0.05). Compared with group S, the escape latency was significantly shortened, the number of crossing the original platform was increased, the expression of p-ERK, p-CREB, synapsin, synapsin Ⅰ and synaptophysin was up-regulated, and the number of synapses was increased at each time point after anesthesia in P and SL groups ( P<0.05). Compared with group P, the escape latency was significantly prolonged, the number of crossing the original platform was reduced, the expression of p-ERK, p-CREB, synapsin, synapsin Ⅰ and synaptophysin was down-regulated, and the number of synapses was decreased in group SL ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Pre-infusion of young rat plasma can reduce cognitive dysfunction induced by sevoflurane in aged rats, and the mechanism is related to activation of ERK-CREB signaling pathway and improvement of synaptic plasticity.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911308

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the role of receptor-interacting protein kinse3 (RIPK3)-mediated necroptosis in diabetic mellitus-caused abolition of cardioprotection induced by sevoflurane postconditioning in rats.Methods:Eighty rats with diabetes mellitus, aged 4-5 weeks, weighing 90-100 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n=20 each) using a random number table method: sham operation group (group Sham), myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group (group I/R), sevoflurane postconditioning group (group SP) and sevoflurane postconditiong plus RIPK3 inhibitor GSK-872 group (group GSK). Myocardial I/R was induced by 40 min occlusion of the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery followed by 120 min reperfusion.In group SP, 2.4% sevoflurane was inhaled for 15 min at the beginning of reperfusion.In group GSK, GSK-872 3.3 mg/kg (dissolved in normal saline) was intraperitoneally injected at 24 and 2 h before surgery, and the other treatments were similar to those previously described in group SP.After 120 min of reperfusion, blood samples from the abdominal aorta were collected for determination of concentrations of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB). Myocardial tissues were taken for determination of percentage of myocardial infarct size (by TTC staining) and expression of RIPK3, phospho-Ca 2+ -calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅱ (p-CaMKⅡ) and phospho-mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (p-MLKL) (by Western blot), and the ultrastructure of myocardium was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Results:Compared with group Sham, the serum LDH and CK-MB concentrations and percentage of myocardial infarct size were significantly increased, the expression of RIPK3, p-MLKL and p-CaMKⅡ in myocardial tissues was up-regulated ( P<0.05), and the damage to cardiomyocytes was severe in group I/R.Compared with group I/R, no significant change was found in the parameters mentioned above in group SP ( P>0.05). Compared with group SP, the serum LDH and CK-MB concentrations and percentage of myocardial infarct size were significantly decreased, the expression of RIPK3, p-MLKL and p-CaMKⅡ in myocardial tissues was down-regulated ( P<0.05), and the damage to cardiomyocytes was reduced in group GSK. Conclusion:The mechanism of diabetic mellitus-caused abolition of cardioprotection induced by sevoflurane postconditioning is related to excessive activation of RIPK3-mediated necroptosis in rats.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911307

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of hippocampal β-amyloid 42 (Aβ 42) deposition-induced accumulation of neutrophils in blood-brain barrier damage caused by sevoflurane anesthesia in aged rats. Methods:Seventy-two healthy male Wistar rats in which IT catheters were successfully planted, aged 18-20 months, weighing 600-650 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n=18 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT group (group D), sevoflurane anesthesia group (group S) and DAPT plus sevoflurane anesthesia group (group DS). Dimethyl sulfoxide 10 μl was intrathecally injected in group C and group S, and 30 min later group C inhaled 60% oxygen for 2 h, and group S inhaled 3.6% sevoflurane and 60% oxygen for 2 h and tibial fracture surgery was performed at the same time.DAPT 10 μl was intrathecally injected in group D and group DS, and 30 min later group D inhaled 60% oxygen for 2 h, and group DS inhaled 3.6% sevoflurane and 60% oxygen for 2 h and tibial fracture surgery was performed at the same time.The fear conditioning test was performed at 12 h after the end of treatment in each group, and the ratio of time spent freezing was calculated.The rats were sacrificed after the end of behavioral test, and hippocampal tissues were removed for determination of the expression of Aβ 42, occludin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) (by Western blot), neutrophil count (by immuno-histochemistry), and content of Evans blue (EB) (by EB staining). Results:Compared with group C, the ratio of time spent freezing was significantly decreased, the expression of Aβ 42 and MMP-9 was up-regulated, the expression of occludin was down-regulated, the neutrophil count and content of EB were increased in group S and group DS ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in the parameters mentioned above in group D ( P>0.05). Compared with group S, the ratio of time spent freezing was significantly increased, the expression of Aβ 42 and MMP-9 was down-regulated, the expression of occludin was up-regulated, the neutrophil count and content of EB were decreased in group DS ( P<0.05). Conclusion:The mechanism by which sevoflurane anesthesia leads to postoperative cognitive dysfunction is related to hippocampal Aβ 42 deposition-induced accumulation of neutrophils and causing damage to blood-brain barrier in aged rats.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911306

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the relationship between phosphorylation of Tau protein and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) containing 18 kDa fragments and investigate the mechanism of neuronal damage induced by sevoflurane.Methods:Primary neurons (ApoE3 and ApoE2 genotypes, 24 dishes for each genotype) of fetal mice cultured until the 5th day were divided into 4 groups ( n=12 each) using a random number table method: ApoE3 control group (A3C group), ApoE3 sevoflurane group (A3S group), ApoE2 control group (A2C group) and ApoE2 sevoflurane group (A2S group). Neurons were treated with 21% oxygen + 5% carbon dioxide + 4.1% sevoflurane for 4 h in A3S and A2S groups, while the neurons were only treated with 21% oxygen + 5% carbon dioxide in A3C and A2C groups.The cell proteins were then extracted to detect the expression of full-length ApoE and ApoE, AT8 and PHF1 containing 18 kDa fragments (by Western blot), expression of ApoE mRNA (by real-time polymerase chain reaction), and concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the supernatant (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Results:Compared with A2C group, the expression of ApoE mRNA and full-length ApoE in neurons was up-regulated ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in the expression of AT8 and PHF1 and concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in the supernatant in A2S group ( P>0.05). Compared with A3C group, the expression of ApoE mRNA, full-length ApoE, and ApoE, AT8 and PHF1 containing 18 kDa fragments was up-regulated, and the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in the supernatant were increased in A3S group ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Sevoflurane may promote phosphorylation of Tau proteins and increase inflammatory responses through up-regulating the expression of ApoE containing 18 kDa fragments, thus leading to neuronal damage.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911294

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the relationship between phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and high glucose-caused abolition of cardioprotection induced by sevoflurane postconditioning.Methods:H9c2 cells were incubated in normal glucose (5.56 mmol/L) DMEM culture medium or high glucose (33 mmol/L) DMEM culture medium.The cells were divided into 8 groups ( n=24 each) using a random number table method: normal control group (group NC), normal glucose-cultured hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) group (group NH/R), normal glucose-cultured sevoflurane postconditioning group (group NS), normal glucose-cultured GSK-3β inhibitor SB216763 group (group NSB), high glucose-cultured group (group HC), high glucose-cultured H/R group (group HH/R), high glucose-cultured sevoflurane postconditioning group (group HS) and high glucose-cultured GSK-3β inhibitor SB216763 group (group HSB). The model of cardiomyocyte H/R was established by subjecting cardiomyocytes to 3 h of hypoxia followed by reoxygenation.Immediately after onset of reoxygenation, cardiomyocytes were exposed to 2.4% sevoflurane for 30 min in Ns and HS groups.Before the beginning of reoxygenation, GSK-3β inhibitor SB216763 was added to the culture medium with the final concentration of 10 μmol/L in NSB and HSB groups.At 3 h of reoxygenation, the apoptosis rate was determined by Anexin V-PI flow cytometry, the expression of GSK-3β and phosphorylated GSK-3β (p-GSK-3β) was detected by Western blot, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was measured using xanthineoxidase method, and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were determined by colorimetric assay. Results:Compared with group NC, apoptosis rate, LDH activity and MDA content were significantly increased, and SOD activity was decreased in group NH/R and group HC, expression of GSK-3β was up-regulated, and expression of p-GSK-3β was down-regulated in group NH/R, expression of p-GSK-3β was up-regulated in group NS, and expression of p-GSK-3β was down-regulated in group HC ( P<0.05). Compared with group NH/R, apoptosis rate, LDH activity and MDA content were significantly decreased, and SOD activity was increased in group NS and NSB groups, and expression of GSK-3β was down-regulated, and expression of p-GSK-3β was up-regulated in group NS ( P<0.05). Compared with group HC, apoptosis rate, LDH activity and MDA content were significantly increased, SOD activity was decreased, expression of GSK-3β was up-regulated, and expression of p-GSK-3β was down-regulated in group HH/R ( P<0.05). Compared with group HH/R, apoptosis rate, LDH activity and MDA content were significantly decreased, and SOD activity was increased in group HSB ( P<0.05). Conclusion:The mechanism by which high glucose abolishes cardioprotection induced by sevoflurane postconditioning is related to inhibiting phosphorylation of GSK-3β.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911280

ABSTRACT

Objective:To systematically review the effect of prophylactic use of propofol on emergence agitation (EA) following sevoflurane anesthesia in pediatric patients.Methods:Databases such as Pubmed, Web of Scince, Embase, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, CNKI, Wanfang Data and VIP were searched for randomized controlled trials involving the comparison of effects of propofol (1 mg/kg) versus normal saline on EA following sevoflurane anesthesia in pediatric patients using computers from inception to December 1, 2020.Evaluation indexes included incidence of agitation, Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale, awakening time, postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay time and incidence of adverse events.The Cochrane Collaboration′s tool for assessing risk of bias was used to evaluate the quality of the included trials.The meta-analysis was conducted using the RevMan 5.3 and Stata 12.0 softwares.Results:Sixteen randomized controlled clinical trials involving 1 061 patients were included in this meta-analysis.The patients were divided into 2 groups: propofol group ( n=531) and normal saline group ( n=530). Compared with group normal saline, incidence of EA and PAED score were significantly decreased in group propofol ( P<0.05), and there was no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, incidence of other adverse events and PACU stay time between the 2 groups ( P>0.05). Conclusion:Prophylactic dose of propofol (1 mg/kg) for sevoflurane-based anesthesia can reduce the degree of EA and decrease its incidence without increasing the occurrence of adverse reactions in pediatric patients.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911261

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the mechanism of dexmedetomidine alleviating sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and the relationship with neuroglobin (Ngb) in neonatal rats.Methods:Eighty-four healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 7 days, weighing 12-16 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n=21 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), sevoflurane group (group S), sevoflurane plus dexmedetomidine group (group SD), and sevoflurane plus dexmedetomidine and yohimbine group (group SDY). Sevoflurane anesthesia method: anesthesia was induced by inhaling 8% sevoflurane and then maintained by inhaling 3% sevoflurane for 4 h. At the end of anesthesia, dexmedetomidine 50 μg/kg was intraperitoneally injected in group SD, and 0.5 mg/kg yohimbine (α 2 adrenergic receptor antagonist) was intraperitoneally injected immediately after the end of intraperitoneal injection of dexmedetomidine 50 μg/kg in group SDY.Six rats were randomly selected from each group and sacrificed at 24 h after the end of anesthesia.The brain tissues were removed for determination of histopathologic changes in hippocampal CA1 region (using HE staining), the expression of Ngb in the area of the hippocampus (by immunofluorescence staining) and the expression of cytochrome C (Cyt c) and caspase-3 (by Western blot). The other rats were fed until 28 days old, and Morris water maze test was performed. Results:Compared with group C, the expression of Ngb, Cyt c and caspase-3 was significantly up-regulated ( P<0.05), histopathologic changes in hippocampal CA1 region were accentuated, and Ngb fluorescence intensity was increased in group S. Compared with group S, the expression of Ngb was significantly up-regulated, expression of Cyt c and caspase-3 was down-regulated, the escape latency was shortened ( P<0.05), histopathologic changes in hippocampal CA1 region were reduced, and Ngb fluorescence intensity was increased in group SD.Compared with group SD, the expression of Ngb was significantly down-regulated, expression of Cyt c and caspase-3 was up-regulated, the escape latency was prolonged ( P<0.05), histopathologic changes in hippocampal CA1 region were accentuated, and Ngb fluorescence intensity was decreased in group SDY. Conclusion:The mechanism by which dexmedetomidine reduces sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity may be related to activating α 2 adrenergic receptors and up-regulating the expression of Ngb in neonatal rats.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911260

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effects of sevoflurane combined with propofol anesthesia on the synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus after operation in rats with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and the relationship with potassium-chloride cotransporter-2 (KCC2)/sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1).Methods:Clean-grade healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 16-18 months, weighing 440-540 g, in which MCI was induced by severe bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS). Forty-eight rats with MCI were divided into 4 groups ( n=12 each) using a random number table method: sham operation group (group Sham), sevoflurane anesthesia group (group S), propofol anesthesia group (group P), and sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia group (group SP). After disappearance of eyelash reflex, open reduction and internal fixation was performed after tibial fracture was induced in S, P and SP groups.Anesthesia method was as follows: 1.7% sevoflurane was inhaled and propofol 20 mg·kg -1·h -1 was intravenously infused for 3 h in group SP, 3% sevoflurane was inhaled for 3 h in group S, and propofol was intravenously infused at rate of 40 mg·kg -1·h -1 for 3 h in group P. The novel object recognition (NOR) test was performed at 14 days after operation, and the discrimination index in NOR test was calculated.The in vivo electrophysiological experiment was performed on 19 days after operation to measure long-term potentiation and amplitude of the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP). The expression of KCC2 and NKCC1 was determined by Western blot, and the ratio of KCC2/NKCC1 was calculated.The density of dendritic spines in the hippocampal CA1 region was determined by Golgi-COX staining performed at 30 days after operation. Results:Compared with Sham group, the discrimination index in NOR test, hippocampal KCC2/NKCC1 ratio, density of dendritic spines in hippocampal CA1 region, and amplitude of fEPSP were significantly decreased in S and P groups ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in the parameters mentioned above in group SP ( P>0.05). Compared with group S or group P, the discrimination index in NOR test, hippocampal KCC2/NKCC1 ratio, density of dendritic spines in hippocampal CA1 region, and amplitude of fEPSP were significantly increased in group SP ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Sevoflurane combined with propofol anesthesia does not aggravate postoperative cognitive dysfunction in the rats with MCI, which may be related to maintaining the balance of hippocampal KCC2/NKCC1 and protecting the synaptic plasticity in hippocampi.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911247

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in sevoflurane-induced improvement in sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) in mice.Methods:A total of 136 adult male mice, aged 6-8 weeks, weighing 20-25 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n=34 each) using a random number table method: sham operation group (group Sham), SAE group, SAE+ sevoflurane group (group SAE+ Sevo) and SAE+ sevoflurane+ HO-1 inhibitor Zn Protoporphyrin Ⅸ (ZnPPⅨ) group (group SAE+ Sevo+ ZnPPⅨ). The model of SAE was established by cecal ligation and puncture (SAE) in anesthetized mice.In SAE+ Sevo and SAE+ Sevo+ ZnPPⅨ groups, 2% sevoflurane-33% oxygen was inhaled for 2 h starting from the time point immediately after establishment of the model, while 33% oxygen was inhaled for 2 h in Sham and SAE groups.ZnPPⅨ 25 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected at 30 min before the model was established in group SAE+ Sevo+ ZnPPⅨ.Six mice were sacrificed at 6, 12 and 24 h after establishment of the model for determination of levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) and HO-1 in cortical tissues (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and the expression of HO-1 (by Western blot). Another 6 mice were sacrificed for determination of apoptosis in cortical tissue (by TUNEL staining), and apoptotic index (AI) was calcultated.Ten mice in each group were selected, Y maze test was performed at 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after establishment of the model, and the percentage of spontaneous alternation was calculated. Results:Compared with Sham group, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and HMGB1, AI, HO-1 activity and its expression level in cortex were significantly increased, and the percentage of spontaneous alternation was decreased in SAE, SAE+ Sevo and SAE+ Sevo+ ZnPPⅨ groups ( P<0.05). Compared with group SAE, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and HMGB1 and AI were significantly decreased, and HO-1 activity and its expression level and the percentage of spontaneous alternation were increased in group SAE+ Sevo, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and HMGB1 in cortex were decreased ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in the other parameters in group SAE+ Sevo+ ZnPPⅨ ( P>0.05). Compared with group SAE+ Sevo, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and HMGB1 and AI were significantly increased, and HO-1 activity and its expression level and the percentage of spontaneous alternation were decreased in group SAE+ Sevo+ ZnPPⅨ ( P<0.05). Conclusion:The mechanism by which sevoflurane improves SAE is related to increasing HO-1 activity and reducing inflammatory response in cortical tissues of mice.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911244

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) in sevoflurane postconditioning-induced reduction of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats.Methods:Twenty-four clean-grade healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 8-10 weeks, weighing 220-270 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n=6 each) using a random number table method: sham operation group (group Sham), intestinal I/R group (group I/R), intestinal I/R+ sevoflurane postconditioning group (group Sevo) and intestinal I/R+ sevoflurane postconditioning+ CB2R antagonist AM630 group (group AM). The model of intestinal I/R injury was established by occluding the superior mesenteric artery for 45 min followed by 2 h reperfusion.In the group Sevo, 2% sevoflurane was inhaled immediately at the beginning of reperfusion for 30 min.In the group AM, CB2R antagonist AM630 3 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected at 1 h before ischemia, and the other treatments were similar to those previously described in group Sevo.At 2 h of reperfusion, the animals were sacrificed after anesthesia, and small intestinal tissues were obtained for microscopic examination of the pathologic changes which was scored according to Chiu and for determination of wet/dry weight ratio (W/D ratio), for detection of malondialdehyde (MDA) content (by thiobarbituric acid colorimetry), for determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (by MPO assay) and cleaved caspase-3 protein expression (by Western blot). Results:Compared with group Sham, the Chui score, W/D ratio, MDA content and MPO activity in the intestinal tissues were significantly increased, cleaved caspase-3 expression was up-regulated in group I/R ( P<0.05). Compared with group I/R, the Chui score, W/D ratio, MDA content and MPO activity in the intestinal tissues were significantly decreased, cleaved caspase-3 expression was down-regulated in group Sevo ( P<0.05). Compared with group Sevo, the Chui score, W/D ratio, MDA content and MPO activity were significantly increased, cleaved caspase-3 expression was up-regulated in group AM ( P<0.05). Conclusion:CB2R is involved in the process of sevoflurane postconditioning-induced reduction of intestinal I/R injury in rats.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911232

ABSTRACT

Objective:To preliminarily investigate the relationship between the mechanism of sevoflurane-induced cerebral neurotoxicity and receptors of 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 3 in aged rats. Methods:Twenty-four clean-grade healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 18-20 months, weighing 600-750 g, were divided into 3 groups ( n=8 each) using a random number table method: group C, group LS and group HS.In group C, group LS and group HS, 50% O 2, 1.5% sevoflurane plus 50% O 2 and 3% sevoflurane plus 50% O 2 were inhaled for 2 h, respectively.Open field test was performed at 1 day before inhalation of sevoflurane and at 1 day after the end of inhalation, the time spent in the central square, the number of crossing the grid and the number of standing on the back legs were recorded.The Morris water maze test was performed at 6 days before inhalation of sevoflurane and at 1 day after the end of inhalation, the escape latency, the total swimming distance and the number of crossing the platform were recorded.Immediately after the end of behavioral testing, the hippocampal tissues were obtained for determination of 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 3 receptors mRNA expression and the number of positive cells (using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay and immunohistochemical method). Results:Compared with group C, the time spent in the central square was significantly prolonged, the number of crossing the grid and the number of standing on the back legs were decreased, the escape latency was prolonged, the total swimming distance was increased, the number of crossing platform was decreased, the mRNA expression of 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 3 was down-regulated, and the number of positive cells was decreased in HS group ( P<0.05). Conclusion:The mechanism of cerebral neurotoxicity induced by sevoflurane may be related to the down-regulation of the activities of 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 3 receptors in aged rats.

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