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1.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 50(4): e300, Oct.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407950

ABSTRACT

Abstract The erector spinae plane (ESP) block is an interfascial block described in 2016 by Forero and collaborators, with wide clinical uses and benefits when it comes to analgesic control in different surgeries. This block consists of the application of local anesthetic (LA) in a deep plane over the transverse process, anterior to the erector spinae muscle in the anatomical site where dorsal and ventral branches of the spinal nerve roots are located. This review will cover its clinical uses according to different surgical models, the existing evidence and complications described to date.


Resumen El bloqueo del plano del músculo erector de la espina (ESP, por sus siglas en inglés) es un bloqueo interfascial descrito en 2016 por Forero y colaboradores, con amplios usos clínicos y beneficios en relación con el control analgésico de diferentes modelos quirúrgicos. Este consiste en la aplicación de anestésico local (AL) en un plano profundo sobre apófisis transversa anterior al músculo erector de la espina, sitio anatómico donde se encuentra la bifurcación de los ramos dorsal y ventral de las raíces nerviosas espinales. En esta revisión, se expondrán los usos clínicos según diferentes modelos quirúrgicos, la evidencia que existe de ellos y las complicaciones descritas hasta la actualidad.

2.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(3): 370-379, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376533

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The objective of this study is to investigate the protective mechanism of dexmedetomidine (Dex) in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) of diabetic rats by inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Methods: Initially, healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. Then, three weeks after the induction, Dex or lentiviral vector (LV)-HIF-1α was injected into the rats 30 minutes prior to the MIR modeling. After four weeks, lung tissues were harvested for pathological changes observation and the wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio determination. Afterwards, oxidative stress indicators and pro-inflammatory factors were measured. In addition, HIF-1α expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Results: Dex could suppress inflammatory cell infiltration, improve lung tissue structure, reduce pathological score and the W/D ratio, and block oxidative stress and inflammatory response in MIR-induced ALI of diabetic rats. Besides, Dex could also inhibit HIF-1α expression. Moreover, Dex + LV-HIF-1α reversed the protective role of Dex on diabetic MIR-induced ALI. Conclusion: Our study has made it clear that Dex inhibited the upregulation of HIF-1α in diabetic MIR-induced ALI, and thus protect lung functions by quenching the accumulation of oxygen radical and reducing lung inflammatory response.

3.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 50(1): e300, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360948

ABSTRACT

Abstract Adult In-hospital Cardiac Arrest (IHCA) is defined as the loss of circulation of an in-patient. Following high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), if the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) is achieved, the post-cardiac arrest syndrome develops (PCAS). This review is intended to discuss the current diagnosis and treatment of PCAS. To approach this topic, a bibliography search was conducted through direct digital access to the scientific literature published in English and Spanish between 2014 and 2020, in MedLine, SciELO, Embase and Cochrane. This search resulted in 248 articles from which original articles, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and clinical practice guidelines were selected for a total of 56 documents. The etiologies may be divided into 56% of in-hospital cardiac, and 44% of non-cardiac arrests. The incidence of this physiological collapse is up to 1.6 cases/1,000 patients admitted, and its frequency is higher in the intensive care units (ICU), with an overall survival rate of 13% at one year. The primary components of PCAS are brain injury, myocardial dysfunction and the persistence of the precipitating pathology. The mainstays for managing PCAS are the prevention of cardiac arrest, ventilation support, control of peri-cardiac arrest arrythmias, and interventions to optimize neurologic recovery. A knowledgeable healthcare staff in PCAS results in improved patient survival and future quality of life. Finally, there is clear need to do further research in the Latin American Population.


Resumen El paro cardiaco intrahospitalario en el adulto (IHCA) se define como el cese de circulación ocurrido dentro de las instalaciones hospitalarias. Después de la reanimación cardiopulmonar (RCP) de alta calidad, si se logra el retorno de circulación espontánea (ROSC), aparece entonces el síndrome posparo cardiaco (SPPC). En esta revisión se pretende presentar el estado actual del diagnóstico y tratamiento del SPPC. Para abordar este tema, se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica mediante la consulta digital directa de la literatura científica publicada entre 2014 y 2020 en inglés y español recogida en las bases de datos MedLine, SciELO, Embase y Cochrane. La búsqueda inicial arrojó 248 artículos, de los cuales se eligieron artículos originales, revisiones sistemáticas, metaanálisis y guías de práctica clínica, para una selección final de 56 documentos. Las etiologías del paro cardiaco intrahospitalario se pueden dividir en cardiacas y no cardiacas, en el 56 % y 44 %, respectivamente. El colapso fisiológico tiene incidencias de hasta 1,6 casos/1.000 pacientes admitidos, y es más frecuente en las unidades de cuidado intensivo (UCI), con una tasa de supervivencia general de 1 año del 13 %. Los componentes principales del SPPC son la lesión cerebral, la disfunción miocárdica y la persistencia de la patología precipitante. Los pilares del manejo del SPPC son la prevención del paro cardiaco, soporte ventilatorio, control de arritmias periparo cardiaco y las intervenciones para optimizar la recuperación neurológica. El conocimiento del SPPC por parte del personal de la salud ofrece mejor sobrevida y futura calidad de vida a los pacientes. Finalmente, se resalta la clara necesidad de ahondar en mayores investigaciones en la población latinoamericana.

4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(1): 87-93, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360707

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect and mechanism of action of artichoke leaf extract in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. METHODS: Rats were divided into three groups such as sham, control, and artichoke leaf extract groups. Antioxidant enzyme activities and biochemical parameters were examined from the tissue and serum obtained from the subjects. Histopathological findings were scored semiquantitatively. RESULTS: Statistically, the antioxidant activity was highest in the artichoke leaf extract group, the difference in biochemical parameters and C-reactive protein was significant compared with the control group, and the histopathological positive effects were found to be significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: As a result, artichoke leaf extract had a hepatoprotective effect and that this effect was related to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of artichoke.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Cynara scolymus , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Liver , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929000

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), nephrotoxin, and sepsis, with poor prognosis and high mortality. Leptin is a protein molecule that regulates the body's energy metabolism and reproductive activities via binding to its specific receptor. Leptin can inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by I/R, but its effect on I/R kidney injury and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanisms of leptin on renal function, renal histopathology, apoptosis, and autophagy during acute I/R kidney injury.@*METHODS@#Healthy adult male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: a sham+wild-type mice (ob/+) group, a sham+leptin gene-deficient mice (ob/ob) group, an I/R+ob/+ group, and an I/R+ob/ob group (n=8 per group). For sham operation, a longitudinal incision was made on the back of the mice to expose and separate the bilateral kidneys and renal arteries, and no subsequent treatment was performed. I/R treatment was ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 48 h. The levels of BUN and SCr were detected to evaluate renal function; HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of renal tissue; TUNEL staining was used to observe cell apoptosis, and apoptosis-positive cells were counted; Western blotting was used to detect levels of apoptosis-related proteins (caspase 3, caspase 9), autophagy-related proteins [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), LC3 I, LC3 II], mTOR-dependent signaling pathway proteins [phosphate and tension homology (PTEN), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), phosphorylated PTEN (p-PTEN), phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK)].@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the levels of BUN and SCr between the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group (both P>0.05). The levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/+ group were significantly higher than those in the sham+ob/+ group (both P<0.05). Compared with the mice in the sham+ob/ob group or the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/ob group were significantly increased (all P<0.05). There was no obvious damage to the renal tubules in the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group. Compared with sham+ob/+ group and sham+ob/ob group, both the I/R+ob/+ group and the I/R+ob/ob group had cell damage such as brush border shedding, vacuolar degeneration, and cast formation. Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the renal tubules of the mice in the I/R+ob/ob group were more severely damaged. The pathological score of renal tubular injury showed that the renal tubular injury was the most serious in the I/R+ob/ob group (P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/+ group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, and the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/+ group (all P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/ob group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, while the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05). Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT were more significantly down-regulated, while the levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were more significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was more significantly increase in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Renal function and tubular damage, and elevated levels of apoptosis and autophagy are observed in mice kidneys after acute I/R. Leptin might relieve I/R induced AKI by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy that through a complex network of interactions between mTOR-dependent signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/pharmacology , Autophagy , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Female , Humans , Ischemia , Kidney/pathology , Leptin/pharmacology , Male , Mammals/metabolism , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reperfusion/adverse effects , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To reveal the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of a mixture of the main components of Panax notoginseng saponins (TSPN) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) of cultured cortical neurons.@*METHODS@#The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays. The morphology of dendrites was detected by immunofluorescence. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was developed in rats as a model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by neurological scoring, tail suspension test, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Nissl stainings. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to measure the changes in the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.@*RESULTS@#MTT showed that TSPN (50, 25 and 12.5 µ g/mL) protected cortical neurons after OGD/R treatment (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays indicated that 25 µ g/mL TSPN decreased neuronal apoptosis (P<0.05), and immunofluorescence showed that 25 µ g/mL TSPN restored the dendritic morphology of damaged neurons (P<0.05). Moreover, 12.5 µ g/mL TSPN downregulated the expression of Beclin-1, Cleaved-caspase 3 and LC3B-II/LC3B-I, and upregulated the levels of phosphorylated (p)-Akt and p-mTOR (P<0.01 or P<0.05). In the MCAO model, 50 µ g/mL TSPN improved defective neurological behavior and reduced infarct volume (P<0.05). Moreover, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B in cerebral ischemic penumbra was downregulated after 50 µ g/mL TSPN treatment, whereas the p-mTOR level was upregulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#TSPN promoted neuronal survival and protected dendrite integrity after OGD/R and had a potential therapeutic effect by alleviating neurological deficits and reversing neuronal loss. TSPN promoted p-mTOR and inhibited Beclin-1 to alleviate ischemic damage, which may be the mechanism that underlies the neuroprotective activity of TSPN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Beclin-1 , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Glucose , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Mammals/metabolism , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Oxygen , Panax notoginseng , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Saponins/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
7.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 126-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907043

ABSTRACT

Common marginal donor liver mainly consists of fatty donor liver, elderly donor liver, small volume donor liver and liver graft from donation after cardiac death (DCD), etc. The application of marginal donor liver may resolve the severe shortage of donor liver to certain extent. Nevertheless, marginal donor liver yields a higher risk of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and causes more severe IRI than normal donor liver, which is a main cause for the failure of transplantation. In addition, oxidative stress is a major risk factor causing IRI of marginal donor liver. Therefore, how to mitigate oxidative stress and alleviate IRI of marginal donor liver has become a hot spot in clinical practice. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress occurs throughout the whole process of IRI. In this article, the role of oxidative stress in IRI of marginal donor liver transplantation and the ROS-targeted prevention and treatment were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for clinical practice.

8.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 88-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907038

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)/ cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (Caspase)-1/Gasdermin D (GSDMD) signaling axis-mediated hepatocyte pyroptosis on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Methods C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into the sham operation group (Sham group), IRI 2 h group, IRI 6 h group, IRI 12 h group, glycyrrhizic acid (GA)+Sham group and GA+IRI 12 h group (n=8 in each group). AML12 cells were evenly divided into the Sham group, IRI 12 h group, GA+Sham group and GA+IRI 12 h group. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in each group were detected by enzyme-linked immune absorbent assay(ELISA). The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of IL-1β and IL-6 were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The pathological score of liver ischemia and cell apoptosis were compared among all groups. The expression level of HMGB1 in the liver tissues of each group was determined by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of HMGB1, Caspase-1 and GSDMD proteins in the mouse liver tissues and AML12 cells were measured by Western blot. Results Compared with the Sham group, the serum levels of ALT, AST, IL-1β and IL-6 and the relative expression levels of IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA in the liver tissues were all significantly up-regulated after IRI in each group (all P < 0.05), and showed significant time-dependent pattern along with the prolongation of reperfusion time. Compared with the Sham group, the pathological score of hepatic ischemia and the apoptosis rate of hepatocytes were significantly increased after IRI in each group (all P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical results showed that the expression level of HMGB1 in the liver tissues was significantly up-regulated after IRI, which showed an increasing trend along with the prolongation within the period of 2-12 h. Western blot showed that compared with the Sham group, the relative expression levels of HMGB1, Caspase-1 and GSDMD proteins in vivo and in vitro were up-regulated in the IRI 12 h group. The relative expression level of HMGB1 protein was significantly up-regulated, whereas those of Caspase-1 and GSDMD proteins were significantly down-regulated in the GA+IRI 12 h group compared with those in the IRI 12 h group (all P < 0.05). Conclusions Hepatocytes probably activate the Caspase-1/GSDMD signaling pathway by releasing HMGB1, thereby triggering hepatocyte pyroptosis and leading to liver IRI. Inhibition of extracellular release of HMGB1 by GA may mitigate liver IRI.

9.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 74-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907036

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the predictive values of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), urine NGAL, serum cystatin C (Cys-C) and serum creatinine (Scr) for early delayed graft function (DGF) in kidney transplant recipients. Methods Clinical data, blood and urine samples of 159 kidney transplant recipients were collected. All recipients were divided into the DGF group (n=42) and immediate graft function (IGF) group (n=117) according to the incidence of DGF. Clinical data of all recipients were analyzed. The changes of serum NGAL, urine NGAL, Cys-C and Scr levels were statistically compared between two groups. The predictive values of different markers for early DGF were assessed. Results Among 159 kidney transplant recipients, DGF occurred in 42 cases with an incidence rate of 26.4%. There were statistically significant differences in donor age, cold ischemia time of donor kidney and complement-dependent cytoxicity (CDC) between the two groups(all P < 0.05). Within postoperative 2 weeks, the serum NGAL levels in the DGF group were higher than those in the IGF group (all P < 0.05). The Cys-C, Scr and urine NGAL levels in the DGF group were higher compared with those in the IGF group within 3 weeks after kidney transplantation(all P < 0.001). Serum NGAL, urine NGAL, Cys-C and Scr levels had certain predictive values for early DGF in kidney transplant recipients. Cys-C yielded the highest predictive value with a cut-off value of 4.73 mg/L, sensitivity of 0.833, specificity of 0.812 and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.895. Conclusions Cys-C has higher predictive value for early DGF in kidney transplant recipients compared with serum NGAL, urine NGAL and Scr.

10.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 277-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920861

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria is one of the important organelles, which is composed of outer mitochondrial membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial structure and function are regulated by mitochondrial dynamics. Mitochondrial fusion- and fission-related proteins may participate in the process of mitochondrial fusion and fission, mediate mitochondrial dynamics, thereby regulating cell structure, function and energy metabolism. Mitofusin (MFN) 2, a protein located on the outer mitochondrial membrane of mammalian, has guanosine triphosphatase activity, which may mediate mitochondrial fusion, participate in mitophagy, formation of mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane and apoptosis, and significantly affect the incidence and development of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). In this article, the structure, regulation, function of MFN2 and its role in IRI were reviewed, and the relationship between MFN2 and IRI and underlying mechanism were investigated, aiming to provide novel targets and ideas for the prevention and treatment of IRI.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920349

ABSTRACT

@#BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the gene expression of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using stress and toxicity pathway gene chip technology and try to determine the underlying mechanism. METHODS: The mononuclear cells were separated by ficoll centrifugation, and plasma total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) was determined by the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. The expression of toxic oxidative stress genes was determined and verified by oligo gene chip and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Additionally, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was performed on DAVID website to analyze the potential mechanism further. RESULTS: The total numbers of white blood cells (WBC) and neutrophils (N) in the peripheral blood of STEMI patients (the AMI group) were significantly higher than those in the control group (WBC: 11.67±4.85 ×109/L vs. 6.41±0.72 ×109/L, P<0.05; N: 9.27±4.75 ×109/L vs. 3.89±0.81 ×109/ L, P<0.05), and WBCs were significantly associated with creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) on the first day (Y=8.945+0.018X, P<0.05). In addition, the T-AOC was significantly lower in the AMI group comparing to the control group (12.80±1.79 U/mL vs. 20.48±2.55 U/mL, P<0.05). According to the gene analysis, eight up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) included GADD45A, PRDX2, HSPD1, DNAJB1, DNAJB2, RAD50, TNFSF6, and TRADD. Four down-regulated DEGs contained CCNG1, CAT, CYP1A1, and ATM. TNFSF6 and CYP1A1 were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to verify the expression at different time points, and the results showed that TNFSF6 was up-regulated and CYP1A1 was down-regulated as the total expression. GO and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis suggested that the oxidative stress genes mediate MIRI via various ways such as unfolded protein response (UPR) and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: WBCs, especially neutrophils, were the critical cells that mediating reperfusion injury. MIRI was regulated by various genes, including oxidative metabolic stress, heat shock, DNA damage and repair, and apoptosis-related genes. The underlying pathway may be associated with UPR and apoptosis, which may be the novel therapeutic target.

12.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 537-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934777

ABSTRACT

Ischemic-type biliary lesion (ITBL) refers to biliary tract injury caused by insufficient blood supply of hepatic artery, which is one of the main factors affecting the long-term survival and quality of life of liver transplant recipients. The incidence of ITBL is associated with cold and warm ischemia, acute and chronic rejection, cytomegalovirus infection and the bile effect, etc. The occurrence of ITBL is a complicated process involving with multiple factors and steps. The therapeutic option of ITBL is extremely limited. A large proportion of ITBL patients should undergo repeated liver transplantation. ITBL has become one of the most critical factors preventing further advancement of liver transplantation. Hence, it is of significance to strengthen prevention and explore more effective modalities. Recent studies have found that toxic injury of bile salts plays a central role in ITBL. Active regulation of bile components, regulation of bile acid-related receptor expression and blockage or activation of bile acid-related signaling pathways probably have potentials in the prevention and treatment of ITBL. In this article, the cytotoxicity of bile salts and the mechanism of bicarbonate umbrella in the incidence and progression of ITBL after liver transplantation were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for the diagnosis and treatment of ITBL.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933667

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the construction and mechanism of Mindin gene specific macrophage knockout mice in acute lung injury induced by lung ischemia-reperfusion injury(IRI).Methods:Mindin gene knockout mice were constructed by CRE-LOP system, Mice were divided into four groups of C57/B6 wild-type mice sham operation(n=10), C57/B6 mice operation(n=10), Mindin-/-macrophage-specific knockout mice operation(n=10)and C57/B6 mice operation + Mindin recombinant protein intervention(n=10). And lung ischemia-reperfusion injury model was established by clamping pulmonary portal.The effects of Mindin gene knockout and recombinant protein intervention on acute lung injury were observed in vivo and in vitro.t-test and ANOVA test were employed for data processing.Results:Mindin gene macrophage specific knockout mice was successfully constructed.Surgery(Mindin-/-)group significantly reduced pulmonary edema, release of inflammatory factors(IL1β: 2.73±0.19 vs. 5.81±0.61; IL-18: 6.52±0.63 vs. 11.03±0.34; TNF-α 2.18±0.14 vs. 4.76±0.20; HMGB1: 4.57±0.33 vs. 8.76±0.87), expression of NLRP3(2.07±0.27 vs. 4.91±0.22)and secretion of GSDMD(2.78±0.37 vs. 5.78±0.29)as compared with surgery group in vivo.In surgery(WT)+ Mindin group, the expression of lung IRI, inflammatory factors and cell pyroptosis were opposite, And the results were consistent in vitro and in vivo.As compared with surgery group, the above parameters were up-regulated in surgery(WT)+ Mindin protein group.And inter-group differences were statistically significant(all P<0.05). In vitro, the expressions of NLRP3(1.00±0.36, 0.41±0.06, 4.13±0.23), GSDMD(1.00±0.17, 0.34±0.16, 6.32±0.46)and integrin β4(1.00±0.11, 0.28±0.07, 3.53±0.17)were detected in different groups including hypoxia-recovery oxygen(HR), HR+ Mindin siRNA and HR+ Mindin protein groups in macrophage cell line(J774A); As compared with HR group, the above parameters were up-regulated in HR+ Mindin protein group and down-regulated in HR+ Mindin siRNA group.And the differences were statistically significant( P<0.05). The expressions of NLRP3(1.00±0.07, 1.13±0.11, 0.51±0.14)and GSDMD(1.00±0.09, 0.87±0.16, 0.37±0.12)were detected in Mindin, Mindin protein+ vehicle and Mindin protein+ integrin β4 knockout groups.The above parameters were down-regulated in Mindin protein+ integrin β4 knockout group as compared with Mindin protein and Mindin protein + vehicle groups.And the inter-group differences were statistically significant(all P<0.05). Conclusions:During pulmonary IRI, Mindin knockdown can alleviate pulmonary IRI.Mindin gene may promote the expression of inflammatory factors, NLRP3 and GSDMD protein by activating integrin β4 and aggravate cell pyroptosis to promote the development of pulmonary IRI.

14.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 325-328, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931874

ABSTRACT

Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury refers to an aggravated brain tissue damage caused by the restoration of blood supply after acute ischemia for a period of time. Its pathogenesis is complex, including oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and excitatory amino acid toxicity. The effective clinical treatments of cerebral I/R injury after ischemic stroke (IS) are limited. Nuclear factor E 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the most critical antioxidant transcription factor in cells, can coordinate multiple cytoprotective factors to inhibit oxidative stress. Since Nrf2 signaling pathway is considered to be one of the most important cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress, targeting Nrf2 intervention has become an attractive therapeutic strategy in the prevention and treatment of cerebral I/R injury. This review focuses on the structure, regulation and function of Nrf2 signaling pathway, as well as its activation and potential therapeutic targets in cerebral I/R injury. The important role and future potential of Nrf2 pathway in the pathogenesis of cerebral I/R injury were discussed.

15.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 280-283, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931864

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effects of trioxygen pretreatment on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats.Methods:A total of 24 clean grade male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into Sham group, brain I/R group (I/R group) and Ozone pretreatment group (Ozone group), with 8 rats in each group. The animals were routinely fed, and the operation was performed 5 days after the intervention of Ozone group by intraperitoneal injection of trioxygen water (concentration 80 mg/L, 0.01 mL/g), and the Sham group and I/R group were injected with equal volume normal saline. The Sham group only separated the arteries without ligation, and the I/R group and Ozone group established the rat cerebral I/R model. Neurological deficit score (NDS) was performed 2 hours after ischemia and modified neurological deficit score (mNSS) was performed 24 hours after reperfusion. Brain tissue was collected after anesthesia. Cerebral infarction was observed by 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and the percentage of cerebral infarction volume was calculated. Protein expression of metabolic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and ionic glutamate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluA2 in cerebral ischemic penumbra was determined by Western blotting.Results:Compared with the Sham group, NDS score, mNSS score and percentage of cerebral infarction volume in I/R group were increased [NDS score: 2.63±0.52 vs. 0, mNSS score: 9.63±1.19 vs. 1.13±0.64, cerebral infarction volume: (41.25±2.93)% vs. 0%, all P < 0.05], and expressions of mGluR5 and GluA2 in penumbra area of cerebral ischemia were decreased [mGluR5 protein (mGluR5/β-actin): 0.44±0.14 vs. 1.00±0.10, GluA2 protein (GluA2/β-actin): 0.23±0.08 vs. 1.00±0.25, both P < 0.05]. Compared with the I/R group, mNSS score and percentage of cerebral infarction volume in the Ozone group were decreased [mNSS score: 7.00±1.20 vs. 9.63±1.19, cerebral infarction volume: (27.23±6.21)% vs. (41.25±2.93)%, both P < 0.05], and mGluR5 and GluA2 expressions in the penumbra of cerebral ischemia were up-regulated [mGluR5 protein (mGluR5/β-actin): 0.81±0.10 vs. 0.44±0.14, GluA2 protein (GluA2/β-actin): 0.76±0.13 vs. 0.23±0.08, both P < 0.05]. Conclusion:Trioxygen preconditioning can alleviate cerebral I/R injury in rats, and its mechanism may be related to the upregulation of GluR5 and GluA2 in the ischemic penumbra.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930487

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the role of the fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) in human renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) suffering ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI).Methods:The in vitro IRI mo-del was established in HK-2 cells by induction with antimycin A, A23187 and 2-deoxy-D-glucose.The cells were divided into control group and ischemia-reperfusion group (I/R group). The mRNA and protein expressions of FTO, B-cell lymphoma / leukemia 2(Bcl-2)-associated X(Bax), Bcl-2 and cleaved cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase(cleaved Caspase-3) in HK-2 cells before and after IRI were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR(qPCR) and Western blot, respectively.Cell apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry.The level ofe N 6-methy-ladenosine (m 6A) RNA was detected by colorimetry. Results:(1) The mRNA expressions of FTO (0.15±0.05 vs.1.00±0.23) and Bcl-2 (0.14±0.07 vs.1.02±0.25) in I/R group were significantly lower than those in control group; While those of Bax (3.10±0.35 vs.1.00±0.13) and cleaved Caspase-3 (4.21±0.56 vs.1.00±0.09) were significantly higher ( t=6.28, 5.84, -9.83, and -9.84, respectively, all P<0.01). (2) The protein expressions of FTO (0.69±0.14 vs.1.37±0.02) and Bcl-2 (0.50±0.12 vs.1.25±0.21) were significantly lower in I/R group than those of control group; While those of Bax (1.04±0.08 vs.0.57±0.06) and cleaved Caspase-3 (0.99±0.05 vs.0.36±0.07) were significantly higher ( t=8.10, 5.49, -8.22, and -12.09, respectively, all P<0.05). (3) Compared with the control group, the apoptosis rate of HK-2 cells in I/R group was significantly higher [(61.70±1.01)% vs.(0.16±0.10)%, t=63.80, P<0.01]. (4) Compared with the control group, the percentage of m 6A modification level in total RNA in I/R group was significantly higher [(3.13±0.21)% vs.(1.10±0.26)%, t=-10.61, P<0.01]. Conclusions:FTO-mediated RNA m 6A modification may affect renal IRI by regulating the apoptosis of HK-2 cells.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930232

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the regulatory effect of cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIP) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury based on the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL-mediated necroptosis pathway.Methods:The cardiomyocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) model was constructed by hypoxia for 4 h/reoxygenation for 12 h, and the rat ischemia reperfusion (I/R) model was constructed by ligating the left anterior descending artery for 30 min and reperfusion for 3 h. CCK-8 method was used to detect the viability of cardiomyocytes in each group. DAPI/PI double staining was used to observe changes in necrosis rate of myocardial cell. STRING database was used to predict the protein interaction network of cFLIP. TTC staining was used to detect the area of myocardial infarction in each group of rats, and the protein expression of cFLIPL, cFLIPS, p-RIPK1, p-RIPK3 and p-MLKL were detected by Western blot.Results:In cardiomyocyte H/R injury and myocardial tissue I/R injury, the protein expressions of cFLIPL and cFLIPS were significantly down-regulated, while the levels of p-RIPK1, p-RIPK3 and p-MLKL were increased significantly. Up-regulating the protein expression of cFLIPL and cFLIPS could significantly reduce the damage of cardiomyocytes and the rate of cell necrosis induced by H/R, and decrease the area of myocardial infarction caused by I/R. STRING database results showed that cFLIP had direct protein interactions with RIPK1 and RIPK3. Overexpression of cFLIP in cardiomyocyte and myocardial tissue significantly inhibited H/R or I/R induced the phosphorylation levels of RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL.Conclusions:Overexpression of cFLIP can significantly inhibit the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL-mediated necroptosis, thereby reducing myocardial cell damage and decreasing the area of myocardial infarction.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930231

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect of gabapentin on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and its mechanism.Methods:Sixty male clean SD rats, aged 10 weeks and weighing 250 g~300 g, were divided into 5 groups ( n=12) with 12 rats in each group by random number table method: Sham group, myocardial ischemia reperfusion group (group I/R), gabapentin group (group Gap), LY294002 group (group LY) and gabapentin +LY294002 group (group Gap +LY). The model of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min and reperfusion for 120 min. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the rate pressure product (RPP) were recorded at baseline before ischemia (T 0) for 30 min (T 1) and reperfusion for 120 min (T 2) to evaluate hemodynamic changes during ischemia and reperfusion; The frequency of PVCs and VT/VF were recorded to evaluate the occurrence of arrhythmias during ischemia/reperfusion. TTC staining was used to detect myocardial infarction area. And the protein expression levels of PI3K and Akt in myocardial tissue were detected by Western blotting. Results:Compared with group I/R, the myocardial infarction area, PVCs and VT/VF times, and the protein expression levels of PI3K and p-Akt were significantly increased in group Gap ( P<0.05). Compared with group Gap, the area of myocardial infarction, the number of PVCs and VT/VF, and the protein expression of PI3K and p-Akt were significantly decreased in the group Gap +LY ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Gabapentin can alleviate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and its mechanism is related to the activation of PI3K-AKT signaling pathway.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930204

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the dynamic changes of mitochondrial fission and fusion in the heart of cardiac arrest (CA) rats after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and to explore the role of mitochondrial fission and fusion in the myocardial injury after ROSC.Methods:Healthy male SD rats were randomly random number assigned into the post-resuscitation (PR) 4 h ( n=12), PR 24 h ( n=12), PR 72 h ( n=12), and sham groups ( n=6). The rat CA model was induced by asphyxia, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed 6 min after CA. The protein expressions of mitochondrial Drp1, Fis1, Mfn1, and Opa1 were determined by Western blot in each group at 4, 24 and 72 h after ROSC. The mRNA expressions of Drp1, Fis1, Mfn1, and Opa1 were determined by RT-PCR. Myocardial ATP content and mitochondrial respiratory function were measured. The histopathologic changes of myocardial tissue were observed under light microscope. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was use to compare quantitative data, and LSD- t test was used for comparison between groups. Results:Compared with the sham group, the protein and mRNA expressions of Drp1 and Fis1 were increased (all P<0.05) and the protein and mRNA expressions of Mfn1 and Opa1 were decreased (all P<0.05) in the PR 4 h and PR 24 h groups. However, there were no statistical differences in the protein and mRNA expressions of Drp1, Fis1, Mfn1, and Opa1 in the PR 72 h group compared with the sham group (all P>0.05). Compared with the sham group, the levels of ATP content [(4.53±0.76) nmol/g protein vs. (8.57±0.44) nmol/g protein and (5.58±0.58) nmol/g protein vs. (8.57±0.44) nmol/g protein] and mitochondrial respiratory control rate [(2.47±0.38) vs. (3.45±0.32) and (2.97±0.24) vs. (3.45±0.32)] were obviously decreased in the PR 4 h and PR 24 h groups (all P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the ATP content [(7.73±0.95) nmol/g protein vs. (8.57±0.44) nmol/g protein] and mitochondrial respiratory control ratio [(3.39±0.34) vs. (3.45±0.32)] between the PR 72 h group and the sham group (all P>0.05). The pathological damage of myocardial tissue was obvious in the PR 4 h group, and was improved significantly in the PR 72 h group. Conclusions:The imbalance of mitochondrial fission and fusion is probably involved in the pathological process of myocardial injury after ROSC, which may be related to mitochondrial dysfunction.

20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2330-2347, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929377

ABSTRACT

Ischemic brain stroke is pathologically characterized by tissue acidosis, sustained calcium entry and progressive cell death. Previous studies focusing on antagonizing N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have failed to translate any clinical benefits, suggesting a non-NMDA mechanism involved in the sustained injury after stroke. Here, we report that inhibition of intracellular proton-sensitive Ca2+-permeable transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) channel protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. TRPV3 expression is upregulated in mice subjected to cerebral I/R injury. Silencing of TRPV3 reduces intrinsic neuronal excitability, excitatory synaptic transmissions, and also attenuates cerebral I/R injury in mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Conversely, overexpressing or re-expressing TRPV3 increases neuronal excitability, excitatory synaptic transmissions and aggravates cerebral I/R injury. Furthermore, specific inhibition of TRPV3 by natural forsythoside B decreases neural excitability and attenuates cerebral I/R injury. Taken together, our findings for the first time reveal a causative role of neuronal TRPV3 channel in progressive cell death after stroke, and blocking overactive TRPV3 channel may provide therapeutic potential for ischemic brain injury.

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