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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(4): 682-688, Jul.-Aug. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394881

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To describe all ligamentous, capsular, tendinous and bone landmarks structures of the medial region of the knee, as well as a new ligamentous structure identified in a series of anatomical dissections of cadaveric specimens. Methods Twenty cadaver knees were dissected to study the medial compartment. The main structures of this region were identified during dissection. The morphology of the structures and their relationship with known anatomical parameters were determined both qualitatively and quantitatively. The collected data were analyzed and interpreted using descriptive statistics. Results In the dissection of all specimens, all ligamentous structures previously described in the anatomical study of the medial part of the knee were identified, and objective measures that can help as parameters for surgical ligament reconstruction were identified. When dissecting the medial collateral ligament, a bony prominence immediately distal to its proximal tibial insertion was observed and described, as well as a bursa below the ligament, in which it was not inserted. We also described a ligamentous structure with extracapsular location, originated anteriorly to the medial epicondyle and following obliquely towards the tibia. These structures were named, respectively, interinsertional tubercle, interinsertional bursa and anterior oblique ligament. Conclusion In addition to the description and measurement of the structures and parameters already existing in the anatomical study of the medial part of the knee, it was possible to describe three new structures not yet described in the literature: the interinsertional tubercle, the interinsertional bursa, and the anterior oblique ligament. These structures were found in all dissections performed.


Resumo Objetivo Descrever todas as estruturas ligamentares, capsulares, tendinosas e marcos ósseos da região medial do joelho, assim como uma nova estrutura ligamentar identificada em uma série de dissecções anatômicas de espécimes cadavéricos. Métodos Vinte joelhos de cadáveres foram dissecados para estudar o compartimento medial. As principais estruturas dessa região foram identificadas durante a dissecção. A morfologia das estruturas e sua relação com parâmetros anatômicos conhecidos foram determinados tanto de forma qualitativa quanto de forma quantitativa. Os dados coletados foram analisados e interpretados por meio de estatística descritiva. Resultados Na dissecção de todos os espécimes, foram identificadas todas as estruturas ligamentares já descritas anteriormente no estudo anatômico da porção medial do joelho, e foram realizadas medidas objetivas que podem auxiliar como parâmetros para a reconstrução ligamentar cirúrgica. Foram observados e descritos, ainda, ao se desprender o ligamento colateral medial superficial, uma proeminência óssea imediatamente distal à sua inserção tibial proximal, uma bursa abaixo do ligamento, na qual o mesmo não se mostrava inserido, assim como uma estrutura ligamentar localizada extracapsularmente e com origem na face anterior do epicôndilo medial, seguindo obliquamente em direção à tíbia, aos quais foram dados os nomes, respectivamente, de tubérculo interinsercional, bursa interinsercional e ligamento oblíquo anterior. Conclusão Além da descrição e medida das estruturas e parâmetros já existentes no estudo anatômico da porção medial do joelho, foi possível a descrição de três novas estruturas: o tubérculo interinsercional a bursa interinsercional e o ligamento oblíquo anterior, ainda não descritos na literatura. Essas estruturas foram encontradas em todas as dissecções realizadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anterior Cruciate Ligament , Medial Collateral Ligament, Knee , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries , Joint Instability , Knee/anatomy & histology
2.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(4): 675-681, Jul.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394877

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present paper aims to describe multiligament knee injuries and to associate their features with the profile of the patients and trauma mechanisms. Methods This is a cross-sectional study evaluating 82 patients with multiligament knee injuries from September 2016 to September 2018. Evaluated parameters included age, gender, mechanical axis, affected side, range of motion, trauma mechanism, associated injuries, affected ligaments, and absence from work. Results The sample included patients aged between 16 and 58 years old, with an average age of 29.7 years old; most subjects were males, with 92.7% of cases. The most common trauma mechanism was motorcycle accident (45.1%). The most injured ligament was the anterior cruciate ligament (80.5%), followed by the posterior cruciate ligament (77.1%), the posterolateral corner (61.0%), and the tibial collateral ligament (26.8%). The most frequent type of dislocation was KD IIIL (30.4%). Only 1 patient had a vascular injury, and 13 (15.9%) presented with neurological injuries. Most subjects took medical leave from work (52.4%). Conclusion There is a big difference between patients with multiligament lesions in Brazil compared with international studies. Thus, it is advisable to carry out more specific studies on the topic with our population to improve the treatment of these patients.


Resumo Objetivo Descrever e associar as características das lesões multiligamentares de joelho com o perfil do paciente e mecanismo de trauma. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo transversal que avaliou 82 pacientes com lesões multiligamentares do joelho de setembro de 2016 até setembro de 2018. As variáveis coletadas foram idade, gênero, eixo mecânico, lateralidade, arco de movimento, mecanismo do trauma, lesões associadas, ligamentos afetados e afastamento do trabalho. Resultados A amostra incluiu pacientes de 16 a 58 anos, com média de 29,7 anos, e os homens foram os mais afetados, correspondendo a 92,7% dos casos. O mecanismo de trauma mais comum foi acidente motociclístico (45,1%). O ligamento mais lesado foi o ligamento cruzado anterior (80,5%), seguido do ligamento cruzado posterior (77,1%), do canto posterolateral (61,0%) e do ligamento colateral tibial (26,8%). O tipo de luxação mais frequente era o KD IIIL (30,4%). Apenas 1 paciente apresentou lesão vascular, e 13 (15,9%) apresentaram lesões neurológicas. A maioria das vítimas foi afastada do trabalho (52,4%). Conclusão Há grande diferença entre os pacientes que apresentam lesão multiligamentar no Brasil em relação ao encontrado nos estudos internacionais. Desta forma, convém realizar mais estudos específicos sobre o tema com a nossa população, de modo a aperfeiçoar o tratamento destes pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Epidemiologic Studies , Knee Dislocation , Joint Instability , Knee Injuries/epidemiology
3.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(4): 577-583, Jul.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394869

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study assesses the results of a minimally invasive surgical technique for acute and chronic ankle instability management. Methods The present case series study retrospectively evaluated 40 patients undergoing arthroscopic-assisted percutaneous ankle ligament reconstruction from 2013 to 2019. Results The present study included 17 males and 23 females with an average age of 38.3 years old. Postintervention follow-up using American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot scores identified improvement of > 30 points in function and pain control. The most frequently occurring associated injuries were osteochondral (35%). No patient required reintervention or had infection during follow-up. Conclusion The technique in the present study is easy and achieves satisfactory results for function and pain control. Level of Evidence IV.


Resumo Objetivo O presente estudo avalia os resultados de uma técnica cirúrgica minimamente invasiva para o manejo da instabilidade aguda e crônica do tornozelo. Métodos O presente estudo de uma série de casos avaliou retrospectivamente 40 pacientes submetidos à reconstrução percutânea assistida por artroscopia do ligamento do tornozelo entre 2013 e 2019. Resultados O estudo incluiu 17 homens e 23 mulheres com idade média de 38,3 anos. O acompanhamento pós-intervenção utilizou a pontuação American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS, na sigla em inglês). As pontuações do tornozelo-retropé identificaram melhora > 30 pontos na função e no controle da dor. As lesões associadas mais frequentes foram as osteocondrais (35%). Nenhum paciente precisou de reintervenção ou teve infecção durante o acompanhamento. Conclusão A técnica do presente estudo é fácil e consegue resultados satisfatórios para a função e o controle da dor. Nível de Evidência IV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Arthroscopy/methods , Subtalar Joint , Joint Instability/therapy , Ligaments, Articular/physiopathology , Ankle Joint/surgery
4.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383552

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El 25% de las luxaciones de codo corresponden a luxaciones complejas, que se definen como aquellas luxaciones que se acompañan de lesiones óseas, siendo las mismas más inestables que la luxaciones puras o simples. Estas lesiones han planteado un importante desafío terapéutico, ya que históricamente se han obtenido pobres resultados funcionales. El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar la bibliografía acerca del tratamiento de las luxaciones complejas de codo con inestabilidad posterolateral, y valorar los resultados de las múltiples opciones terapéuticas. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó la búsqueda sistematizada utilizando el buscador PubMed, obteniéndose un total de 1450 artículos, de los cuales 32 cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión establecidos. Resultados: Los estudios analizados fueron de bajo nivel de evidencia, III o IV, correspondiendo en su mayoría a series de casos retrospectivos. Destaca la gran cantidad de variantes terapúticas existentes, con diferentes protocolos terapéuticos, que arrojan resultados funcionales similares. Conclusiones: Las luxaciones complejas del codo corresponden a lesiones complejas, capaces de causar secuelas funcionales importantes en los pacientes. El establecimiento de protocolos terapéuticos es clave para obtener mejores resultados funcionales.


Introduction: 25% of elbow dislocations correspond to complex dislocations, which are defined as those dislocations that are accompanied by bone injuries, being more unstable than pure or simple dislocations. These lesions have set an important therapeutic challenge, since historically poor functional results have been obtained. The objective of this study is to review the literature on the treatment of complex elbow dislocations with posterolateral instability, and to assess the results of the multiple therapeutic options. Materials and Methods: The systematized search was carried out using the Pubmed search engine, obtaining a total of 1450 articles, of which 32 met the established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The studies analyzed were of a low level of evidence, III or IV, corresponding mostly to retrospective case series. The large number of existing therapeutic variants stands out, with different therapeutic protocols, which yield similar functional results. Conclusions: Complex elbow dislocations correspond to complex injuries, capable of causing important functional sequelae in patients. The establishment of therapeutic protocols is key to obtaining better functional results.


Introdução: 25% das luxações do cotovelo correspondem a luxações complexas, que são definidas como aquelas luxações acompanhadas de lesões ósseas, sendo as mesmas mais instáveis ​​que as luxações puras ou simples. Essas lesões representam um importante desafio terapêutico, uma vez que resultados funcionais historicamente ruins têm sido obtidos. O objetivo deste trabalho é revisar a literatura sobre o tratamento das luxações complexas do cotovelo com instabilidade póstero-lateral e avaliar os resultados das múltiplas opções terapêuticas. Materiais e Métodos: Foi realizada uma busca sistematizada por meio do mecanismo de busca PubMed, obtendo-se um total de 1450 artigos, dos quais 32 atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e exclusão estabelecidos. Resultados: Os estudos analisados ​​foram de baixo nível de evidência, III ou IV, correspondendo em sua maioria a séries de casos retrospectivas. Destaca-se o grande número de variantes terapêuticas existentes, com diferentes protocolos terapêuticos, que apresentam resultados funcionais semelhantes. Conclusões: As luxações complexas do cotovelo correspondem a lesões complexas, capazes de causar sequelas funcionais importantes nos pacientes. O estabelecimento de protocolos terapêuticos é fundamental para obter melhores resultados funcionais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orthopedic Procedures/methods , Joint Dislocations/therapy , Elbow Joint/injuries , Joint Instability/therapy , Clinical Protocols
5.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(3): 462-466, May-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388013

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the functional outcome of patients submitted to arthroscopic Bankart repair in the long-term. Methods Retrospective evaluation of 41 patients (45 shoulders) operated between 1996 and 2009 followed-up for a mean period of 14.89 years. Functional scores were analyzed by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Carter-Rowe scores, physical examination, and analysis of medical records. Results The Carter-Rowe score showed an average improvement of 46.11 points, with a final average of 85.89 points, and the UCLA score showed an average improvement of 31.33 points. Ten patients (22.22%) relapsed, with the number of preoperative dislocations being the most correlated factor. Conclusion It was demonstrated that the number of preoperative dislocations negatively influenced the failure rate.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o desfecho funcional dos pacientes submetidos ao reparo de Bankart artroscópico no longo prazo. Métodos Avaliação retrospectiva de 41 pacientes (45 ombros) operados entre 1996 e 2009 acompanhados por um período médio de 14,89 anos. Foram feitas análises das pontuações funcionais de University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) e Carter-Rowe, exame físico e análises de prontuários. Resultados O escore Carter-Rowe apresentou melhora média de 46,11 pontos, com média final de 85,89 pontos, e o UCLA apresentou melhora de 31,33 pontos. Um total de 10 pacientes (22,22%) apresentou recidiva, sendo o número de luxações pré- operatórias o fator mais correlacionado. Conclusão Foi demonstrado que o número de luxações pré-operatórias influenciou negativamente na taxa de falha.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthroscopy/rehabilitation , Recurrence , Shoulder/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Joint Instability/rehabilitation
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(supl.1): 154-171, mayo 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394003

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El cáncer colorrectal tiene una alta incidencia en la población mundial. Diversas vías moleculares están involucradas en su desarrollo, entre ellas, la inestabilidad cromosómica, la inestabilidad microsatelital y la epigenética. Objetivo. Hacer la caracterización molecular de 44 individuos con cáncer colorrectal esporádico. Materiales y métodos. El análisis de mutaciones en los genes APC, KRAS, TP53 y BRAF se hizo mediante secuenciación de Sanger; la inestabilidad microsatelital se determinó mediante electroforesis capilar utilizando cinco marcadores de repetición corta en tándem (Short Tandem Repeat) y el estado de metilación del promotor del gen MLH1 se hizo con la técnica MS-PCR (Methylation-Specific PCR). Resultados. La frecuencia de mutación de los genes APC, KRAS y TP53 fue del 18,1, 25 y 4,5 %, respectivamente; las mutaciones detectadas se localizaron con mayor frecuencia en el colon derecho. La frecuencia de inestabilidad microsatelital fue del 27,2 % y el 73,1 % en los tumores con metilación en el gen MHL1, y el 91,6 % de los tumores con inestabilidad microsatelital presentaba metilación en el gen MLH1. En el grupo de tumores con estabilidad microsatelital, las mutaciones en los genes APC, KRAS y TP53 fueron más frecuentes que en el grupo de tumores con inestabilidad microsatelital. La metilación del gen MLH1 fue la alteración más predominante. Conclusiones. En los pacientes con cáncer colorrectal evaluados se demostró la presencia de alteraciones moleculares en las diferentes vías genéticas, las cuales son comunes en su carcinogénesis. Los pacientes presentaron un perfil de mutaciones diferente al de otras poblaciones. Los hallazgos obtenidos en este estudio confirman la heterogeneidad molecular descrita en el desarrollo del cáncer colorrectal.


Introduction: Colorectal cancer has a high incidence in the world population. Different molecular pathways, such as chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability, and epigenetics are involved in its development. Objective: To perform molecular characterization in 44 individuals with sporadic colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: We conducted mutation analyses of the APC, KRAS, TP53 y BRAF genes using Sanger sequencing techniques; microsatellite instability was determined by capillary electrophoresis with five STR genetic markers while the methylation status of the MHL1 promotor gene was analyzed using methylation-specific PCR. Results: APC, KRAS, and TP53 genes mutation frequency was 18.1%, 25%, and 4.5%, respectively; the somatic mutations detected were located more frequently in the right colon. The frequency of microsatellite instability was 27.2% and 73.1% of the tumors had the MHL1 gene methylated while 91.6% of microsatellite instability-positive tumors had the methylated MLH1 gene. The mutation profile of microsatellite stability tumors APC, KRAS, and TP53 genes was more frequent than in the microsatellite instability-positive tumors. The methylation of the MLH1 gene was the most predominant molecular alteration. Conclusions: We identified molecular alterations in different genetic pathways of the colorectal cancer patients evaluated, which are common in the carcinogenesis of this cancer. These patients showed a different mutational profile compared to other populations. Our findings confirm the molecular heterogeneity described in the development of colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Oncogenes , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Genetic Heterogeneity , Microsatellite Instability , Epigenomics
7.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(2): 308-313, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387986

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate major complications after a minimum of 5 years of follow-up after acute or recurrent patellar dislocation treated with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction with the medial third of the patellar tendon, with or without associated medialization of the tibial anterior tuberosity (TAT). Methods A total of 50 patients were included, with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. The patients were evaluated regarding complications such as joint stiffness, recurrence of patellar dislocation, subjective instability reported by patients, and inability to return to the previous level of physical activity. Results The mean follow-up was of 8.9 2.6 years, with a minimum of 6 and maximum of 15 years; 64% of the patients were women, with a mean age of 27 11.2 years old; 24% were submitted to TAT osteotomy for simultaneous medialization; and 46% were acute cases. Only 9 poor results (18%) were found, all resulting from recurrence of dislocation (12%) and complaint of subjective instability (6%) at between 36 and 60 months of follow-up. No other complications occurred. Among the poor results, five occurred in cases of acute dislocation, and four in recurrent cases, and only one had undergone TAT osteotomy. Conclusion Reconstruction of the MPFL with the medial third of the patellar tendon, associated or not with TAT medialization osteotomy, is an alternative in the treatment of acute or chronic patellar instability, with a failure rate of only 18% in at least 5 years of follow-up. In addition, it is safe treatment, that does not present other complications.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar complicações maiores após um mínimo de 5 anos de acompanhamento após luxação aguda ou recidivante da patela tratada com reconstrução do ligamento femoropatelar medial (LFPM) com terço medial do tendão patelar, com ou sem medialização da tuberosidade anterior da tíbia (TAT) associada. Métodos Um total de 50 pacientes foram incluídos, com acompanhamento mínimo de 5 anos. Os pacientes foram avaliados em relação à ocorrência de complicações como rigidez articular, recidiva de luxação patelar ou instabilidade subjetiva relatada pelos pacientes, e incapacidade de retorno ao nível prévio de atividades físicas. Resultados O acompanhamento médio foi de 8,9 2,6 anos, com mínimo de 6 e máximo de 15 anos; 64% dos pacientes eram mulheres, com média de idade de 27 11,2 anos; 24% dos pacientes foram submetidos a osteotomia da TAT para medialização concomitantemente; e 46% eram casos agudos. Foram constatados apenas 9 maus resultados (18%), todos decorrentes de recidiva da luxação (12%) e de queixa de instabilidade subjetiva (6%), ocorridos entre 36 e 60 meses de acompanhamento. Não ocorreram outras complicações. Dentre os maus resultados, cinco ocorreram em casos de luxação aguda, e quatro em casos recidivantes, e apenas um havia sido submetido a osteotomia da TAT. Conclusão AreconstruçãodoLFPMcomterçomedialdotendãopatelar,associadaounãoà osteotomia de medialização da TAT, é uma alternativa no tratamento da instabilidade patelar aguda ou crônica, com falha de apenas 18% em acompanhamento mínimo de 5 anos. Além disso, é um tratamento seguro, sem apresentar outras complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Recurrence , Patellar Ligament , Patellar Dislocation , Joint Dislocations , Joint Instability , Exercise
8.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(1): 27-38, 20220401.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1366663

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Procesos como la mutagénesis, la carcinogénesis y la teratogénesis son producto de la interacción de agentes de origen endógeno como exógeno que interactúan con la molécula de ADN en forma crónica produciendo rupturas en la doble hélice, y en cromosomas completos resultando en la inestabilidad genómica. El estrés oxidativo al que se encuentran sometidas las células al formarse las especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS) y también las especies reactivas de nitrógeno (RNS), que pueden provenir de radicales producidos a consecuencia de la diabetes o en estados iniciales de la enfermedad renal crónica o como respuesta a procesos inflamatorios en estados avanzados de estas patologías, actúan como agentes genotóxicos endógenos.Objetivos: Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar el daño basal en la molécula de ADN de pacientes diabéticos hemodializados, a través del ensayo del Cometa, como un bioindicador de inestabilidad genómica., durante seis meses de tratamiento. Materiales y métodos: Se planteó un estudio longitudinal prospectivo de cohorte para comparar los diferentes niveles de daño antes y durante los primeros seis del tratamiento de hemodiálisis. Se evaluó con el test del cometa o electroforesis de células individuales, el daño basal en muestras de sangre venosa de pacientes diagnosticados con Diabetes de tipo II como control negativo y en pacientes diabéticos con enfermedad renal crónica antes de iniciar el tratamiento de diálisis y luego durante el tratamiento. Se utilizó el test de t- Student para muestras independientes y emparejadas. Resultados: Se observó un aumento significativo de daño basal y oxidativo en el material genético de pacientes diabéticos con enfermedad renal crónica, comparados con los controles negativos (p< 0.005) y se observó, además, que el daño celular aumenta con el tratamiento de hemodiálisis (p<0.005). Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos en esta investigación permiten concluir que el estrés oxidativo tiene un efecto genotóxico y que el nivel de daño genético es un buen bioindicador del avance de la enfermedad renal crónica y que la hemodiálisis induce a un aumento de daño a nivel del material genético, aumentando el riesgo de carcinogénesis.


Introduction: Processes such as mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and teratogenesis are the product of the interaction of agents of endogenous and exogenous origin that interact with the DNA molecule in a chronic way producing ruptures in the double helix, and in complete chromosomes resulting in genomic instability. The oxidative stress to which the cells are subjected when reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are formed, which may come from radicals produced as a result of diabetes or in initial stages of chronic kidney disease or in response to inflammatory processes in advanced stages of these pathologies, act as endogenous genotoxic agents. Objectives: This research aimed to determine the basal damage in the DNA molecule of hemodialyzed diabetic patients, through the Comet assay, as a bioindicator of genomic instability, during six months of treatment. Materials and methods: For this research, a prospective longitudinal cohort study was proposed to compare the different levels of genetic damage before and during the first six of hemodialysis treatment. Baseline damage was evaluated with the comet test or single cell electrophoresis, in venous blood samples from patients diagnosed with Type II Diabetes as a negative control and in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease before starting dialysis treatment and then during treatment. Results: A significant increase in basal and oxidative damage was observed in the genetic material of diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease, compared to negative controls (p< 0.005) and it was also observed that cell damage increases with hemodialysis treatment (p<0.005). The t-Student test was used for independent and paired samples. Conclusion: The results obtained in this research allow us to conclude that oxidative stress has a genotoxic effect and that the level of genetic damage is a good bioindicator of the progression of chronic kidney disease and that hemodialysis induces an increase in damage at the level of the genetic material, increasing the risk of carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Renal Dialysis , Comet Assay , Dialysis , Research , DNA , Oxidative Stress
9.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 56(1): 1-22, jan.-fev. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365464

ABSTRACT

Resumo O que explica a produção legislativa dos ministérios federais no Brasil? O artigo explora a relação entre a instabilidade ministerial e o desempenho dos ministérios mensurado pela quantidade de propostas legislativas produzidas entre 1999 e 2014. Por meio de um modelo de média exponencial com regressores endógenos, argumentamos que a troca de ministros e ministras afeta negativamente a capacidade de produção legislativa das pastas. Ainda assim, o distanciamento ideológico entre os partidos do ministro e o presidente, bem como a expertise legislativa prévia dos ministros, tem impacto mais pronunciado no nível de produção de propostas legislativas dentro da agenda política do governo. Os resultados corroboram a percepção do efeito negativo da instabilidade ministerial na eficiência da concepção e da formulação de políticas públicas, contribuindo para o entendimento da produção legislativa e do desempenho burocrático do presidencialismo brasileiro.


Resumen ¿Qué explica la producción legislativa de los ministerios federales en Brasil? El artículo explora la relación entre la inestabilidad ministerial y el desempeño de los ministerios medido por el número de propuestas legislativas producidas entre 1999 y 2014. Utilizando un modelo de promedio exponencial con regresores endógenos, argumentamos que el cambio de ministros afecta negativamente la capacidad de producción legislativa de los ministerios. Aun así, la distancia ideológica entre los partidos del ministro y del presidente, así como la experiencia legislativa previa de los ministros, tienen un impacto más pronunciado en el nivel de producción de propuestas legislativas en la agenda política del gobierno. Los resultados corroboran la percepción del efecto negativo de la inestabilidad ministerial sobre la eficiencia de la concepción y formulación de políticas públicas, además de contribuir a la comprensión de la producción legislativa y desempeño burocrático del presidencialismo brasileño


Abstract What explains the legislative production of Brazilian ministries? The article explores the relationship between ministerial instability and the performance of ministries measured by the number of legislative proposals they produced between 1999 and 2014. Using an exponential average model with endogenous regressors, we argue that the change of ministers negatively affects the entities' legislative production. The ideological distance between the minister's and president's parties and the prior legislative expertise of the ministers, have a pronounced impact on the level of legislative production on the government's political agenda. The results corroborate the perception of the negative effect of ministerial instability on the efficiency of the conception and formulation of public policies and contribute to the understanding of legislative production and bureaucratic performance of Brazilian presidentialism.


Subject(s)
Policy Making , Public Policy , Federal Government , Legislative , Efficiency , Jurisprudence , Brazil
10.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(1): 33-40, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365743

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives The aim of the present study is to systematically review and analyze the functional outcome of lateral extraarticular tenodesis (LET) procedure in addition to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in studies with a high level of evidence. Methods We performed a literature search for clinical studies comparing the LET method as an augmentation to ACL reconstruction with ACL reconstruction alone. The primary outcomes were the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, the Lysholm score, and graft failures. Continuous variables were reported as means and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Six clinical studies with 1,049 patients were included in the metaanalysis. The follow-up period was, in average, 24 months (range, 6-63 months). The addition of the LET procedure to ACLR results in better functional outcome based on the IKDC score (p< 0.05). Graft failure was found to be lower in the ACLR plus LET group (16 of 342 patients) compared with the ACLR-only group (46 of 341 patients) (p< 0.05). Conclusion There is high-level evidence that LET procedure in addition to ACLR is preferable in terms of functional outcome and graft failure.


Resumo Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo é revisar e analisar sistematicamente o desfecho funcional do procedimento de tenodese extra-articular lateral (TEL) em complemento à reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior (RLCA) em de estudos com alto nível de evidências. Métodos Realizamos a pesquisa bibliográfica para estudos clínicos comparando o método TEL como complemento à RCLA com a RLCA isolada. Os resultados principais foram a pontuação no Comitê Internacional de Documentação de Joelho (IKDC, na sigla em inglês), pontuação de Lysholm, e falhas no enxerto. Variáveis contínuas foram relatadas, como médias e intervalos de confiança (ICs) de 95%. Resultados Seis estudos clínicos com 1,049 pacientes foram incluídos na metanálise. O período de seguimento foi de, em média, 24 meses (intervalo de 6-63 meses). A adição do procedimento TEL à reconstrução do LCA resultou em melhor resultado funcional com base no escore IKDC (p< 0,05). A falha do enxerto foi menor no grupo RLCA mais TEL (16 dos 342 pacientes) em comparação com o grupo apenas RLCA (46 dos 341 pacientes) (p< 0,05). Conclusão Há evidências de alto nível de que o procedimento TEL como complemento à RLCA é preferível em termos de resultado funcional e falha do enxerto.


Subject(s)
Tenodesis , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries , Joint Instability
11.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(1): 82-88, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365738

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a body coil with computed tomography (CT) in measuring the tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance (TT-TG) and the patellar tendon-cartilaginous trochlear groove (PT-CTG) distances, and evaluate interrater reliability. Methods The study group consisted of 34 knees from 17 asymptomatic subjects with no history of knee pathology, trauma or surgery. A low-dose CT scan and an axial T1-weighted MRI sequence of the knees were performed with rigorous standardization of the positioning with full extension of the knees and parallel feet. Two musculoskeletal radiologists performed the measurements independently. The reliability of the TT-TG and PT-CTG distances on CT (17.1 ± 4.2 mm and 17.3 ± 4.2 mm) and of MRI (16.2 ± 3.7 mm and 16.5 ± 4.1 mm) was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC [2,1]) and Bland-Altman graphs, as well as the interrater reliability for both methods. Results Good reliability and agreement was observed between CT and MRI measurements for TT-TG and PT-CTG, with an ICC of 0.774 (p< 0.001) and 0.743 (p< 0.001), respectively, and no systematic bias was observed. The interrater reliability was excellent for all measurements on both imaging methods. Conclusion This was the first study that compared MRI using a body coil with CT in measuring the TT-TG distance, with the potential clinical implication that the CT in this clinical setting could be avoided.


Resumo Objetivo Comparar a ressonância magnética (RM) usando uma bobina corporal e tomografia computadorizada (TC) na medição da distância tubérculo tibial-sulco troclear (TT-ST) e as distâncias tendão patelar-sulco troclear cartilaginoso (TP-STC), e avaliar a confiabilidade interavaliador. Métodos O grupo de estudo consistiu em 34 joelhos de 17 indivíduos assintomáticos sem história de patologia, trauma ou cirurgia no joelho. Uma tomografia computadorizada (TC) de baixa dose e uma sequência axial de RM ponderada em T1 dos joelhos foram realizadas com padronização rigorosa do posicionamento com extensão total dos joelhos e pés paralelos. Dois radiologistas musculoesqueléticos realizaram as medidas de forma independente. A confiabilidade das distâncias TT-ST e TP-STC na TC (17,1 ± 4,2 mm e 17,3 ± 4,2 mm) e RM (16,2 ± 3,7 mm e 16,5 ± 4,1 mm), foi avaliada pelo coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI [2,1)]) e gráficos Bland-Altman, bem como a confiabilidade entre avaliadores para ambos os métodos. Resultados Boa confiabilidade e concordância foram observadas entre as medidas de TC e RM para TT-ST e TP-STC com um CCI de 0,774 (p< 0,001) e 0,743 (p< 0,001), respectivamente, e nenhum viés sistemático foi observado. A confiabilidade entre avaliadores foi excelente para todas as medições em ambos os métodos de imagem. Conclusão Este foi o primeiro estudo que comparou a RM usando bobina de corpo com a TC na medição da distância TT-ST, com a implicação clínica potencial de que a TC neste cenário clínico poderia ser evitada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Patellar Ligament , Patellar Dislocation , Knee
12.
Rev. colomb. ortop. traumatol ; 36(1): 32-37, 2022. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1378778

ABSTRACT

Objetivo El genu valgo artrósico severo (> 20°) puede presentar distintos grados de insuficiencia del ligamento colateral medial e inestabilidad articular. El objetivo de este trabajo retrospectivo evalúa nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento del genu valgo severo con prótesis de estabilidad aumentada y propone un método para la evaluación y clasificación del genu valgo artrósico. Material y métodos A 27 pacientes (28 rodillas) con genu valgo artrósico severo se les realizó una artroplastia total de rodilla primaria con un implante de estabilidad aumentada, y un seguimiento promedio de 6.2 años. Se confeccionó una nueva clasificación del genu valgo artrósico que contempla la suficiencia ligamentaria y por lo tanto relaciona el tipo de rodilla con el tipo de implante necesario. Resultados Se utilizó una prótesis constreñida en 17 pacientes con un eje promedio de 22,7° y el ligamento colateral medial atenuado. En 11 casos con un eje promedio de 28,1°, LCM incompetente y/o recurvatum, se optó por bisagras rotatorias. Se confeccionó una nueva clasificación del genu valgo artrósico que considera el desgaste y estabilidad articular, el grado de deformidad de la rodilla y la suficiencia ligamentaria. Discusión Las prótesis constreñidas deben utilizarse en pacientes que presenten inestabilidad exclusivamente en el plano coronal, aún en genu valgo severo, con LCM atenuado. Debe reservarse el uso de bisagras rotatorias a aquellos pacientes que presentan incompetencia ligamentaria, inestabilidad combinada (recurvatum) y/o déficit neuro-muscular severo.


Purpose This retrospective level 2 analysis evaluates the prosthesis type selected in our department for the treatment of the severe valgus knee and proposes a new classification for the valgus knee osteoarthritis. Material and methods A total knee arthroplasty with a constrained or hinged knee prosthesis was performed in 28 valgus knees. The average follow-up was 6.2 years. A new classification that considerates the ligament sufficiency status was developed in order to relate the different knee types with the different type of eventually needed implants. Results Constrained prosthesis was used in 17 patients with an attenuated medial collateral ligament, and a rotating hinge in 11 patients with incompetent medial collateral ligament and/or recurvatum. The postoperatory Knee Society Score was of 85 points. The valgus knee was classified in 5 types considering the knee valgus deformity, the ligament sufficiency and joint stability and wear. Discussion The classification proposed clearly defines the ligament status and valgus knee types, and it seems to be a comprehensive tool to select the appropriate prosthesis. Constrained prosthesis must be used on patients who present coronal instability with attenuated medial collateral ligament. Rotating hinges must be reserved for those patients who have medial collateral ligament incompetence, recurvatum, combined instability and/or severe muscular deficiency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genu Valgum , Joint Instability , Knee Prosthesis
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923821

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of intensive hip adductor isometric strength training on the balance ability of functional ankle joint instability. Methods From November, 2019 to January, 2020, 18 college students with functional ankle instability were recruited from a university in Shenzhen and randomly divided into control group (n = 9) and experimental group (n = 9). Both groups received ankle stability training, and the experimental group received isometric muscle strength training of hip adductor in addition, one hour a time, three times a week, for four weeks. The Cumberland Ankle Instability Assessment Questionnaire (CAIT), Y Balance Test (YBT), Balance-check balance equipment and Back-check hip adductor maximum isometric strength test were performed before and after training. Results After training, the scores of CAIT, YBT and balance-check increased in both groups (t > 2.540, P < 0.05); the strength of adductor hip muscle significantly increased in the experimental group (t = 8.485, P < 0.001). The d-value of CAIT score, YBT distance, the score of Balance-check, and the strength of adductor hip muscle were more in the experimental group than in the control group (t > 2.168, P < 0.05); the d-value of the average rotation speed, the maximum rotation speed and the balance level were less in the experimental group than in the control group (t > 2.804, P < 0.05). Conclusion Hip adductor isometric muscle strength training may promote the recovery of the balance after functional ankle instability.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923506

ABSTRACT

@#Objective To identify the effectiveness of physical therapy on neuromuscular control dysfunction of chronic ankle instability (CAI). Methods CAI physiotherapy-related systematic reviews, meta-analysis, randomized controlled studies and case-controlled studies were systematically searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, PEDro, EBSCO and CNKI from October 1st, 2010 to October 1st, 2020. After quality assessment, the research evidence regarding certain intervention was then graded according to the Oxford Center for Evidence-based Medicine. Results A total of 20 articles were included. Intervention based on unstable plane exercise training could significantly improve lower limb balance control ability (Ⅰ A) and muscle strength (Ⅱ A) for CAI patients. The efficiency of exercise-based intervention could be further raised (Ⅱ C) with the aid of external equipment, but either the benefits in muscle reaction (Ⅲ C) or proprioception (Ⅱ D) was limited. Six sessions or more of manual therapy could be used to enhance the balance ability of the lower limbs (Ⅱ B), while taping failed to provide improvements in ankle proprioception in short period or immediately (Ⅰ A). Conclusion Unstable plane training-based therapeutic exercise and manual therapy could effectively enhance the neuromuscular control with high-quality evidence supporting, which can be primary interventions for CAI patients. Meanwhile, taping and other external devices could be used as adjunct methods to improve the efficiency of physiotherapy program, while there is currently no evidence to support the application of modality treatment in neuromuscular control of CAI.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 149-166, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929285

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC), a malignant tumor worldwide consists of microsatellite instability (MSI) and stable (MSS) phenotypes. Although SHP2 is a hopeful target for cancer therapy, its relationship with innate immunosuppression remains elusive. To address that, single-cell RNA sequencing was performed to explore the role of SHP2 in all cell types of tumor microenvironment (TME) from murine MC38 xenografts. Intratumoral cells were found to be functionally heterogeneous and responded significantly to SHP099, a SHP2 allosteric inhibitor. The malignant evolution of tumor cells was remarkably arrested by SHP099. Mechanistically, STING-TBK1-IRF3-mediated type I interferon signaling was highly activated by SHP099 in infiltrated myeloid cells. Notably, CRC patients with MSS phenotype exhibited greater macrophage infiltration and more potent SHP2 phosphorylation in CD68+ macrophages than MSI-high phenotypes, suggesting the potential role of macrophagic SHP2 in TME. Collectively, our data reveals a mechanism of innate immunosuppression mediated by SHP2, suggesting that SHP2 is a promising target for colon cancer immunotherapy.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939982

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the immediate effect of wearing a soft ankle brace on dynamic and static balance function and biomechanics of affected lower limbs during walking in chronic ankle instability (CAI) patients. MethodsFrom January to August, 2021, 40 CAI patients from Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation Center, Beijing Rehabilitation Hospital, Capital Medical University were measured dynamic and static balance indexes with Zebris FDM-System and Y balance test, before and after wearing a soft ankle brace; while the kinetics indexes and surface electromyography of the affected lower extremities during walking were collected with Zebris FDM-System and a surface electromyography telemeter simultaneously. ResultsThe velocity and area of center of pressure reduced in both open and closed eye modes (|t| > 2.876, P < 0.01), the Y-balance scores increased in all the directions (|t| > 21.212, P < 0.001) after wearing brace; while the peak pressures and impulses increased in the midfoot and medial forefoot regions (|t| > 2.057, P < 0.05), and decreased in the lateral heel, lateral forefoot and toe regions (|t| > 2.464, P < 0.05), and the root mean square of surface electromyography increased in the tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius (|t| > 2.159, P < 0.05) during walking. ConclusionWearing soft brace can immediately improve dynamic and static balance of CAI patients, and optimize plantar kinetic distribution and enhance activation of the anterior tibial and the lateral head of gastrocnemius of the affected limb during walking, to improve motor control of CAI patients.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939981

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo compare the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and whole body vibration training (WBVT) on functional ankle instability (FAI). MethodsFrom May to July, 2021, 17 male FAI undergraduates from Beijing Sport University received PNF (n = 8) and WBVT (n = 9), for six weeks. They were assessed with Y-balance test, Pro-Kin, Kistler and Motion Analysis Raptor before and after invention, to observe Y-balance score, average trajectory error, kinematics and dynamics after jump-landing of affected limb. ResultsThe main effect of training was not significant for all the Y-balance score, average trajectory error, kinematics and dynamics (F < 4.090, P > 0.05). However, the interactive effect of training and time was significant for the range of motion of ankle flexion (F = 6.232, P = 0.030), and the effect size was more for PNF; it was also significant for the time arriving peak ground reaction force (left-right) after landing (F = 10.674, P = 0.008), and the time was latter for WBVT (P < 0.05). ConclusionPNF and WBVT are similarly effective on FAI.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936065

ABSTRACT

Microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) colorectal cancer accounts for approximately 10%-15% of all colorectal cancer patients, while in metastatic diseases the MSI-H population accounts for only 5% of patients. Previous studies have shown that early-stage MSI-H colorectal cancer patients have a good prognosis, but those with advanced disease have a poor prognosis and are not sensitive to chemotherapy. The advent of PD-1 antibodies has significantly improved the prognosis and changed treatment landscape in this population, not only achieving good outcomes in late-line therapy, but also significantly outperforming traditional chemotherapy combined with targeted therapy in first-line therapy. How to overcome primary and secondary drug resistance is a key issue in improving the outcome of MSI-H metastatic colorectal cancer, and commonly used approaches include changing chemotherapy regimens, combining with other immunotherapies, combining with anti-angiogenesis, and local treatments (surgery, radiotherapy, or interventional therapy). It is worth noting that immunotherapy has certain lifelong or even lethal toxicity, and the indications for neoadjuvant immunotherapy must be evaluated with caution. Neoadjuvant immunotherapy in MSI-H advantaged population can achieve high rates of pathological complete remission (pCR) and clinical complete remission (cCR). Therefore, for MSI-H patients with a strong intention to preserve anal sphincter and a strict evaluation of cCR after neoadjuvant immunotherapy, the Watch-and-Wait strategy offers an opportunity to preserve sphincter function and improve long-term survival quality in a subset of mid-to-low rectal cancers. Research on adjuvant immunotherapy in the field of colorectal cancer is also in full swing, and the results are worth waiting for.


Subject(s)
Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Microsatellite Instability , Microsatellite Repeats
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934981

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction: To evaluate the clinical relevance of the painful anterior apprehension test in shoulder instability. Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective study of 155 patients that underwent arthroscopic anterior Bankart repair between 2014–2016. Exclusion criteria were previous ipsilateral shoulder surgery, bony Bankart lesions, glenohumeral osteoarthritis and concomitant surgery involving rotator cuff tears, biceps tendon pathology and superior labrum from anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions. The study cohort was divided into three groups: apprehension test with apprehension only, apprehension test with pain only, and apprehension test with both apprehension and pain. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, radiological imaging, arthroscopy findings and surgical outcomes (Constant, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), SF-36 scores) were evaluated. Results: A total of 115 (74.2%) had apprehension only, 26 (16.8%) had pain only and 14 (9.0%) had pain and apprehension with the apprehension test. Univariate analysis showed significant differences between the groups in patients with traumatic shoulder dislocation (p=0.028), patients presenting with pain (p=0.014) and patients presenting with recurrent dislocations (p=0.046). Patients with a purely painful apprehension test were more likely to have a traumatic shoulder dislocation, more likely to present only with pain, and less likely to present with recurrent shoulder dislocations. Multivariate analysis showed that none of these factors alone were significant as single predictors for shoulder instability. All three groups were otherwise similar in patient profile, MRI and arthroscopic assessments, and clinical outcomes of surgery. Excellent clinical outcomes were achieved in all groups with no difference in pre-operative and post-operative scores across all groups at all time points. Conclusion: The painful apprehension test may suggest underlying shoulder instability.

20.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 173-178, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933054

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2)and P53 and their relationship with microsatellite instability(MSI)in gastric cancer tissues.Methods:A total of 103 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer between January 2018 and October 2020 at Yueyang Hospital were enrolled in this study.HER2, P53 and mismatch repair proteins in gastric cancer tissues were detected with immunohistochemical(IHC)methods, and MSI screening was conducted at 7 sites with a new Idylla MSI(multiple fluorescent PCR)method.Results:Of 103 gastric cancer patients in this study, 77(74.8%)showed microsatellite stability(MSS)and 26(25.2%)showed MIS via IHC, and PCR also detected 77 MSS cases and 26 MSI cases.In MSI, there was more low HER2 expression than high HER2 expression, and the rate of low HER2 expression in MSI was higher than the rate of high HER2 expression in MSI( P<0.05).Also in MSI, there was more low P53 expression than high P53 expression, and the rate of low P53 expression in MSI was higher than the rate of high expression in MSI( P<0.05). Conclusions:MSS may exist in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and in gastric cancer it may be accompanied by low expression of HER2 and p53 in cancer tissues.There may be a mutually exclusive relationship between MSI and expressions of HER2 and p53, suggesting that carcinogenic mechanisms involving MSI may be very different from those involving HER2 and p53.MSI detection is very valuable in guiding treatment drug selection and prognosis assessment.

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