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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920542

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effects of different dietary induction models of inulin, resistant starch RS3 and their complexes on the body weight and intestinal flora in mice. Methods A total of 64 C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into low-fat control group, low-fat inulin group, low-fat resistant starch RS3 group, low-fat composite group and high-fat control group, high-fat inulin group, high-fat resistant starch RS3 group and high-fat composite group for dietary intervention. The mice were weighed and fresh feces were collected weekly. Diet intervention was continued until the weight of the high-fat control group was more than 14% higher than that of the low-fat control group. The mice were then sacrificed after overnight fasting. Liver and epididymal fat were weighed, and the colon contents were collected for 16S amplicon sequencing analysis. Results In low-fat diet fed mice, the combined induction of inulin and resistant starch RS3 caused a significant decrease in body weight gain. In high-fat diet fed mice, inulin alone and the combined induction both caused a significant reduction in weight gain, and there was no significant difference between the two methods. In the high-fat diet groups, inulin, resistant starch RS3, and the compound could be distinguished by Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium and Alloprevotella respectively. In the low-fat diet groups, inulin, resistant starch RS3, and the composite groups could be distinguished by Coriobacteriaceae_UCG_002, Bacteroides and Helicobacter, respectively. Conclusion Inulin and resistant starch RS3 diet induction can significantly reduce the weight gain of C57BL/6 mice, change the structure of intestinal flora, and show the difference between high-fat and low-fat diets. Inulin and resistant starch RS3 may reduce body weight and promote fat metabolism by changing the structure of intestinal flora.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909594

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE Cerebral ischemia or ischemic stroke is due to insufficient blood supply to the brain, which causes hypoxia or ischemia in some areas. This work aimed to quantify the minerals and heavy metals in Qishiwei Zhenzhu pill in vivo and in vitro, analyze its effect on the types and abundance of intestinal flora, and study its mechanism on inflammation and apoptosis pathways as a treatment for cerebral ischemia. METHODS Microwave digestion and induc?tively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to determine the minerals and heavy metals in 10 batches of Qishiwei Zhenzhu pill in vitro. With the use of the middle cerebral artery obstruction (MCAO) model, ICP-MS was applied to determine the content of minerals and heavy metals in hepatic portal vein blood, abdominal aortic blood, brain, liver, kidney, hair, urine and feces at different time periods. On this model, the ileum, cecum, and colon tissues were tested for intestinal pathology, and 16S rRNA was used for sequencing. Species taxonomy, α diversity, and spe?cies microbial composition and structure analysis were also performed. Polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were employed to determine the mRNA and protein expression of p38 MAPK, caspase-3, IL-1β and TNF-α in the isch?emic brain tissues of rats. RESULTS The average content of heavy metals in the 10 batches of Qishiwei Zhenzhu pill samples is in the descending order Hg>Cu>Pb. Significant differences in the metal elements are found among Qishiwei Zhenzhu pill from different manufacturers but not among the different batches of the same manufacturer. An extremely low content of heavy metals are absorbed into the blood or accumulated in the brain, liver, kidney, and other tissues. Stool is the main excretion route of minerals and heavy metals from Qishiwei Zhenzhu pill. This medicine helps repair the intestinal mucosa in MCAO rats. At the phylum level, it can regulate the abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria in the intestinal flora of rats with cerebral ischemia. At the genus level, it can adjust the abundance of Escherichia Shigella. At the species level, it can adjust the abundance of Lactobacillus yoelii and Lactobacillus reuteri. Cluster classification results show that Qishiwei Zhenzhu pill can improve the intestinal flora of rats with cerebral ischemia, reduce the mRNA and protein expression of caspase-3 and IL-1βin rat brain tissues, and have a tendency to decrease the mRNA expres?sion of p38 MAPK and TNF-α. CONCLUSION Quantifying the minerals and heavy metals in Qishiwei Zhenzhu pill in vivo and in vitro will help improve their quality standards. Minerals and heavy metals are mainly excreted in feces, accumu?late in extremely low levels in various tissues, and do not damage the intestinal mucosa. The effective material basis of Qishiwei Zhenzhu pill in treating cerebral ischemia may be related to their Li, Cr, and Cd elements. These pills can improve the environment of intestinal flora, and their mechanism of treatment for cerebral ischemia may be related to the down-regulation of IL-1βinflammatory factor and inhibition of cell apoptosis.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909535

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects and its mechanism of chronic unpredictable stress on intestine and liver injuries in rats, and explore the possibility of the existence of brain-gut-liver axis.Methods:Twenty male SD rats were randomly divided into control group and stress group (with 10 in each group). The rats in the stress group were stimulated by chronic unpredictable stress for 4 weeks to prepare the chronic stress model. The rats in the control group were fed normally without stress stimulation. After modeling, ten rats in the control group and seven rats in the stress group were included. The depressive behavior of the two groups was evaluated by sugar water preference experiment. Then the rats were sacrificed. The diversity of gut flora in intestinal feces was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The pathological injuries of ileum and liver were detected by HE staining. The expressions of occludin in ileum and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in liver were detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of TLR4 protein in liver tissue was detected by Western blot. The level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rat portal vein serum was detected by AZO chromogenic limulus test and blood biochemical method was used to detect liver function.Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 25.0 software, and t-test or Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison between the two groups. Using STAMP software, Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to analyze the difference in bacterial abundance between the two groups. Results:The consumption of sugar water ((7.86±0.90)ml) and the preference rate of sugar water ((43.06±5.65)%) in the stress group were lower than those in the control group ((15.10±1.51)ml, (76.81±6.44)%), and the difference were statistically significant ( t=11.33, 11.16, both P<0.01). Chronic stress caused pathological damage to rat ileum tissue. Compared with the control group, the ileum villi of rats in the chronic stress group were longer ((448.93±12.71)μm, (497.12±16.72)μm, t=-5.88, P<0.01) and thicker ((81.99±16.54)μm, (133.93±6.78)μm, t=-7.12, P<0.01), and the expression of occludin was significantly down-regulated ((0.236±0.011), (0.130±0.026), t=9.12 , P<0.01), the LPS level increased significantly ((18.83±2.62)EU/L, (38.64±2.51)EU/L, t=-5.79, P<0.01). The Beta diversity of rat intestinal flora changed under chronic stress, and the abundance of WPS-2 phylum in intestinal tract of rats in stress group was higher than that in control group ( t=2.76, P<0.05). Chronic stress caused pathological damage to the liver tissue of rats. Compared with the control group, the expression of TLR4 protein in the liver tissue of the chronic stress group increased ((0.169±0.014), (0.475±0.034), Z=-2.37, P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the ALT ((39.7±6.2)U/L, (82.9±43.1)U/L, Z=-2.35, P<0.05) and AST((130.9±28.9)U/L, (472.7±263.3)U/L, Z=-2.64, P<0.05) levels of the chronic stress group increased, especially in AST. Conclusion:Chronic stress cause synchronous damage to the intestine and liver in rats. The mechanism may be related to the results caused by chronic stress such as the changes of the diversity of intestinal flora, the increasing of intestinal permeability, the action of LPS translocated through portal vein blood on TLR4 in liver.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908395

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is one of the common diseases of nervous system.Most children′s epilepsy can be controlled by drug treatment, but 20%—30% of children with epilepsy still have poor control effect after treatment, and eventually develop into intractable epilepsy, which seriously affects their healthy growth.In recent years, it has been found that the intestinal flora has two-way connection with the brain through the brain-intestine axis, including vagus nerve, neuroendocrine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, intestinal immune system, neurotransmitters and neuroregulatory factors, which have a significant impact on the physiological, behavioral and cognitive functions of the brain, thus playing a role in the occurrence and development of epilepsy.Intestinal flora is closely related to epilepsy and may be a target for epilepsy treatment.Therefore, this review summarized the potential role of intestinal flora in epilepsy treatment.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908020

ABSTRACT

Cow′s milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the most common food allergy in infancy.Since the early symptoms of CMPA in premature infants lack specificity and are prone to misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis, which would induce inappropriate fasting and unreasonable application of antibiotics, more attention should be paid to CMPA in premature infants.It has been proved in accumulating studies that the establishment and improvement of intestinal flora is the basic factor for the maturation of the immune system and the induction of immune response balance after birth.There are differences in the type and amount of intestinal flora between food allergic infants and non-allergic infants.Compared with term infants, preterm infants have significantly lower diversity and abundance of intestinal flora, immature gastrointestinal tract and immune system development, and are at greater risk for allergies.The use of probiotics can enhance intestinal barrier function and improve immune tolerance.The clinical diagnosis and treatment of preterm CMPA, the characteristics of intestinal flora and the use of probiotics in preterm infants would be reviewed in this paper.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907697

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of Yishen Decoction via colonic dialysis on intestinal flora and microinflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3-5. Methods:A total of 156 patients with stage 3-5 CKD from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou University of Chinese medicine from October 2019 to October 2020 who met the inclusion criteria were divided into 2 groups of 78 patients according to the random number table method. The control group was given colonic dialysis treatment, the treatment group was given Yishen Decoction transcolonic dialysis treatment on the basis of the control group, and both groups were treated for 8 weeks. TCM syndrome scores were performed before and after treatment, serum levels of CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α were measured by ELISA, and SCR, BUN, and uric acid (UA) levels were detected by a fully automated biochemical analyzer. Fresh feces were collected from the patients, anaerobic culture and aerobic culture were performed, and the numbers of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Escherichia coli were counted to evaluate the clinical efficacy. Results:The total effective rate was 97.4% (76/78) in the treatment group and 84.6% (66/78) in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant ( χ2=7.847, P=0.005). At 4 and 8 weeks after treatment, the scores of lumbar and knee tenderness( t=6.596, 8.792), eating less and being dull ( t=12.060, 24.140) and pale complexion ( t=7.983, 12.300) in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the control group ( P<0.01); the levels of bifidobacterium ( t=4.037, 2.358) and Lactobacillus acidophilus ( t=7.352, 2.092) were significantly higher than those in the control group, while the levels of Escherichia coli ( t=3.822, 6.084) were significantly lower than those in the control group ( P<0.01 or P<0.05). The serum CRP ( t=9.326, 12.300), IL-6 ( t=4.591, 4.716), TNF-α ( t=9.304, 9.775), SCr ( t=17.630, 11.530), BUN ( t=2.674, 2.248), UA ( t=10.860, 13.160) were significantly lower than those in the control group ( P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion:Yishen Decoction can improve intestinal microecological status, inhibit microinflammatory response and relieve clinical symptoms for the patients with stage 3-5 CKD.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907624

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the characteristics of intestinal flora in children with asthma from the theory of "lung and large intestine being interior-exterior" , and to provide an experimental basis for the study of "lung and intestine axis" .Methods:Based on 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing technology, stool samples from children with 30 asthma and 28 healthy children were enrolloed and sequenced. All patients are from january 2018 to April 2018, Shanghai Children's Medical Center affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical College and Oriental Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University. Statistical methods such as Principal component analysis (PCA), LEfSe analysis, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and non-metric multidimensional scale analysis (NMDS) were used to analyze intestinal flora characteristics of asthma children.Results:The number of Intestinal flora operating taxon unit (OTU) in asthmatic group (141.96 ± 27.42 vs. 164.54 ± 50.58, P=0.048), Shannon index (2.49 ± 0.51 vs. 2.80 ± 0.56, P=0.044) were significantly lower than those of healthy children group, and Simpson index (0.18 ± 0.06 vs. 0.13 ± 0.07, P=0.010) was significantly higher than that of healthy children. There was no significant difference in intestinal flora abundance between asthmatic children and healthy children ( P>0.05), but there was a decreasing trend. Further differential intestinal flora analysis showed that there were differences in bacterial abundance between children with asthma and healthy children. Conclusion:Children with asthma showed high related with intestinal flora disorders, referring that asthma maybe treated when intestinal flora is treated, which provides a reference for the study of the relationship between lung and intestine from the perspective of intestinal flora.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907410

ABSTRACT

Saccharomyces boulardii is a subspecies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is a fungal probiotic. It can regulate the intestinal flora and enhance the barrier function of the intestinal tract. Compared with bacterial probiotics, Saccharomyces boulardii is more resistant to acid and oxidation, does not transmit genetic material with bacteria, and can be used in combination with antibiotics. Saccharomyces boulardii can function through a variety of mechanisms, and many proteases secreted by it have antitoxin effects; its own bacteria contain more polyamines, which can nourish the intestinal mucosal cells and regulate the body's metabolic balance. Besides, it can regulate multiple signal pathways to enhance intestinal immunity. Saccharomyces boulardii has been used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). The results of animal experiments and clinical studies have shown that the application of Saccharomyces boulardii can improve intestinal inflammation and enhance the therapeutic effect of mesalazine. Saccharomyces boulardii can be used as an auxiliary drug for the treatment of UC.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907314

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, more and more attention was attached to the problem of children′s growth and development.It is known that postnatal growth is mainly regulated by the conserved GH-IGF-1 axis that acts through endocrine and paracrine pathways.It is now well established that undernourished children harbor an altered microbiota, correlated with impaired growth.Moreover, many disorders of intestinal flora are always accompanied by growth retardation.These evidences show that there might be a certain relationship between intestinal flora and growth and development.Recent studies have demonstrated that intestinal flora may regulate the growth and development process through this axis, and GH-IGF-1 axis may also affect the composition and diversity of intestinal flora.This paper reviewes the bidirectional regulatory relationship between intestinal microbiota and the GH-IGF-1 axis to reveal the functional relationship between growth and development of children and GH-IGF-1 axis as well as the intestinal flora.By elucidating the influence of intestinal flora on growth and development, a new approach would be found for the application of therapeutic methods of microflora in the field of growth retardation in children.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907299

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori(Hp)infection mediates the immune response and promotes autophagy in gastrointestinal mucosa, both of which affect intestinal flora.According to the indications of Hp infection in children, the standard triple therapy is selected for the eradication treatment, but the treatment may break the microecological balance of the body.This article reviews the relationship between Hp infection and intestinal flora in children and the role of probiotics in the treatment of Hp infection.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906473

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of Huayu Jiedu prescription (HYJDP) on gut microbiota and fecal metabolites in mice with endometriosis. Method:Normal female C57BL/6J mice were divided into normal control group (CO), endometriosis group (EM) and Chinese medicine Huayu Jiedu decocotion group (CM). CO and EM groups received normal saline and CM group received HYJDP by intragastric administration. Untargeted metabolomics method was used to detect metabolites in fecal supernatant of mice, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to screen the differential metabolites, 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing was used to detect the gut microbiota, and Spearman correlation coefficient was used to represent the degree of correlation between differential metabolites and intestinal flora. Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in intestinal wall tissue, serum and peritoneal lavage fluid were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of Vimentin and E-cadherin in ectopic lesions was detected by immunohistochemistry. Result:HYJDP alleviated the disorders of fecal metabolites and gut microbiota in EMS mice, especially with the recovered levels of homoveratric acid, melilotoside C and physapubescin in fecal supernatant. In the comparison of these three factors between EM group and CO group as well as between EM group and CM group, the variable important in projection (VIP) value was both above 2, and AUC in ROC analysis was both >0.9. As compared with EM group, HYJDP restored the abundance of species such as <italic>Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group</italic>, <italic>Lactobacillus</italic> and <italic>Blautia </italic>(<italic>P</italic><0.05). In addition, the level of LPS in peritoneal fluid supernatant of EM group was significantly higher than that of CO group (<italic>P</italic><0.05) and CM group (<italic>P</italic><0.05). The protein expression of vimentin and E-cadherin in endometriosis decreased significantly (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:HYJDP which can improve the intestinal environment and reduce the level of LPS in mice with endometriosis, is an effective drug for the treatment of endometriosis.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906419

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of Gegen Qinliantang (GQT) on the structure of intestinal flora in dysbacterial diarrhea rats by 16S rRNA sequencing. Method:Sixty healthy SD rats were randomly and equally divided into a control group, a model group, high-, medium-, and low-dose GQT groups, and a Bifidobiogen group. The rat model was induced in the five groups except the control group by administration of mixed antibiotics (178.6 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup> cefradine and 31.25 mg·kg<sup>-1 </sup>gentamicin sulfate) according to the dose. Drug intervention was carried out in each group (7.02, 3.51, and 1.755 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> GQT for the high-, medium-, and low-dose GQT groups, 0.125 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> bifidobacterium capsules for the Bifidobiogen group, and sterile distilled water for the control and model groups) with a volume of 10 mL·kg<sup>-1</sup> for seven days. Colon contents of rats were obtained under anesthesia. The extracted fecal DNA underwent 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and the results were analyzed. Result:GQT was proved capable of adjusting the species number and Alpha and Beta diversity, improving the biological richness and diversity of the flora, and positively regulating three differential phyla (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) and 14 differential genera (<italic>Bacteroides</italic>,<italic> Parabacteroides</italic>,<italic> Blautia</italic>, etc.) in rat model of dysbacterial diarrhea. Conclusion:The present study confirmed the regulatory effect of GQT on intestinal flora of dysbacterial diarrhea rats, and revealed the physiological and pathological mechanism between intestinal flora and dysbacterial diarrhea.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906338

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the extraction method and characteristics of vesicle-like nanoparticles (VLNs) in Astragali Radix decoction, and to explore the mechanism of the VLNs in reducing blood glucose by regulating the gut microbiota of db/db diabetic mice. Method:Ultracentrifugation and size exclusion chromatography were used to enrich VLNs from Astragali Radix decoction, and the morphology, particle size and concentration of the VLNs were analyzed by transmission electron microscope and nanoparticle tracking analyzer. The db/db diabetic mice were randomly divided into model group, Astragali Radix VLNs high-, medium- and low-dose (21.1, 10.6, 5.3 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) groups and metformin group (0.25 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) according to their blood glucose levels. There were 7 mice in each group, and another 7 C57BL/6 mice were set as the normal group. The mice were given intragastrically for 3 weeks (once a day), and the changes of fasting blood glucose were observed every week. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the pathological morphology of liver and pancreas of diabetic mice. The feces of mice were collected for 16S rRNA diversity detection of intestinal microbes. Result:The size of the nanoparticles obtained by the two methods was about 200 nm. Astragali Radix VLNs extracted by ultracentrifugation had a typical saucer-like shape with the concentration of 3.0×10<sup>11</sup> particles·mL<sup>-1</sup>. The morphology of Astragali Radix VLNs obtained by size exclusion chromatography was relatively poor with the concentration of 2.2×10<sup>11</sup> particles·mL<sup>-1</sup>. After 3 weeks of administration, compared with the model group, Astragali Radix VLNs high-, medium- and low-dose groups could significantly reduce the fasting blood glucose of diabetic mice (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). The VLNs could improve the gut microbiota dysbiosis, significantly decrease the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidota, and increase the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria and reduce the relative abundance of harmful bacteria. Conclusion:Astragali Radix VLNs may reduce the blood glucose of db/db diabetic mice by adjusting the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidota in the intestinal flora.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906328

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the correlation between the efficacy of <italic>Usnea diffracta</italic> in treating atherosclerosis (AS) and the altered microbial flora in rat ileum based on the interior-exterior relationship between heart and small intestine in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Method:Forty-eight SD rats were randomized into a normal group (<italic>n</italic>=8) and a modeling group (<italic>n</italic>=40). The AS model was established with high-fat diet combined with intraperitoneal injection of vitamin D<sub>3</sub>. The successfully modeled rats were further randomly divided into the model group, positive control (simvastatin, 4 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>) group, and low- (0.7 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), medium- (1.4 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), and high-dose (2.8 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) <italic>U. diffracta</italic> ethanol extract groups, with eight rats in each group. After four weeks of intervention, the blood, aorta, ileum, and ileum content of rats in each group were collected. The levels of serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor-<italic>α </italic>(TNF-<italic>α</italic>) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the pathological changes in rat thoracic aorta was detected by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Western blot was conducted to determine the protein expression levels of tight junction protein zonula occluden (ZO-1) and Occludin in rat ileum, and the high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology was employed to detect changes in microbial diversity and abundance in rat ileum of each group. Result:Compared with the normal group, the model group exhibited obvious aortic plaque deposition, increased LPS, TNF-<italic>α</italic>, and IL-6 levels (<italic>P</italic><0.01), but decreased ZO-1 and Occludin protein expression (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The comparison with the model group revealed that <italic>U. diffracta</italic> significantly ameliorated the aortic plaque deposition of model rats, lowered serum LPS, TNF-<italic>α</italic>, and IL-6 levels (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), and up-regulated ZO-1 and Occludin protein expression (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). The abundance of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in the model group changed significantly in contrast to that in the normal group, and the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes(B/F) value declined (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Alpha and Beta diversity analysis indicated higher total number of intestinal flora species in the model group, but lower richness and uneven distribution (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), with a large number of pathogenic bacteria enriched. The ethanol extract of <italic>U. diffracta</italic> significantly increased the B/F value, corrected the structural disorder of microbial flora in ileum, reduced pathogenic bacteria, and increased the relative abundance of probiotics. Conclusion:<italic>U. diffracta</italic> exerts the therapeutic effect against AS possibly by improving the intestinal microbial communities, strengthening the intestinal mucosal barrier function, and reducing the serum LPS and inflammatory factors.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906261

ABSTRACT

Diabetes has become one of the fastest growing public health issues in the world. Its pathological mechanism is complex and affected by multiple factors. There are trillions of microbes in the human intestine, which are roughly divided into three types: probiotics, neutral bacteria, and pathogenic bacteria. They are in a dynamic balance and constitute a complex intestinal micro-ecosystem. The balance and homeostasis of the intestinal micro-ecosystem are essential to maintain the stability of the body's environment and human health. With the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technology, imbalanced intestinal flora distribution has been proven to be an important factor in promoting the development of insulin resistance (IR), thus increasing the risk of diabetes. In recent years, the regulation of intestinal flora has become a new approach and new target for the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications. The application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in treatment of metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity has a long history. TCM has its unique characteristics and advantages, however, the unclear mechanism of action has limited its modernization and industrialization. The harmonious symbiosis between the intestinal flora and the host is consistent with the TCM theory of "harmony between human and nature". The effect of TCM on the intestinal microflora has gradually become a hot topic in medical research today. One study believes that diabetes originates from "intestinal fever". At present, some relevant experimental researches and clinical research literatures have shown that some heat-clearing Chinese herbal compounds have a certain regulating effect on imbalanced intestinal flora. Therefore, the relationship between intestinal flora and diabetes was explored, and the mechanism of heat-clearing Chinese herbal compounds (Da Chaihutang, Gegen Qinliantang, Huanglian Jiedutang, and Wumeiwan) in preventing and treating heat syndrome of diabetes through regulation of intestinal flora was analyzed, in order to provide new theoretical basis and research clues for the further development of drugs for treating diabetes.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906260

ABSTRACT

Based on theory of "paired relationship between the heart and the small intestine" in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), heart disease can affect the small intestine, and intestinal diseases can also affect the heart. The heart controls mental activities, so if the secretions function of small intestine is impaired, it will hinder the mind of the mind. Modern medicine has found that intestinal flora is closely related to cognitive function, which is consistent with the "paired relationship between heart and small intestine" in TCM. Diabetes cognitive impairment (DCI) is a category of "diabetes dementia" in TCM. According to TCM, the imbalance of spleen and stomach is the starting factor of diabetes dementia, and the phlegm turbidity of spleen deficiency is the pathological product of diabetes dementia. Previous projects have proved that intestinal flora disturbance is the modern pathological basis of spleen and stomach imbalance in TCM, suggesting that restoring spleen and stomach function to adjust intestinal microbial homeostasis is helpful for the prevention and treatment of diabetes dementia. At present, many achievements have been made in the study of the mutual causality between diabetes and intestinal flora disorder. In recent years, the incidence of DCI has increased rapidly, and the pathogenesis is complex and unclear, which increases the difficulty of treatment. Therefore, finding new targets should not be ignored. Given the complex connections among intestinal flora, diabetes and cognitive impairment, it is particularly important to tease out the relationship among the three. Based on previous scientific research, the author analyzed layer by layer and found that intestinal flora can not only affect the synthesis of neurotransmitters in the brain, but also participate in the common pathogenesis of diabetes and cognitive impairment such as chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and blood glucose rise, with a typical target effect. The pathogenic mechanism of intestinal flora in DCI was summarized in order to establish a new target and direction for the treatment, and to explore the scientific connotation of TCM in regulating spleen and stomach for treatment of diabetes dementia.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906248

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the clinical efficacy of Chaihu Shugansan on non-alcoholic fatty liver(NAFLD) patients with liver stagnation and spleen deficiency syndrome and its effect on intestinal flora. Method:The study was a single-center, randomized,single-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study involving 80 patients with NAFLD treated from January 2019 to January 2020 at our hospital. They were divided into two groups (Chaihu Shugansan group,<italic>n</italic>=40) and control group (placebo group,<italic>n</italic>=40). The two groups of patients were given lifestyle intervention as the basic protocol. The treatment group was orally given Chaihu Shugansan,and the control group was orally given placebo. The drugs were given twice in the morning and evening, 1 dose/time. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks. Before and after treatment,the efficady on liver steatosis was observed by abdominal ultrasound and transient elastography (Fibroscan), levels of alanine aminotransferase(ALT),aspartate aminotransferase(AST),glutamyl transpeptidase(<italic>γ</italic>-GT),high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C),total cholesterol(TC),triglyceride(TG),interleukin(IL)-6,IL-1<italic>β</italic>,Toll-like receptor-4(TLR-4) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs) and intestinal flora were also detected. Result:There were 37 patients in the treatment group and 35 patients in the control group who finally completed the study protocol. The total effective rate of NAFLD in the treatment group(81.08%,30/37) was higher than that in the control group (68.57%,24/35)(<italic>Z</italic>=2.67,<italic>P</italic><0.05). The treatment group was superior to the control group in reducing the levels of BMI,ALT,AST,TC,LDL-C,TG,<italic>γ</italic>-GT and increasing the level of HDL-C(<italic>P</italic><0.05). The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines(TNF-<italic>α</italic>,IL-1<italic>β</italic> and IL-6),the values of Controlled Attenuation Parameter(CAP),Liver Stiffness Measurement(LSM) and expression of TLR4 were down-regulated in the treatment group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). In addition,the treatment group showed increase in the abundance of beneficial bacteria (<italic>Bifidobacterium</italic> and <italic>Lactobacillus</italic>) and inhibited the abundance of pathogenic bacteria (<italic>Enterobacter </italic>and<italic> Enterococcus</italic>) in the gut(<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:In addition to the lifestyle intervention,Chaihu Shugansan can improve lipid metabolism and liver function,regulate intestinal flora and inhibit the level of inflammatory factors in patients with NAFLD.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906223

ABSTRACT

In China, about 100 million people currently have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). At the same time, COPD is a multisystem disease, not only affecting the function of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, kidney and immune systems in patients, but also causing intestinal dysfunction as its extrapulmonary manifestations. From the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), after COPD is formed, deficiency, phlegm stasis and toxicity were accumulated in the lungs, which leads to dysfunction of lung in dispersing and descending, and eventually causes ascending and descending disorder of Qi activities, disorder of fluid supply and distribution, and stagnation of blood stasis. The viscera disease would affect the bowels, and the large intestine is thus affected. Modern medical discovers that, the lungs and intestines have common origins and similar physiological structures, in pathological circumstances, their common mucosal immune system may lead to similar immune factors and inflammatory manifestations in the lungs and intestines. At the same time, the studies have confirmed that there is also a close relationship between intestinal flora and lung, that is "lung-gut axis". These theories partially illustrate the mechanism of COPD in inducing intestinal injury. The specific manifestations of COPD intestinal dysfunction, ① Flora disorder, with increased abundance of intestinal gram-negative bacilli, and inhibited reproduction of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria. ② Intestinal barrier damage: characterized by the destruction of intestinal epithelium tight connectivity, increased intestinal permeability, and thinning of the mucus layer. ③ Intestinal motility disorder: mostly manifested as weight loss and malnutrition. At present, for the intestinal dysfunction in COPD patients, most of the relevant discussions and targeted treatment methods in TCM are scattered and unsystematic. Guided by the idea of treating different diseases with the same treatment, we summarized the etiology and pathogenesis of COPD intestinal dysfunction by learning from the experience of TCM in treating intestinal flora disorders and inflammatory bowel disease, and proposed preliminary formulation with Tiaoqi Qushi,Tongfu Tongluo as its basic treatment principles in this paper, hoping to provide new ideas for the treatment of COPD.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906163

ABSTRACT

Diarrhea is characterized by increased bowel movements and loose and even watery stools. Its occurrence and development have been proved by modern research to be closely related to the imbalance of intestinal flora. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pays a special attention to syndrome differentiation in treating diarrhea. Exploring the TCM syndromes of diarrhea is of great significance to the formulation of TCM diagnosis and treatment scheme of diarrhea and the improvement of clinical curative effects. There exist many similarities between TCM theory and micro-ecological theory concerning diarrhea. With the deepening of intestinal flora research, the significance of intestinal flora in TCM syndrome research has been increasingly highlighted. The close correlation of intestinal flora with the occurrence and development of diarrhea has provided new ideas of deducing syndrome and selecting prescription based on intestinal flora. This paper summarized the relationship between TCM syndromes of diarrhea and microscopic indexes such as immune response, neurotransmitters, brain-gut peptide, and proteins and analyzed the intestinal flora characteristics related to six common TCM syndromes of diarrhea. Meanwhile, based on the theory of deducing syndrome by prescription, namely deducing the syndrome by the efficacy of prescription or its medicinal components, the correlation between TCM syndromes of diarrhea and intestinal flora was indirectly verified, so as to identify the research direction of correlation between intestinal flora and TCM syndromes in the future. Numerous studies have shown that the TCM syndromes of diarrhea were highly correlated with the microscopic indexes such as inflammatory cytokines, neurotransmitters, and proteins. Syndromes and dysbacteriosis both resulted from pathogenic factors acting on the body, which were summarized from different angles. Different TCM syndromes corresponded to specific objective indicators of intestinal flora. Intestinal flora has the potential of being an internal material basis for powerfully revealing the TCM syndromes of diarrhea in the future.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906132

ABSTRACT

With the development of urbanization and the change of lifestyle, people have gradually developed unhealthy living habits, such as high-fat diet and reduced physical activity, which promotes the increasing number of diabetes patients and becomes an escalating public health problem worldwide. Therefore, it is urgent to explore effective measures to prevent and treat diabetes. Recent studies have shown that intestinal flora is closely related to the occurrence and development of diabetes, making it a potential target for the treatment of diabetes. A healthy intestinal environment is an important internal environment for physiological and metabolic activities of the human body. Intestinal flora homeostasis is accompanied by physiological metabolic disorders of the body, such as induced metabolic endotoxemia, bile acid metabolism disorders and reduced production of short chain fatty acid (SCFA), which leads to low-grade chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in the body that are important pathological processes of diabetes. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in the treatment of diabetes, with a remarkable curative effect. At present, there are extensive studies on the active ingredients of TCM and the compound of TCM for regulating structure of intestinal flora and improving symptoms of diabetes. A large number of studies have shown a dynamic two-way relationship between TCM and intestinal flora. Specifically, intestinal flora can transform TCM into polyphenols, alkaloids, saponins and other active substances with a pharmacological effect, in turn, these active ingredients can reverse the imbalance of intestinal microecology, and the recovery of intestinal flora imbalance can improve the symptoms of diabetes. It can be seen that intestinal flora is a bridge for TCM treatment of diabetes, which may be one of the mechanisms of TCM treatment of diabetes. This paper reviews the active ingredients of TCM and the compound of TCM in the treatment of diabetes, in order to provide reference for the exploration of prevention and treatment of diabetes.

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