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1.
Med. infant ; 29(2): 146-152, Junio 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1382250

ABSTRACT

Los estreptococos del grupo Streptococcus anginosus (EGA), también llamados "Streptococcus milleri", fueron reconocidos como parte de los estreptococos del grupo viridans (EGV) desde principios del siglo XX. Su rol como patógenos humanos, sin embargo comenzó a destacarse recién en la década de 1970. En esta actualización se describen aspectos microbiológicos y clínicos de los EGA. Los métodos fenotípicos de identificacón e incluso algunos genotípicos carecen de precisión para reconocer las tres especies del grupo (Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus y Streptococcus intermedius) e incluso pueden fallar en su clasificación a nivel de grupo. La mayoría de ellos son sensibles a los antibióticos beta-lactámicos pero son considerables los porcentajes de resistencia a macrólidos, lincosamidas y tetraciclinas. Los EGA son colonizantes habituales de las mucosas orofaríngea, intestinal y genitourinaria, pero, cada vez más frecuentemente, son reconocidos como patógenos humanos. Es ampliamente conocida su capacidad de formar abscesos en órganos sólidos, especialmente abscesos cerebrales, pulmonares y hepáticos. También producen sinusitis, empiemas y colecciones en piel y tejidos blandos, hueso, articulaciones, etc. Se han encontrado asociados con exacerbaciones pulmonares en pacientes con fibrosis quística y con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. Producen también infecciones posteriores a mordeduras humanas, infecciones diseminadas, bacteriemia sin foco aparente y, en menor medida, endocarditis infecciosa (AU)


Streptococci from the Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG), also termed "Streptococcus milleri", were recognized as members of the viridans group streptococci (VGS) in the early 20th century. Nevertheless, their role as human pathogens only became evident in the 1970s. In this update, microbiological and clinical aspects of the SAG are described. Phenotypic and even some genotypic identification methods lack accuracy in recognizing the three species of the group (Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus, and Streptococcus intermedius) and may fail to classify them at the group level. Most of them are sensitive to beta-lactam antibiotics but rates of resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracyclines are significant. SAGs are common colonizers of the oropharyngeal, intestinal, and genitourinary mucosa, but are increasingly recognized as human pathogens. Their ability to form abscesses in solid organs, especially brain, lung and liver, is widely known. They may produce sinusitis, empyemas, and collections in skin and soft tissues, bone, joints, etc. They have also been associated with pulmonary exacerbations in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition, they may cause infections following human bites, disseminated infections, bacteremia without apparent focus, and, to a lesser extent, infective endocarditis (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Viridans Streptococci/classification , Streptococcus milleri Group/classification , Streptococcus anginosus/isolation & purification , Streptococcus anginosus/classification , Streptococcus anginosus/pathogenicity , Streptococcus constellatus , Streptococcus intermedius
2.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 55(3): 361-374, jul. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374058

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las bacterias del grupo Streptococcus anginosus (EGA) son colonizantes habituales de las mucosas orofaríngea, intestinal y genitourinaria, pero, cada vez más frecuentemente, son reconocidas como patógenos humanos. En esta parte III se describen las tendencias de los EGA a la producción de distintas patologías humanas. Por su extensión debió ser desdoblada a su vez en otras dos partes (IIIa y IIIb). Es ampliamente conocida su capacidad de formar abscesos en órganos sólidos, especialmente abscesos cerebrales, pulmonares y hepáticos. También producen sinusitis, empiemas y colecciones en piel y tejidos blandos, huesos, articulaciones, etc. Se han encontrado asociados con infecciones urinarias, vaginitis aeróbica y con exacerbaciones pulmonares en pacientes con fibrosis quística y con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. Producen también infecciones posteriores a mordeduras humanas, infecciones diseminadas, bacteriemia sin foco aparente y, en menor medida, endocarditis infecciosas, generalmente complicadas con abscesos perivalvulares. Esta parte IIIb está focalizada en las infecciones que no comprometen la cabeza y el cuello.


Abstract Streptococcus anginosus (SGA) group streptococci are common colonizers of the oropharyngeal, intestinal, and genitourinary mucosa, but they are increasingly recognized as human pathogens. In this part III, tendencies of the EGA to the production of different human pathologies are described. Due to its length, it had to be divided into two other parts (IIIa and IIIb). Its ability to form abscesses in solid organs, especially brain, lung and liver abscesses, is widely known. They also cause sinusitis, empyema and collections in skin and soft tissues, bones, joints, etc. They have been found associated with urinary tract infections, aerobic vaginitis and with pulmonary exacerbations in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. They also cause infections after human bites, disseminated infections, bacteremia without apparent focus and, to a lesser extent, infective endocarditis, generally complicated by perivalvular abscesses. This part IIIb is focused on other than head and neck infections.


Resumo As bactérias do grupo Streptococcus anginosus (EGA) são colonizadores comuns da mucosa orofaríngea, intestinal e geniturinária, mas são cada vez mais reconhecidos como patógenos humanos. Nesta parte III são descritas as tendências do EGA à produção de diferentes patologias humanas. Devido ao seu comprimento, teve que ser dividido em duas outras partes (IIIa e IIIb). Sua capacidade de formar abcessos em órgãos sólidos, principalmente cérebro, pulmão e fígado, é amplamente conhecida. Eles também causam sinusite, empiema e coleções na pele e tecidos moles, ossos, articulações, etc. Eles foram encontrados associados à infecções urinárias, vaginite aeróbia e às exacerbações pulmonares em pacientes com fibrose cística e doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. Também causam infecções após picadas humanas, infecções disseminadas, bacteremia sem origem aparente e, em menor grau, endocardite infecciosa, geralmente complicada por abscessos perivalvulares. Seu papel na faringite é controverso, embora algumas das subespécies possam estar envolvidas em tais infecções. Seu potencial carcinogênico também é postulado pela associação com carcinomas orofaríngeos, gástricos ou esofágicos. Esta parte IIIb enfoca infecções em diferentes locais da cabeça e pescoço.

3.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(2): 162-166, 15/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362226

ABSTRACT

Introduction Cerebral abscess is a suppurative infection of the cerebral parenchyma, which may occur due to contiguity, hematogenous dissemination of distant foci, secondary to open traumatic brain injuries, or be idiopathic. Clinical Case A 63-year-old male patient sought assistance due to a severe headache in the frontal region associated with chills and lack of appetite that started four days before. Clinical examination of the patient showed no significant changes. Imaging and laboratory tests on admission showed only nonspecific changes, such as leukocytes 18,540, platelets 517,000, and c-reactive protein 2,0. In such case,magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the skull was performed with contrast, showing the presence of expansive lesions compatible with multiple brain abscesses in the right parietooccipital region. Discussion After excluding the main focus of hematogenous dissemination and in view of the identification of the agent Streptococcus intermedius by means of secretion culture collected through a surgical method, the hypothesis of abscess due to contiguous dental pyogenic foci was pointed out. Conclusion Dental evaluation showed multiple foci of infection with periodontitis and dental abscess, which were treated along with the use of antibiotics directed to the etiologic agent.

4.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 55(2): 177-189, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355560

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los estreptococos del grupo Streptococcus anginosus (EGA) son colonizantes habituales de las mucosas orofaríngea, intestinal y genitourinaria, pero, cada vez más frecuentemente, son reconocidos como patógenos humanos. En esta parte IIIa se describen la epidemiología de las infecciones por EGA y las características de las localizadas en cabeza y cuello. Es ampliamente conocida su capacidad de formar abscesos; en particular en la zona de cabeza y cuello se destacan los abscesos odontogénicos, los periorbitales y los cerebrales. También producen sinusitis, infecciones oculares, abscesos epidurales, síndrome de Lemierre, empiemas subdurales y colecciones en piel y tejidos blandos y huesos del cráneo. Su rol en la faringitis es controvertido aunque algunas de las subespecies podrían estar involucradas en ese tipo de infecciones. También se postula su potencial cancerígeno dada su asociación con carcinomas orofaríngeos, gástricos o esofágicos.


Abstract Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG) organisms are common colonizers of the oropharyngeal, intestinal, and genitourinary mucosa, but are increasingly recognized as human pathogens. This part IIIa describes the epidemiology of SAG infections and the characteristics of those located in the head and neck. Its ability to form abscesses is widely known, particularly, in the head and neck area; odontogenic, periorbital and brain abscesses stand out. They also cause sinusitis, eye infections, epidural abscesses, Lemierre's syndrome, subdural empyemas, and collections in the skin and soft tissues and bones of the skull. Its role in pharyngitis is controversial, although some of the subspecies could be involved in such infections. Its carcinogenic potential is also postulated given its association with oropharyngeal, gastric or esophageal carcinomas..


Resumo Os estreptococos do grupo Streptococcus anginosus (EGA) são colonizadores comuns da mucosa orofaríngea, intestinal e geniturinária, mas são cada vez mais frequentemente reconhecidos como patógenos humanos. Esta parte IIIa descreve a epidemiologia das infecções por EGA e as características daquelas localizadas na cabeça e no pescoço. Sua capacidade de formar abscessos é amplamente conhecida, principalmente, na região da cabeça e pescoço, destacando-se os abscessos odontogênicos, os periorbitais e os cerebrais. Eles também causam sinusite, infecções oculares, abscessos epidurais, síndrome de Lemierre, empiemas subdurais e coleções em pele e tecidos moles, e ossos do crânio. Seu papel na faringite é controverso, embora algumas das subespécies possam estar envolvidas em tais infecções. Seu potencial carcinogênico também é postulado pela associação com carcinomas orofaríngeos, gástricos ou esofágicos.

5.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 55(1): 61-77, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355550

ABSTRACT

Resumen En esta segunda parte de la actualización sobre estreptococos del grupo Streptococcus anginosus (EGA) se describen sus factores de virulencia y su sensibilidad a los antibióticos. Los EGA, pertenecientes al grupo de los estreptococos viridans (EGV), son colonizantes habituales de las mucosas orofaríngea, intestinal y genitourinaria, pero, cada vez más frecuentemente, son reconocidos como patógenos humanos. Entre sus factores de virulencia se han descripto enzimas como la hialuronidasa, la condroitín sulfatasa y las nucleasas (DNasas y RNasas). En algunas cepas se han detectado también exoenzimas superantigénicas homólogas a las de Streptococcus pyogenes. Es notable el rol de las hemolisinas (citolisinas), como la estreptolisina O y la intermedilisina, específica de Streptococcus intermedius, una de las tres especies que conforman el grupo. Los EGA presentan bajos porcentajes de no sensibilidad a los beta-lactámicos (penicilina: 0-15%, cefotaxima: 0-3% y carbapenemes: 0-3%) con muy pocas excepciones y muy pocos aislados resistentes. En cambio, son naturalmente resistentes al metronidazol y a los nitrofuranos. Se han informado porcentajes elevados de resistencia a macrólidos, clindamicina y tetraciclina (en algunos casos hasta más de 50%). La resistencia a las fluoroquinolonas es variable, pero muy baja para levofloxacina. Los EGA generalmente son sensibles a vancomicina y/o teicoplanina con concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas (CIM)≤1 μg/mL, aunque es destacable la descripción de unos pocos aislados con sensibilidad disminuida a vancomicina, uno de ellos portador del gen vanG. La resistencia a otros antibióticos se observó solo en forma esporádica.


Abstract This second part of the review about Streptococcus anginosus group streptococci (SAG) describes their virulence factors and their antimicrobial susceptibility. SAG are common colonizers of the oropharyngeal, intestinal, and genitourinary mucosa, but are increasingly recognized as human pathogens. Among their virulence factors, enzymes such as hyaluronidase, chondroitin sulfatase and nucleases (DNases and RNases) have been described. Superantigenic exoenzymes homologous to those of Streptococcus pyogenes have also been detected in some strains. The role of hemolysins (cytolysins) is notable, and specifically that of intermedilysin in Streptococcus intermedius, one of the three species of the group. SAG present low percentages of non-sensitivity to beta-lactams (penicillin: 0-15%, cefotaxime: 0 - 3% and carbapenems: 0-3%) with very few exceptions and very few resistant isolates. Instead, they are naturally resistant to metronidazole and nitrofurans. High percentages of resistance to macrolides, clindamycin and tetracycline have been reported (in some cases up to more than 50%). Fluoroquinolone resistance is variable, but it is very low for levofloxacin. SAG are generally susceptible to vancomycin and/or teicoplanin with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs)≤1 μg/mL, although the isolation of a few isolates with decreased sensitivity to vancomycin, one of them carrying the vanG gene, is notable. Resistance to other antibiotics was observed only sporadically.


Resumo Esta segunda parte da revisão sobre estreptococos do grupo Streptococcus anginosus (EGA) descreve seus fatores de virulência e sensibilidade aos antibióticos. Os EGAs, pertencentes ao grupo dos estreptococos viridans (EGV), são colonizadores comuns das mucosas orofaríngea, intestinal e geniturinária, mas são cada vez mais reconhecidos como patógenos humanos. Entre seus fatores de virulência, foram descritas enzimas como hialuronidase, condroitina sulfatase e nucleases (DNases e RNases). Exoenzimas superantigênicas homólogas às de Streptococcus pyogenes também foram detectadas em algumas cepas. O papel das hemolisinas (citolisinas), como a estreptolisina O e a intermedilisina, específica de Streptococcus intermedius, uma das três espécies que compõem o grupo é notável. Os EGAs apresentam baixo percentual de não sensibilidade aos betalactâmicos (penicilina: 0-15 %, cefotaxima: 0-3% e carbapenemas: 0-3%) com muito poucas exceções e muito poucos isolados resistentes. Em vez disso, são naturalmente resistentes ao metronidazol e aos nitrofuranos. Foram relatados altos percentuais de resistência aos macrólidos, clindamicina e tetraciclina (em alguns casos, até mais de 50%). A resistência às fluoroquinolonas é variável, mas muito baixa para a levofloxacina. Os EGAs são geralmente sensíveis à vancomicina e/ou teicoplanina com concentrações inibitórias mínimas (CIM)≤1 μg/ mL, embora seja notável a descrição de alguns isolados com sensibilidade reduzida à vancomicina, um deles portador do gene vanG. Resistência a outros antibióticos foi observada apenas esporadicamente.

6.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 51(9): e20200936, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249570

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Methicillin resistance in the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) has emerged in small animal practice. Methicillin-resistant SIG (MRSIG) members have been implicated as causes of infections in both companion animals and humans. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements carry the mecA/C genes, which encode for the transpeptidase PBP2a (PBP2') responsible for β-lactam antibiotic resistance in staphylococci. This study examined the SCCmec types of MRSIG isolates from different clinical specimens of dogs that exhibited methicillin MIC ≥ 0.5 μg/mL by an automated identification and susceptibility system in a Center for Veterinary Diagnostics in São Paulo, Brazil. Susceptibility to methicillin was determined by broth microdilution testing, and Oxoid® M.I.C.Evaluator® strips. PBP2a production was detected using a latex agglutination assay. SCCmec typing was performed according to the International Working Group on the Classification of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Elements (IWG-SCC) guidelines. SCCmec type II (2A), SCCmec type III (3A), composite SCC structures consisting of a class A mec gene complex in addition to multiple ccr gene complexes, and non-typable SCCmec elements were reported in these MRSIG isolates. SCCmec type variants differing from those so far acknowledged by IWG-SCC were found, indicating new rearrangements in the genetic context of mecA in these canine MRSIG isolates.


RESUMO: A resistência à meticilina no grupo Staphylococcus intermedius (GSI) tem aumentado na clínica de pequenos animais. Membros GSI resistentes à meticilina (GSIRM) têm sido causas de infecções tanto em animais de companhia e humanos. Cassetes cromossômicos estafilocócicos mec (SCCmec) carregam os genes mecA/C, que codificam a transpeptidase PBP2a (PBP2') responsável pela resistência aos antibióticos β-lactâmicos em estafilococos. Nosso objetivo foi investigar os elementos SCCmec de GSIRM isolados de diferentes amostras clínicas de cães que exibiram CIM de meticilina ≥ 0,5 μg/mL por meio de um sistema automatizado em um Centro Veterinário de Diagnósticos em São Paulo, Brasil. A sensibilidade à meticilina foi determinada por meio do teste de microdiluição em caldo e fitas Oxoid® M.I.C.Evaluator®. A produção de PBP2a foi detectada usando um ensaio de aglutinação de látex. A tipagem dos elementos SCCmec foi realizada de acordo com as diretrizes do International Working Group on the Classification of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Elements (IWG-SCC). SCCmec tipo II (2A), SCCmec tipo III (3A), SCC compostos de um complexo mec de classe A com múltiplos complexos ccr, e elementos SCCmec não tipáveis foram encontrados nesses isolados GSIRM. Variantes que diferem dos elementos SCCmec reconhecidos até o momento pelo IWG-SCC foram encontradas, indicando novos rearranjos no contexto genético de mecA nesses isolados GSIRM caninos.

7.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(4): 421-436, jul. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149032

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los estreptococos del grupo Streptococcus anginosus (EGA), también llamados "Streptococcus milleri" fueron reconocidos como parte de los estreptococos del grupo viridans (EGV) desde principios del siglo XX. Sin embargo, su rol como patógenos humanos comenzó a destacarse recién en la década de 1970. Esta actualización consta de tres partes: en esta primera parte se tratarán los aspectos taxonómicos y microbiológicos así como los métodos de identificación de los EGA. El crecimiento de estas bacterias es relativamente lento, las colonias son pequeñas, incluso a las 48-72 horas de incubación y la mayoría de las cepas despide un olor a caramelo característico cuando crecen en agar sangre. Su crecimiento es estimulado en una atmósfera con 5% de CO2. Últimamente, con el reconocimiento de la asociación de los EGA con episodios indeseables en pacientes con fibrosis quística se han desarrollado medios selectivos para poner de manifiesto su presencia en las vías aéreas. Los métodos fenotípicos e incluso algunos genotípicos carecen de precisión para identificar las tres especies del grupo (Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus y Streptococcus intermedius) e incluso pueden fallar en su clasificación a nivel de grupo. Dentro de los métodos moleculares, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) no puede ser tomado como referencia para llegar a subespecie, pero sí es muy eficiente en la identificación a nivel de especie. Para algunos autores la secuenciación del gen sodA podría ser una buena opción, pero el gold standard es el multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA).


Abstract Streptococci from the Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG), also called "Streptococcus milleri", have been recognized as belonging to the viridans group (VGS) since the beginning of the 20th century. Their role as human pathogens, however, only began to emerge in the 1970s. This review consists of three parts: the first part will deal with the taxonomic and microbiological aspects and the identification methods of SAGs. The growth of these bacteria is relatively slow; the colonies are small even after 48-72 hours of incubation and most of the strains give off a characteristic caramel odor when they grow on blood agar. Their growth is stimulated in an atmosphere with 5% CO2. Lately, with the recognition of the association of SAGs with undesirable episodes in patients with cystic fibrosis, selective media have been developed to reveal their presence in the airways. Phenotypic and even some genotypic methods lack precision in identifying the three species in the group (Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus, and Streptococcus intermedius) and may even fail to classify at the group level. Among the molecular methods, MALDI-TOF MS cannot be taken as a reference to arrive at subspecies, but it is very efficient to identify at the species level. For some authors, sequencing the sodA gene may be a good option, but the gold standard is multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA).


Resumo Os estreptococos do grupo Streptococcus anginosus (EGA), também chamados de "Streptococcus milleri", foram reconhecidos como pertencentes ao grupo viridans (EGV) desde o início do século XX. Seu papel como patógenos humanos, no entanto, só começou a surgir na década de 1970. Esta atualização consiste em três partes: nesta primeira parte, trataremos dos aspectos taxonômicos e microbiológicos e dos métodos de identificação dos EGAs. O crescimento dessas bactérias é relativamente lento, as colônias são pequenas mesmo após 48-72 horas de incubação e a maioria das cepas emitem um cheiro de caramelo característico quando crescem em ágar sangue. Seu crescimento é estimulado em uma atmosfera com 5% de CO2. Ultimamente, com o reconhecimento da associação dos EGAs com episódios indesejáveis em pacientes com fibrose cística, foram desenvolvidos meios seletivos para revelar sua presença nas vias aéreas. Os métodos fenotípicos e mesmo alguns genotípicos carecem de precisão na identificação das três espécies do grupo (Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus e Streptococcus intermedius) e podem até falhar em sua classificação em nível de grupo. Entre os métodos moleculares, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) não pode ser tomado como referência para chegar a subespécie, mas é muito eficiente na identificação em nível de spécie. Para alguns autores, o sequenciamento do gene sodA poderia ser uma boa opção, mas o padrão-ouro é a análise de sequência multilocus (MLSA).


Subject(s)
Streptococcus anginosus/classification , Streptococcus constellatus/classification , Streptococcus intermedius/classification , Culture Techniques
8.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-211956

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronary Artery Anomalies (CAAs) presenting in adulthood are rare and associated with adverse cardiac events, including sudden cardiac death. Coronary artery anomaly is the second most common cause of Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) in young athletes. Cardiac Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA) is a readily available non-invasive imaging modality that provides high-resolution anatomical information of the coronary arteries. Multi-detector row CT is superior to conventional angiography in defining the ostial origin and proximal path of anomalous coronary branches.Methods: This was a prospective study included 186 patients who underwent coronary CTA from December 2018 to November 2019 in Government medical College, Srinagar on a 256 slice CT. The indications for coronary CTA were an equivocal, or non-diagnostic stress test, atypical chest pain, suspected anomalous coronary, as well as the evaluation of cardiac cause of syncope.Results: Ramus intermedius was the most common anatomical variant seen in 25 patients (13.4%). The prevalence of coronary anomalies in this study was 5.66% including myocarding bridging. The most common anomaly was high take off of coronary artery from sinotubular junction accounting for 1.6%.Conclusions: Coronary Computed Tomographic angiography is much superior in detecting coronary artery anomalies than invasive coronary angiography because of the absence of soft tissue information like as is needed in myocardial bridging. Proper knowledge of the anomalies and their clinical significance is highly important in planning treatment and easing hardships of cardiologists in dealing with them.

9.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(1): e190045, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098405

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate if the presence of pollutants promotes changes in feeding habits of fish species from different trophic guilds: the detritivorous species, Hypostomus francisci, and the piscivorous, Hoplias intermedius. Both species were sampled at 12 sites (with different degrees of pollution) in the Rio das Velhas basin, which is heavily polluted by domestic and industrial sewage from the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH). Stable isotope analyses of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) of fish tissue and the main food resources were performed. Fishes from both trophic guilds altered their diets in degraded environments, but the detritivorous species showed greater trophic plasticity. The isotopic niche of both trophic guilds was broadest in unpolluted sites and more δ15N enriched in polluted regions. The detritivorous species presented high niche-breadth in unpolluted sites, probably due to the greater variety of resources consumed. In addition, the δ15N of the detritivorous was more enriched than the piscivorous species in polluted sites. In conclusion, fishes from both trophic guilds presented similar isotopic responses to environmental pollution. However, the detritivorous species was more sensitive to these alterations and therefore, is likely a better indicator of environmental condition than the piscivorous.(AU)


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar se a presença de poluentes promove mudanças nos hábitos alimentares de espécies de peixes de diferentes guildas tróficas: a espécie detritívora, Hypostomus francisci, e a piscívora, Hoplias intermedius. Ambas espécies foram amostradas em 12 locais (com diferentes níveis de poluição) na bacia do Rio das Velhas, que é altamente poluída por esgoto doméstico e industrial da Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (RMBH). Foram realizadas análises de isótopos estáveis de carbono (δ13C) e nitrogênio (δ15N) dos tecidos dos peixes e dos principais recursos alimentares. Espécies de ambas guildas tróficas alteraram suas dietas em ambientes degradados, mas a espécie detritívora apresentou maior plasticidade trófica. O nicho isotópico de ambas as espécies foi mais amplo em locais menos perturbados e mais enriquecido em δ15N em regiões poluídas. A espécie detritívora apresentou grande amplitude em seu nicho isotópico em locais menos perturbados, provavelmente devido à maior variedade de recursos consumidos. Além disso, o δ15N da espécie detritívora foi mais enriquecido que a espécie piscívora em locais poluídos. Em conclusão, ambas as espécies apresentaram respostas isotópicas semelhantes à poluição ambiental. No entanto, a espécie detritívora foi mais sensível a essas alterações e, portanto, é provavelmente uma melhor indicadora de condição ambiental do que a espécie piscívora.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Feeding Behavior/classification , Isotope Labeling/veterinary , Animal Feed/toxicity , Domestic Effluents
10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 375-378, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759944

ABSTRACT

Pylephlebitis (septic thrombophlebitis of the portal venous system) is a rare but serious complication of intra-abdominal infections that drain into the portal venous system. Its diagnosis is based on imaging; computed tomography may reveal a thrombus in the portal vein. Bacteremia may also be evident. As the symptoms are nonspecific, early clinical diagnosis is difficult, and delayed treatment can compromise outcomes. We report a case with extensive pylephlebitis and a liver abscess associated with Streptococcus intermedius sepsis; the case was treated successfully with antibiotics and anticoagulants. Such cases have not been widely reported.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anticoagulants , Bacteremia , Diagnosis , Intraabdominal Infections , Liver Abscess , Liver , Portal Vein , Sepsis , Streptococcus intermedius , Streptococcus , Thrombophlebitis , Thrombosis
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 859-863, Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954198

ABSTRACT

The articularis genus, which lies under the vastus intermedius, has been regarded as part of the quadriceps femoris. However, they are well known to have different function because their respective origins and insertions are mutually distinct. These muscles are considered to work almost simultaneously when the knee is extended. The electromyogram has been used to demonstrate muscle co-contraction. However, the articularis genus is deeper than other muscles. Moreover, it is difficult to analyze it by surface electromyogram. The relative proportions of muscle fiber types and the characteristics of these fiber types are important determinants of the surface electromyogram. Furthermore, biomechanical analysis of AG has remained unclear. This study investigated the ratio of muscle fiber types in these muscles. Muscle samples from seven human cadaveric specimens were used with application of immunofluorescence double staining. Results show that in the vastus intermedius and articularis genus, the percentage of Type I fibers was significantly higher than that of Type II fibers. No significant difference was found in the mean percentages of Type I and Type II fiber types. The percentages of Type I and Type II fibers in articularis genus muscle were correlated positively to the percentage in the vastus intermedius. These results suggest that similar muscle fiber compositions of these muscles might reflect their contraction during the same active phase of knee extension, despite their different functions.


El músculo articular de la rodilla, que se encuentra cubierto por el músculo vasto intermedio, se ha considerado como parte del músculo cuádriceps femoral. Sin embargo, es sabido que tienen diferentes funciones debido a que sus respectivos orígenes e inserciones son mutuamente distintas. Se considera que estos músculos trabajan de forma casi simultánea cuando la rodilla está extendida. El electromiograma se ha usado para demostrar la contracción muscular. Sin embargo, el músculo articular de la rodillas es más profundo que otros músculos. Además, es difícil analizarlo por electromiograma de superficie. Las proporciones relativas de los tipos de fibras musculares y las características de estos tipos de fibras son importantes determinantes del electromiograma de superficie. Además, el análisis biomecánico de músculo articular de la rodilla no ha sido claro. Este estudio investigó la proporción de tipos de fibras musculares en estos músculos. Se usaron muestras musculares de siete cadáveres humanos con la aplicación de doble tinción de inmunofluorescencia. Los resultados muestran que en los músculos articular de la rodilla y vasto intermedio, el porcentaje de fibras de Tipo I fue significativamente mayor que el de las fibras de Tipo II. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en los porcentajes medios de los Tipo I y Tipo II. Los porcentajes de fibras Tipo I y Tipo II en el músculo articular de la rodilla se correlacionaron positivamente con el porcentaje en el músculo vasto intermediario. Estos resultados sugieren que las composiciones de las fibras musculares similares de estos músculos podrían reflejar su contracción durante la misma fase activa de la extensión de la rodilla, a pesar de sus diferentes funciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Knee/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Quadriceps Muscle/anatomy & histology
12.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 7-11, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193194

ABSTRACT

Tensor of vastus intermedius is a newly discovered muscle located between vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed morphology of tensor of vastus intermedius, specifically to provide data pertaining to the attachments, innervations, variation in the types and its morphometry in South Indian population. The tensor of vastus intermedius was studied in thirty six cadaveric lower limbs using macrodissection techniques. The origin of the muscle was from upper part of intertrochanteric line and anterior part of greater trochanter of femur inserted to medial aspect of upper border of patella. The muscle was classified into four types based on the origin and also the aponeurosis course with independent type (type 1) being common. The mean and standard deviation of the length of tensor of vastus intermedius and aponeurosis were 145.40±37.55 mm and 193.55±42.32 mm, respectively. The results of the study suggest that tensor of vastus intermedius is variable and the information provided regarding the attachments, types and quantitative data will contribute to the existing knowledge of the muscle.


Subject(s)
Cadaver , Femur , Lower Extremity , Patella , Quadriceps Muscle
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38086

ABSTRACT

A 21-year-old male was admitted with severe right arm and hand tremors after a thalamic hemorrhage caused by a traffic accident. He was also suffering from agonizing pain in his right shoulder that manifested after the tremor. Neurologic examination revealed a disabling, severe, and irregular kinetic and postural tremor in the right arm during target-directed movements. There was also an irregular ipsilateral rest tremor and dystonic movements in the distal part of the right arm. The amplitude was moderate at rest and extremely high during kinetic and intentional movements. The patient underwent left globus pallidum internus and ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. The patient improved by more than 80% as rated by the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale and Visual Analog Scale six months after surgery.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Arm , Deep Brain Stimulation , Felodipine , Globus Pallidus , Hand , Hemorrhage , Humans , Male , Neurologic Examination , Shoulder Pain , Shoulder , Tremor , Visual Analog Scale , Young Adult
14.
Ciênc. rural ; 46(8): 1418-1423, Aug. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-784221

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This research aimed to detect coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CPS) directly in samples of artificially contaminated milk, using multiplex PCR (mPCR). Standard and isolated bacterial strains of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. hyicus, S. intermedius, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli species were used, evaluating the specificity and detection limit of mPCR, for artificially contaminated UHT milk. Primers specific for the nuc gene (NUC1-NUC2 were used for S. aureus, NUC3-NUC4 for S. hyicus and NUC5-NUC6 for S. intermedius). It was possible to detect the three target species by mPCR, directly from bovine whole milk, with adequate specificity and acceptable detention limit for identification of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CPS) in foods. The specificity was determined by the amplification of species-specific fragments, and the detection limit was assessed by the detection thresholds obtained for the three species (103 CFU mL-1). From these results, the mPCR described, with the proposed set of primers, has the potential for use in precise identification and differentiation between CPSs in milk samples.


RESUMO: Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo detectar diretamente em amostras de leite contaminado artificialmente Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (ECP) por multiplex PCR (mPCR). Cepas padrão e isolados de S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. hyicus, S. intermedius, Listeria monocytogenes e Escherichia coli foram utilizados no estudo. Foram utilizados primers específicos para o gene nuc (NUC1-NUC2 para o S. aureus, NUC3-NUC4 para o S. hyicus e NUC5-NUC6 para o S. intermedius ). Foi possível detectar as três espécies-alvo por mPCR, formar diretamente nas amostras de leite integral bovino, com especificidade adequada e limite de detecção aceitável para identificação de espécies de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (ECP) em alimentos. A especificidade foi determinada por meio da amplificação de fragmentos específicos das espécies e o limite de detecção foi avaliado pelos limiares de detecção obtidos para as três espécies (103 UFC mL-1 para as espécies presentes nas amostras de leite contaminadas artificialmente).

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223801

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Tremor is a common movement disorder that interferes with daily living. Since the medication for tremor has some limitations, surgical intervention is needed in many patients. In certain patients who cannot undergo aggressive surgical intervention, Gamma Knife thalamotomy (GKT) is a safe and effective alternative. METHODS: From June 2012 to August 2013, 7 patients with an intractable tremor underwent GKT. Four of these 7 patients had medical comorbidities, and 3 patients refused to undergo traditional surgery. Each patient was evaluated with the modified Fahn-Tolosa-Marin tremor rating scale (TRS) along with analysis of handwriting samples. All of the patients underwent GKT with a maximal dose of 130 Gy to the left ventralis intermedius (VIM) nucleus of the thalamus. Follow-up brain MRI was performed after 3 to 8 months of GKT, and evaluation with the TRS was also performed. RESULTS: Six patients showed objective improvement in the TRS score. Excluding one patient who demonstrated tremor progression, there was 28.9% improvement in the TRS score. However, five patients showed subjective improvement in their symptoms. On comparing the TRS scores between follow-up periods of more and less than 4 months, the follow-up TRS score at more than 4 months of GKT was significantly improved compared to that at less than 4 months of GKT. Follow-up MRI showed radiosurgical changes in 5 patients. CONCLUSION: GKT with a maximal dose of 130 Gy to the VIM is a safe procedure that can replace other surgical procedures.


Subject(s)
Brain , Comorbidity , Follow-Up Studies , Handwriting , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Movement Disorders , Thalamus , Tremor
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77420

ABSTRACT

Acupuncture treatment is generally regarded as a relatively safe procedure. However, most procedures have some complications and acupuncture treatment is no exception. Reported complications of acupuncture treatment were mostly mild or temporary symptoms, but certain severe adverse effects were also observed. We report here for the first time a case of liver abscess following acupuncture and moxibustion treatment.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Liver Abscess , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic , Moxibustion , Streptococcus intermedius
17.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 80(1): 1-6, jan.-mar.2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-784836

ABSTRACT

A mastite bovina é uma doença importante na exploração leiteira, não apenas pelas perdas econômicas diretas que promove, mas também pelas perdas indiretas e o potencial risco à saúde pública. Dentre as principais causas de infecções intramamárias, destacam-se as bactérias do gênero Staphylococcus spp., sendo que Staphylococcus aureus é o agente etiológico predominante em mastite subclínica. O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar a frequência de mastite subclínica em oito rebanhos localizados na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil) e a relação da enfermidade com a presença de S. aureus. Adicionalmente, pesquisou-se a presença de S. intermedius e S. hyicus nas amostras de leite obtidas. Para identificação da doença, utilizou-se o California Mastitis Test (CMT). A identificação da espécie de Staphylococcus spp. foi feita em meio de cultura ágar Baird-Parker, com posterior confirmação das colônias suspeitas em coloração de gram, prova de catalase, pesquisa de coagulase livre e pesquisa de termonuclease. A mastite subclínica foi constatada em 53,6% dos animais testados. A presença de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva foi identificada em 12,6% dos animais com mastite subclínica. Nesses mesmos animais, a bactéria identificada como S. aureus foi o agente etiológico presente em 17,6% dos casos. Adicionalmente, pode-se perceber que, dentre o grupo identificado como coagulase positiva, 85,7% corresponderam a S. aureus, enquanto8,5% mostraram características bioquímicas compatíveis com S. intermedius e 5,8% foram consideradas S. hyicus...


Bovine mastitis is an important disease in dairy farming, not only by promoting direct economic losses, but also for indirect losses and the potential risk to public health. The main causes of intramammary infections include the bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus being the predominant etiologic agent in subclinical mastitis. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of subclinical mastitis in eight herds from southern Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) and the relationship of the disease with the presence of S. aureus. In addition, we checked for the presence of S. intermedius and S. hyicus in the milk samples obtained. For identification of the disease, we used the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Identification of Staphylococcus spp. species was made in Barid-Parker agar culture medium, with subsequent confirmation of suspected colonies by way of Gram stain and catalase test along with free-coagulase and thermonuclease research. Subclinical mastitis was identified in 53.6% of animals tested. The presence of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was identified in 12.6% of animals with subclinical mastitis. In these same animals, bacteria identified as S. aureus were the etiologic agent present in 17.6% of cases. Additionally, it was revealed that among the group identified as coagulase positive, 85.7% corresponded to S. aureus, while 8.5% had biochemical characteristics consistent with S. intermedius and 5.8% were considered S. hyicus...


Subject(s)
Animals , Coagulase/chemistry , Livestock Industry/statistics & numerical data , Mastitis, Bovine/pathology , Public Health , Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(3): 429-432, May 2012. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624028

ABSTRACT

Anopheles darlingi Root is the major vector of human malaria in the Neotropics and has been considered to be the sole malaria vector in French Guiana. The presence of other potential vectors suggests that malaria may be transmitted by other species under certain conditions. From 2006-2011, all anopheline specimens collected from 11 localities were assayed to determine if the Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein was present. In addition to An. darlingi, we found Anopheles oswaldoi, Anopheles intermedius and Anopheles nuneztovari specimens that were infected with Plasmodium sp. Further investigations on the behaviour and ecology of An. oswaldoi, An. intermedius and An. nuneztovari are necessary to determine their role in malaria transmission in French Guiana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Anopheles/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum/chemistry , Plasmodium malariae/chemistry , Plasmodium vivax/chemistry , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Anopheles/classification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/classification , Malaria/transmission , Population Density , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Seasons
19.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 16(2): 2564-2575, mayo-ago. 2011.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-621987

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de microorganismos del género Salmonella sp. en el ambiente acuático de los ejemplares Crocodylus intermedius y testudines en la Estación de Biología Tropical Roberto Franco (EBTRF). Materiales y métodos. En este estudio se utilizó la metodología estándar para aislar e identificar microorganismos del género Salmonella sp., a partir de muestras de agua y sedimento de 52 estanques (nEstanques Crocodylus=25; nEstanques testudines=27); se procedió a serotipificar los aislamientos por el método convencional de Kaufmann-White y se realizaron pruebas de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos por la técnica de Kirby Bauer. Resultados. Se determinó la presencia de Salmonella sp., en un 33% del total de estanques muestreados. El 29% de los aislamientos de Salmonella sp. serotipificados, correspondió al serogrupo B; los serogrupos C, C1, C2 y D1 presentaron menores porcentajes. Con las pruebas de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos se determinó que el 100% de los aislamientos fueron sensibles a norfloxacina. Conclusiones. La ocurrencia de Salmonella sp., en los estanques de la EBTRF fue del 33%, con la mayor presencia del serogrupo B, donde se encuentran especies con características ampliamente zoonóticas. Con los resultados obtenidos es necesario el seguimiento de las normas de bioseguridad establecidas en la estación para el manejo de las poblaciones allí mantenidas y evitar de esa manera la ocurrencia de cuadros zoonóticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella , Serotyping , Zoonoses
20.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(2): 290-291, Mar.-Apr. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-586672

ABSTRACT

Leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are pests of various crops, mainly in greenhouses, and have Diglyphus spp. as important leafminer larval parasitoids. Until recently, only Diglyphus insularis (Gahan) had been reported in Brazil. In here we report the first records of Diglyphus begini (Ashmead), D. intermedius (Girault) and D. isaea (Walker) in Brazil. These parasitoids were found parasitizing leafminer larvae on cultivated and spontaneous plants in some areas of Minas Gerais state, Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hymenoptera , Brazil , Plants/parasitology
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