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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255916, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364509

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aims at reporting the indigenous knowledge of the medicinal flora from the inhabitants of surroundings of the World's largest artificial planted forest "Changa Manga", Pakistan. Data were collected by direct interviews and group meetings from 81 inhabitants including 32 local healers having information regarding the use of indigenous medicinal plants over a period of one year. Different statistical tools were applied to analyze the data including Frequency citation (FC), Relative frequency citation (RFC), Use Value, Factor of informants consensus and fidelity level. This study reported 73 plant species belonging to 37 plant families and 46 genera. The majority of plant species belong to compositae family. The most commonly used medicinal plants were P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L, P. harmala L., P. emblica L., and A. indica A.Juss. The greatest number of species was used to cure gastrointestinal disorders. The highest fidelity level (68.18%) was of E. helioscopia to cure gastrointestinal disorders. Maximum fresh uses (17) were reported by C. dactylon (L.) Pars. While the highest number of species reporting fresh uses in similar number was 13. In this study, five novel plants are being reported for the first time in Pakistan for their ethnomedicinal worth. Our data reflect unique usage of the medicinal plants in the study area. The statistical tools used in the study proved useful in pointing the most important and disease category specific plants. High use value plant and the new reported medicinal plants might prove an important source of the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds.


Resumo Este estudo tem como objetivo relatar o conhecimento indígena sobre a flora medicinal dos habitantes do entorno da maior floresta artificial plantada do mundo, a Changa Manga, no Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas diretas e reuniões em grupo de 81 habitantes, incluindo 32 curandeiros locais, com informações sobre o uso de plantas medicinais indígenas durante o período de um ano. Diferentes ferramentas estatísticas foram aplicadas para analisar os dados, incluindo citação de frequência (FC), citação de frequência relativa (RFC), valor de uso, fator de consenso dos informantes e nível de fidelidade. Este estudo relatou 73 espécies de plantas pertencentes a 37 famílias de plantas e 46 gêneros. A maioria das espécies de plantas pertence à família Compositae. As plantas medicinais mais utilizadas foram P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L., P. harmala L., P. emblica L. e A. indica A. Juss. O maior número de espécies foi usado para curar distúrbios gastrointestinais. O maior nível de fidelidade (68,18%) foi de E. helioscopia para cura de distúrbios gastrointestinais. Os usos máximos em fresco (17) foram relatados por C. dactylon (L.) Pars. enquanto o maior número de espécies relatando usos frescos em número semelhante foi de 13. Neste estudo, cinco novas plantas estão sendo relatadas pela primeira vez no Paquistão por seu valor etnomedicinal. Nossos dados refletem o uso exclusivo das plantas medicinais na área de estudo. As ferramentas estatísticas utilizadas no estudo mostraram-se úteis para apontar as plantas mais importantes e específicas da categoria de doença. Plantas de alto valor de uso e as novas plantas medicinais relatadas podem ser uma importante fonte de isolamento de compostos farmacologicamente ativos.

2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225337, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1366230

ABSTRACT

Aim: To elaborate and validate an instrument for Brazilian Portuguese speakers, to assess dentists' knowledge about care of patients with diabetes mellitus (Dental-Diabetes). Methods: Methodological study comprising four stages: a) Elaboration of instrument; b) Content validation (computing Content Validity Index - CVI) based on Expert Committee assessment; c) Pre-test with 30 dentists, followed by assessment of suggestions by Expert Committee; d) Psychometric validation through instrument application in a sample of 127 dentists by means of the web tool e-Surv. Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients were used to evaluate, respectively, internal consistency and reproducibility. Results: The final version of the instrument consists of 22 questions (7 on sociodemographic data and 15 querying dentists' knowledge) and those submitted for validation attained a CVI of 0.95 [95% CI 0.916-0,981], showing satisfactory internal consistency, with 0.794 Cronbach's alpha [95% CI 0.741-0.842] and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.799 [95% CI: 0.746-0.846] between the test and retest scores. Conclusions: Dental-Diabetes is a comprehensive instrument, culturally adequate and validated to assess dentists' knowledge about care of patients with diabetes


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dentists , Diabetes Mellitus , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results
3.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 15(2): e9943, abr./jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371423

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o conhecimento dos profissionais da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) sobre recomendações de atividade física (AF) para adultos. Realizou-se um estudo transversal na APS de Florianópolis, SC, em 2018. Foi aplicado um questionário com os profissionais sobre seus conhecimentos acerca das recomendações de AF, seus níveis de AF e atuação profissional, bem como suas informações sociodemográficas. Os dados foram analisados por meio do teste qui-quadrado e Regressão de Poisson. A amostra foi composta por 587 profissionais (85,4% mulheres), dos quais 49,1% declararam conhecer as recomendações e 38,2% relataram possuir um "bom" conhecimento sobre as recomendações. Contudo, apenas 6,6% responderam corretamente sobre o volume recomendado. Conclui-se que existe a necessidade da criação de ações para difundir o conhecimento sobre as recomendações e assim otimizar a promoção de AF na APS.


The aim of the study was to examine the knowledge of Primary Health Care professionals of physical activity (PA) recommendations for adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Primary Care of Florianopolis, SC, in 2018. A questionnaire was used to collect data fromthe professionals about their knowledge of PA recommendations, their level of PA and professional performance, their sociodemographic information. The data was analyzed through the chi-square test and Poisson Regression. 587 professionals (85.4% women) participed, out of which 49.1% reported knowing the recommendations and 38.2% reported having a "good" knowledge of the recommendations. However, only 6.6% correctly answered the recommended volume. We conclude that there is need to create actions to spread the knowledge of the recommendations and thus optimize the promotion of PA in Primary Care.

4.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(287): 7645-7661, abr.2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372585

ABSTRACT

Objetivo:identificar o conhecimento de idosos sobre acidente vascular cerebral relacionado à busca pelo atendimento emergencial. Método:revisão integrativa realizada em maio e junho de 2021,na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health, Scientific Eletronic Library Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SCOPUS e Web of Science, empregados Descritores de Ciências da Saúde, Medical Subject Headings e termos alternativos, publicados em 2016 a 2021.Resultados:compuseram 33 artigos o corpus da revisão, categorizados em duas vertentes: os conhecimentos sobre fatores de risco, prevenção e identificação do AVC; e a busca pelo atendimento precoce no serviço de urgência e emergência. Conclusão:idosos geralmente desconhecema doença e a necessidade de busca precoce doatendimento, o que ressalta a importância de ações de promoção à saúde e orientações relacionadas ao AVC, sejam elas por meio das mídias ou de pessoas que compõem a rede de apoio(AU)


Objective: to identify the knowledge of the elderly about stroke related to the search for emergency care. Method: integrative review carried out in May and June 2021 at the Virtual Health Library, National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SCOPUS and Web of Science, employees Health Sciences, Medical Subject Headings and alternative terms, published in the years 2016 to 2021. Results: the review corpus comprised 33 articles, categorized into two aspects: knowledge about risk factors, prevention and identification of stroke; and the search for early care in the urgency and emergency service. Conclusion: the elderly are generally unaware of the disease and the need to seek care early, which highlights the importance of health promotion actions and guidelines related to stroke, whether through the media or people who make up the support network.(AU)


Objetivo: identificar el conocimiento de los ancianos sobre el accidente cerebrovascular relacionado con la búsqueda de atención de emergencia. Método: revisión integradora realizada en mayo y junio de 2021 en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina e Institutos Nacionales de Salud, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SCOPUS y Web of Science, empleados Ciencias de la Salud , Medical Subject Headings y términos alternativos, publicados en los años 2016 a 2021. Resultados: el corpus de revisión comprendió 33 artículos, categorizados en dos aspectos: conocimiento sobre factores de riesgo, prevención e identificación del ictus; y la búsqueda de atención temprana en el servicio de urgencias y emergencias. Conclusión: los ancianos generalmente desconocen la enfermedad y la necesidad de buscar atención temprana, lo que destaca la importancia de las acciones y directrices de promoción de la salud relacionadas con el accidente cerebrovascular, ya sea a través de los medios de comunicación o de las personas que componen la red de apoyo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Aged , Knowledge , Stroke , Emergencies
5.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 1-2, mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362373

ABSTRACT

Las organizaciones de salud deben generar los espacios necesarios para el avance del conocimiento científico, es así como la propuesta que viene desarrollando la Clínica Universitaria Bolivariana ­hoy Hospital Universitario­ se ha materializado no solo en aportes a las líneas clínicas de la institución como maternidad, neonatos, crónicas y enfermedades de la mujer y del piso pélvico, sino también en un enfoque de las ciencias relacionadas con la salud pública, la administración, la economía y la ingeniería, con lo que hoy se configura como el Área de Gestión Hospitalaria.


Health organizations must generate the necessary spaces for the advancement of scientific knowledge, this is how the proposal that the Bolivarian University Clinic has been developing ­ today University Hospital ­ has materialized not only in contributions to the clinical lines of the institution such as maternity, neonates, chronic diseases and diseases of women and the pelvic floor, but also in a focus on sciences related to public health, administration, economics and engineering, with what is now configured as the Hospital Management Area.


As organizações de saúde devem gerar os espaços necessários para o avanço do conhecimento científico, é assim que a proposta que a Clínica Universitária Bolivariana vem desenvolvendo ­ hoje Hospital Universitário ­ se materializou não apenas em contribuições para as linhas clínicas da instituição como maternidade, neonatos , doenças crônicas e doenças da mulher e do assoalho pélvico, mas também com foco nas ciências relacionadas à saúde pública, administração, economia e engenharia, com o que agora se configura como Área de Gestão Hospitalar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hospital Administration , Science , Universities , Knowledge , Health Organizations , Knowledge Management , Hospitals, University
6.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 40(1): 201-212, 01/03/2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1370629

ABSTRACT

Objective. Develop and semantically validate an instrument to assess the knowledge and attitudes of adolescents towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)..Methods. Validation study of an instrument to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of adolescents towards CPR, developed in three phases: (i) development of the evaluation instruments by the authors; (ii) content validation performed by 14 expert judges in the area using the content validity index for analysis; and (iii) semantic validation carried out with the participation of 30 adolescents between 11 and 13 years old. Results. In the content validation, the questions on CPR knowledge obtained a content validity index (CVI) between 0.92 and 1.00, with a general index of 0.98; and the questions about attitudes obtained an IVC between 0.85 and 1.00, with a general index also of 0.98. Regarding semantic validation, three questions were modified in the knowledge assessment instruments and five in the attitude assessment instrument. Conclusion. Semantic and content validation of the instruments studied showed that they are suitable for assessing the knowledge and attitudes of adolescents related to CPR, so their use is recommended in the evaluation of training actions in this population group.


Objetivo. Desarrollar y validar semánticamente un instrumento para evaluar los conocimientos y las actitudes de adolescentes hacia la resucitación cardiopulmonar (RCP). Métodos. Estudio de validación de un instrumento para evaluar los conocimientos y las actitudes de adolescentes hacia la RCP que se desarrolló en tres fases: (i) desarrollo de los instrumentos de evaluación por parte de los autores; (ii) validación de contenido realizada por 14 jueces expertos en el área utilizando el índice de validez de contenido para el análisis; y (iii) validación semántica realizada con la participación de 30 adolescentes, entre los 11 y 13 años. Resultados. En la validación de contenido, las preguntas sobre conocimientos de RCP obtuvieron un índice de validez de contenido (IVC) entre 0.92 y 1.00, con índice general de 0.98; y las preguntas sobre actitudes obtuvieron un IVC entre 0.85 a 1.00, con un índice general también de 0.98. En cuanto a la validación semántica, se modificaron tres preguntas en los instrumentos de evaluación de conocimientos y cinco en el instrumento de evaluación de actitudes. Conclusión. La validación semántica y de contenido de los instrumentos estudiados mostraron que son adecuados para la valoración de conocimientos y actitudes de los adolescentes relacionados con la RCP, por lo que se recomienda su uso en la evaluación de acciones formativas en este grupo poblacional.


Objetivo. Desenvolver e validar semanticamente um instrumento para avaliar os conhecimentos e as atitudes de adolescentes para a ressuscitação cardiopulmonar (RCP). Métodos. Estudo de validação de um instrumento para avaliar os conhecimentos e as atitudes de adolescentes para a RCP que se desenvolveu em três fases: (i) desenvolvimento dos instrumentos de avaliação por parte dos autores; (ii) validação de conteúdo realizada por 14 juízes especialistas na área utilizando o índice de validez de conteúdo para a análise; e (iii) validação semântica realizada com a participação de 30 adolescentes de entre 11 e 13 anos. Resultados. Na validação de conteúdo, as perguntas sobre conhecimentos de RCP obtiveram um índice de validez de conteúdo (IVC) entre 0.92 e 1.00, com índice geral de 0.98; e as perguntas sobre atitudes obtiveram um IVC entre 0.85 a 1.00, com um índice geral também de 0.98. Enquanto à validação semântica, se modificaram três perguntas nos instrumentos de avaliação de conhecimentos e cinco no instrumento de avaliação de atitudes. Conclusão. A validação semântica e de conteúdo dos instrumentos estudados mostraram que são adequados para a valoração de conhecimentos e atitudes dos adolescentes relacionados com a RCP, por isso se recomenda seu uso na avaliação de ações formativas neste grupo populacional.


Subject(s)
Nursing Methodology Research , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adolescent , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Validation Study
7.
FEMINA ; 50(3): 171-177, 20220331. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367570

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Investigar o conhecimento das adolescentes atendidas no Ambulatório de Ginecologia sobre os métodos contraceptivos. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo quantitativo de corte transversal com adolescentes do sexo feminino, acompanhadas no Serviço de Ginecologia. A seleção foi por ordem de chegada mediante agendamento prévio. Após consulta médica, foi aplicado um questionário anônimo e estruturado sobre: características sociodemográficas; antecedentes ginecológicos; conhecimento do uso correto e indicação dos métodos contraceptivos. As variáveis foram analisadas pela estatística descritiva com medidas de tendência central e variabilidade. A pesquisa foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Resultados: A população estudada foi composta por adolescentes com média de idade de 15,80 anos (+/- 1,3), 48,0% de etnia/cor parda, 84,0% frequentavam a escola pública e 56,0% cursavam o ensino médio. A maioria possuía conhecimento insuficiente/ausência de conhecimento e 80,0% tinham informações sobre contracepção que não envolveu a participação de um profissional de saúde, apesar de eles indicarem o uso dos métodos para a maioria dessas jovens (75,0%). A combinação do preservativo masculino e anticoncepcional oral foi referida em 25,0% das adolescentes. Conclusão: A maioria das adolescentes possuía conhecimento insuficiente/ausente sobre métodos contraceptivos, o que parece contribuir para o uso inconsistente deles. A maior prevalência do uso do preservativo masculino e do anticoncepcional oral associada à baixa participação dos profissionais de saúde como fonte de informação para o uso correto dos métodos ratifica a necessidade de políticas públicas sobre educação sexual para que as adolescentes exerçam sua sexualidade com responsabilidade e segurança.(AU)


Objective: Evaluate the knowledge of adolescents seen in the Gynecology Outpatient Clinic for Children and Youth. Methods: A quantitative transverse study was carried out with thems, regularly seen at the Gynecology Outpatient Clinic for Children and Youth. We selected participants by arrival order. After having their appointment done, we applied an anonymous and structured questionnaire containing questions regarding sociodemographics characteristics, past gynaecological history and knowledge, correct use and indications of contraceptives methods. Those variables were analysed using descriptive statistics such as central tendency and variability. The research was approved by the Ethics in Research Committee. Results: The population studied was composed of adolescents with an average age of 15.8 years (+/- 1.3), 48.0% of ethnicity/brown colour, 84.0% attended public school and 56.0% were in high school. Most of them had insufficient knowledge/lack of knowledge and 80.0% had information about contraception that did not involve the participation of a health professional, however health professionals had suggested a method of contraception for most of these young women (75.0%). The combination of male condoms and oral contraceptives were reported by 25.0% of adolescents. Conclusion: That most of the adolescents had insufficient/absent knowledge about contraceptive methods which seems to contribute to their inconsistent use. The high prevalence of the use of male condoms and oral contraceptives found in this study and low participation of health professionals as a source of information for the correct use of methods ratify the need for public policies on sex education for adolescents enjoy their sexuality responsibly and safely.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Pregnancy in Adolescence/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Contraception/methods , Adolescent Health/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Condoms , Contraceptives, Oral , Health Communication
8.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 108-112, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356303

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Despite optimal medical treatment, many heart failure (HF) patients continue to show a high prevalence of symptoms, which contributes to a high morbidity and poor health-related quality of life (HRQL). Mindfulness meditation may be effective in improving the quality of life in these patients. Objective: A systematic review was conducted to evaluate if mindfulness meditation programs are effective in promoting and improving the quality of life in patients with heart failure. Methods: The PubMed (MEDLINE), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), LILACS, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases were searched between October and November of 2019. Articles were selected if they evaluated mindfulness intervention, with an experimental or quasi-experimental design, in adults with heart failure and measured health-related quality of life. Results: This systematic review identified 108 studies through database searches. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of three studies were considered qualified. These studies took place in the Netherlands, the USA, and Brazil, and occurred between 2005 and 2015. Sample sizes varied from 19 to 215, and the average range of participants within each study varied from 43.2 to 75.4 years. Compared to control programs, mindfulness-based meditation programs improved the quality of life in two studies (p= 0.041 and p=0.03). Conclusion: Mindfulness-based meditation programs improved the quality of life in patients with HF. Therefore, there is limited data to strengthen this recommendation to this population, and future research is warranted in order to present consistency in the intervention protocols.

9.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 217-221, Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365360

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at the oral health problems of elderly patients with diabetes. A training course of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine was constructed, helping patients improve their oral health quality of life. METHODS: A randomized controlled prospective experimental study was conducted. A total of 190 elderly patients were divided randomly into an observation group and a control group with 95 cases in each. The control group received regular health education, while the observation group was based on the control group to implement the integrated experiential learning of traditional Chinese and Western medicine in small groups. The oral health knowledge, attitude, behavior, and blood glucose control status along with the oral health quality of life of the two groups were compared before the intervention and at 3-month postintervention. RESULTS: Three months after the intervention, the fasting blood glucose control and the 2-h postprandial blood glucose/glycosylated hemoglobin levels in the observation group were significantly better than in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The oral health quality of life in the observation group was significantly better than in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The small-group experiential learning model of integrated Chinese and Western medicine can promote the transformation of knowledge-beliefs-behaviors in elderly patients with diabetes, which is conducive to controlling blood sugar levels and improving the quality of oral health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Oral Health , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Quality of Life , China , Prospective Studies , Problem-Based Learning , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
10.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 15(1): e9040, abr./jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368160

ABSTRACT

Este estudo objetivou verificar se os estudantes universitários têm conhecimento sobre as formas de transmissão do HIV/AIDS e a adoção de práticas de prevenção e se há associação com a renda. A pesquisa contou com 682 estudantes, que responderam a um questionário. Foram analisadas dez questões a respeito das formas de transmissão, o número de acertos e a possível associação com a renda familiar. Na amostra, predominaram as mulheres e a renda inferior a cinco salários mínimos. Seiscentos e oito estudantes (89%) acertaram oito ou mais perguntas acerca das formas de transmissão do vírus. Aqueles com renda familiar menor que cinco salários mínimos apresentaram uma porcentagem maior de acertos em todas as questões sobre a transmissão. Concluiu-se que a maioria tem bom conhecimento em relação à transmissão, porém não utiliza preservativo em todas as relações sexuais, e há maior conhecimento entre estudantes de menor renda.


This study aimed to verify whether university students have knowledge about the ways of HIV/AIDS transmission and the adoption of prevention practices and if there is an association with income. The survey included 682 students, who answered a questionnaire. Ten questions about the ways of transmission, the number of correct answers and the possible association with family income were analyzed. In the sample, women and income below five minimum wages predominated. Six hundred and eight students (89%) answered eight or more questions about the ways in which the virus was transmitted. Those with a family income of less than five minimum wages had a higher percentage of correct answers in all questions about transmission. The majority has good knowledge regarding transmission, but does not use condoms in all sexual relations, and there is greater knowledge among students with lower income.

11.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 15(1): e9948, abr./jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368154

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar as perspectivas de brasileiros quanto às experiências relacionadas ao acesso às informações sobre a Covid-19 relatadas durante o período crítico da pandemia no Brasil. Foi elaborado instrumento misto, quanti-qualitativo, construído e analisado com base em um marco interdisciplinar no campo da bioética. Os 525 participantes da pesquisa, ocorrida em junho de 2020, compartilharam perspectivas que indicam preocupação com o acesso a informações qualificadas, com a não propagação de fake news e com a desconfiança de informações advindas do governo federal, em contraponto à maior confiança em fontes científicas e de governos municipais e estaduais. O conhecimento sobre o modo como os brasileiros se relacionaram com informações a respeito da Covid-19 é fundamental para que medidas preventivas, educativas e regulatórias sejam efetivas na formulação de políticas públicas em saúde em um futuro pós-pandemia.


The objective was to evaluate the perspectives of Brazilians regarding the experiences related to access to information about Covid-19 reported during the critical period of the pandemic in Brazil. A mixed, quanti-qualitative instrument was developed, constructed, and analyzed from an interdisciplinary framework in the field of bioethics. The 525 participants in the survey, which took place in June 2020, shared perspectives that indicate concern with access to qualified information, with the non-propagation of fake news and with the distrust of information coming from the federal government, in contrast to greater confidence in scientific sources, and municipal and state governments. Knowledge about how Brazilians related to information about Covid-19 is essential for preventive, educational and regulatory measures to be effective in the formulation of public health policies in a post-pandemic future.

12.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 21(supl.1): e20226535, 14 janeiro 2022. ilus
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1359929

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Mapear os instrumentos validados disponíveis na literatura para avaliação de conhecimentos e atitudes de estudantes de graduação na área da saúde sobre segurança do paciente. MÉTODO: Revisão de escopo conduzida a partir da metodologia Joanna Briggs Institute, com utilização da extensão do checklist PRISMA-ScR, nas seguintes fontes de informação: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, MEDLINE via Pubmed, COCHRANE, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science e Google Scholar. Serão considerados elegíveis estudos que respondam à pergunta de pesquisa, publicados em inglês, português e espanhol e que apresentem a descrição do instrumento utilizado. A seleção ocorrerá de maneira independente por dois revisores, a partir do software Rayyan. Divergências serão apreciadas por um terceiro revisor. Síntese e extração dos dados serão executadas considerando os itens de um formulário elaborado pelos autores. Os resultados serão apresentados por meio de quadro resumo, fluxograma e discussão narrativa. Registro da revisão no Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/wak7f.


OBJECTIVE: To map the validated instruments available in the literature to assess the knowledge and attitudes of undergraduate students in the health area about patient safety. METHOD: A scoping review conducted based on the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology, using the PRISMA-ScR checklist extension, in the following information sources: Virtual Health Library, MEDLINE via Pubmed, COCHRANE, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Studies that answer the research question, published in English, Portuguese and Spanish and that present a description of the instrument used will be considered eligible. Selection will take place independently by two reviewers, based on the Rayyan software. Disagreements will be appreciated by a third reviewer. Data synthesis and extraction will be performed considering the items of a form prepared by the authors. The results will be presented through a summary chart, flowchart and narrative discussion. Review record in the Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/wak7f.


OBJETIVO: Mapear los instrumentos validados disponibles en la literatura para evaluar el conocimiento y las actitudes que poseen los estudiantes universitarios del área de la salud sobre la seguridad del paciente. MÉTODO: Revisión de alcance realizada según la metodología del Joanna Briggs Institute, utilizando la extensión de la checklist PRISMA-ScR, en las siguientes fuentes de información: Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, MEDLINE a través de Pubmed, COCHRANE, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science y Google Scholar. Se considerarán elegibles los estudios que respondan a la pregunta de investigación, publicados en inglés, portugués y español y que presenten una descripción del instrumento utilizado. La selección se llevará a cabo de forma independiente por dos revisores mediante el software Rayyan. Un tercer revisor evaluará los desacuerdos. La síntesis y extracción de los datos se realizará considerando los ítems de un formulario elaborado por los autores. Los resultados se presentarán a través de cuadro resumen, diagrama de flujo y discusión narrativa. La revisión fue registrada en Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/wak7f.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Health Occupations , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Patient Safety
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922532

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a serious impact on health all over the world. Cancer patient, whose immunity is often compromised, faces a huge challenge. Currently, some COVID-19 vaccines are being developed and applied on general population; however, whether cancer patients should take COVID-19 vaccine remains unknown. Our study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitude, acceptance, and predictors of intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine among cancer patients in Eastern China.@*METHODS@#A cross-sectional study was conducted in Eastern China from June 17th to September 3rd, 2021. Patients were selected using a convenience sampling method. A self-report questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge about the COVID-19 vaccine, attitude towards the vaccine and acceptance of the vaccine; following a review of similar studies previously published in the scientific literature, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance.@*RESULTS@#A total of 2158 cancer patients were enrolled in this study. The rate of vaccine hesitancy was 24.05% (519/2158); further, among the participants of vaccine acceptance, 767 had taken COVID-19 vaccine (35.54%), and 872 were willing to get vaccinated (40.01%). A total of 24 variables including demographic characteristics, clinical status of cancer, impact of COVID-19 pandemic on study participants, patients' knowledge about the COVID-19 vaccine, and attitude towards the vaccine, had significant differences between the "vaccine hesitancy" population and "vaccine acceptance" population. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that parameters including alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR] = 1.849; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.375-2.488; P-reference [P-Ref] < 0.001 vs non-drinkers), income impacted by COVID-19 pandemic (OR = 1.930, 2.037 and 2.688 for mild, moderate, and severe impact, respectively; all P-Ref < 0.01 vs no impact), knowledge of how the vaccine was developed (OR = 1.616; 95% CI: 1.126-2.318; P-Ref = 0.009 vs unknown), believing in the safety of the vaccine (OR = 1.502; 95% CI: 1.024-2.203; P-Ref = 0.038 vs denying the safety of vaccine), willingness to pay for the vaccine (OR = 3.042; 95% CI: 2.376-3.894; P-Ref < 0.001 vs unwilling), and willingness to recommend families and friends to get vaccinated (OR = 2.744; 95% CI: 1.759-4.280; P-Ref < 0.001 vs do not recommend) were contributors to vaccine acceptance. While such as being retired (OR = 0.586; 95% CI: 0.438-0.784; P-Ref < 0.001 vs unemployed), undergoing multiple therapies of cancer (OR = 0.408; 95% CI: 0.221-0.753; P-Ref = 0.004 vs no ongoing treatment), and worrying that the vaccine might deteriorate the prognosis of cancer (OR = 0.393; 95% CI: 0.307-0.504; P-Ref < 0.001 vs might not) were contributors to vaccine hesitancy.@*CONCLUSION@#This study provided preliminary estimates of the rates of vaccine acceptance and vaccine hesitancy among cancer patients in Eastern China. The intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine was impacted by factors such as patient occupation, alcohol consumption, and some parts of knowledge about and attitude towards COVID-19 vaccine. It is recommended to develop individualized vaccination plans that meet the healthcare needs of cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , Neoplasms , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 387-391, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920889

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish the intelligent identification method for the big data of liver injury-related adverse drug reaction (ADR) based on the construction of text database. Methods With the keywords including "drug-induced liver injury" and "abnormal liver function" and a search time of January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2016, 5% (4152 cases) of the case reports of liver injury-related ADR were retrieved and extracted from the China Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring System, and then based on clinical reevaluation by physicians, these cases were classified into "negative cases", "suspected cases", and "confirmed cases". On this basis, key elements (including ADR name, biochemical parameter, and clinical symptoms) were identified. An intelligent identification method for liver injury-related ADR was established based on the correlation analysis between key elements and clinical reevaluation and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for determining cut-off values, and the method of cross validation was used to evaluate the performance of this intelligent identification method. Results The formula for the evaluation and identification of liver injury-related ADR was as follows: total score (M)=symptom score+index score+ADR name score. This formula showed the best discriminatory ability to distinguish "negative case" from "suspected case" or "confirmed case" at M=5 (area under the ROC curve [AUC]=0.97), with a sensitivity of 99.57% and a specificity of 84.61%, and it showed the best discriminatory ability to distinguish "confirmed case" from "suspected case" or "negative case" at M=12 (AUC=0.938), with a sensitivity of 87.93% and a specificity of 85.98%. Conclusion This method provides reference and basis for intelligent identification and evaluation of big data on liver injury-related ADR and is expected to effectively reduce the burden of manual processing of ADR big data and provide effective tools and methodological demonstration for early risk signal identification and warning of liver injury-related ADR.

15.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 208-212, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920626

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practice of AIDS control knowledge among students in a university in Hangzhou City, so as to provide the evidence for evaluating the effectiveness of AIDS control in universities.@*Methods@#The knowledge, attitudes and practice towards AIDS control were investigated among students in a university in Hangzhou City using self-designed questionnaires in 2020, and were descriptively analyzed.@*Results@#Totally 6 300 questionnaires were allocated, and 6 164 valid ones were recovered, with an effective recovery rate of 97.84%. The respondents included 2 837 male students ( 46.03% ) and 3 327 female students ( 53.97% ), and had a mean age of ( 18.20±0.76 ) years. The overall awareness of AIDS control knowledge was 73.49%. The awareness rates of “The rights of marriage, employment and school admission are protected among HIV-infected individuals by Chinese laws” ( 61.11% ) and “Homosexual contact in men is the current main transmission pattern among young students in China” ( 66.37% ) were relatively low. There were 768 university students with a history of sexual behaviors ( 12.46% ), and regular sex partners were the predominant sex partners at the first sexual contact ( 679 students, 90.78% ) and at the sexual behaviors during the past one year ( 402 students, 71.91% ). There were 515 students (67.14%) using condoms during the first sexual contact, and there were 300 ( 63.83% ) and 16 students ( 40.00% ) using condoms with regular and casual sex partners during the past one year, respectively. Among 20 men who had sex with men, only 5 students ( 25.00% ) used condoms at each sexual contact. Of students with sexual behaviors, there were 355 (46.22%) and 354 ( 46.09% ) students that considered to be infected with AIDS and other sex-transmitted diseases, and among the university students with sexual behaviors, there were 614 ( 79.95% ) students that were willing to receive HIV testing, and 409 ( 53.26% ) and 305 ( 39.71% ) students that were willing to receive HIV testing in hospitals and disease control and prevention institutions, respectively.@*Conclusions@# The awareness of AIDS control knowledge is low among students in the university in Hangzhou City, which does not reach the national goal of supervision and assessment for AIDS control in China. There are high-risk sexual behaviors and the rate of condom use is low.

16.
Niger. J. Dent. Res. (Online) ; 7(1): 35-44, 2022.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1354437

ABSTRACT

Objective: There was a lot of panic when the COVID-19 pandemic started because a lot was not known about it. However, as the disease unfolded, proven scientific universal precautions are recommended to curb its spread. Methods: This was a cross-sectional online survey of people living in Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed to consenting participants using the SurveyMonkey and data was collected on sociodemographic knowledge of the aetiology and prevention of COVID-19. Analysis was done with the SPSS version 25. Results: Eighty-five participants with age ranging from 18 to 60 years took part in the study. The mean age was 37.35 ± 11.7years. Forty-seven (47%) had knowledge that COVID-19 infection is from a virus. 29.4% thought it is caused by biological weapons, 1.2% from 5G internet, 7.1% as government's ploy to embezzle money and 9.4% conspiracy theory from the world leaders to reduce world's population. All participants knew that hand washing is a preventive measure against the spread of COVID-19 and majority agreed to the use of sanitizers, social distancing and disinfection of surfaces. Only 30.6% agreed that wearing of facemasks will serve as a preventive measure. Over 90% of the participants agreed that dissemination of appropriate information, use of universal precautions, isolation and intensive treatment of those infected can help prevent the spread of COVID-19. 11.8% of participants knew that additional precautions are needed for aerosol generating procedures. Conclusion: The knowledge of COVID-19 aetiology is poor among the populace and the need to wear face masks as a preventive measure in curtailing the spread of COVID-19 needs to be emphasized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Public Opinion , Knowledge , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19 , Public Health , Disease Management
17.
Niger. j. paediatr ; 49(1): 75-82, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1372518

ABSTRACT

Background: Twenty five to forty percent of children will be infected with HIV in the absence of any form of intervention which is Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT). Objectives: This study determined the infant feeding knowledge and practices among HIV positive mothers attending HIV treatment centers in Lagos. Methods: A descriptive crosssectional design was used for the study. A multistage sampling technique was used to select / recruit 290 HIV positive mothers with babies between the ages of 2weeks to 18months, attending PMTCT services into the study Pre-tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data and analysis was done using Epi-info software. Chi-square and Fischer exact tests were used to determine association between the dependent and independent variables. The pvalue was set at 0.05. Results: Majority of the respondents (58.9%) were within the age range of 31 ­ 40 years and about half had a secondary school level of education. Exclusive formula feeding (40.3%) and exclusive breast feeding (42.4%) were feeding options known by the majority of the respondents. More than half (55.5%) of the mothers had a good knowledge of infant feeding options. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) was practiced by majority (55.5%) of the respondents, 21.4% practiced exclusive formula feeding (EFF) while only 6% practiced mixed feeding (MF). Knowledge of infant feeding options and the attitude towards exclusive breast feeding being enough in the first 6 months of life were associated with infant feeding options practiced; those with good knowledge of infant feeding options did not practice MF (9.7%) (p = 0.013). Conclusion: knowledge of infant feeding options was good and poor knowledge was associated with exclusive formula feeding. Majority practiced EBF. Educational programmes targeted at improving the knowledge of HIV and infant feeding options as well as strengthening of counseling sessions at PMTCT clinic would help reduce the risk of HIV transmission to the child.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , HIV Seropositivity , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
18.
Rev. Ocup. Hum. (En línea) ; 22(1): 3-11, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1357741

ABSTRACT

Diversos estudios han denunciado brechas importantes en la valoración del conocimiento producido en las diferentes regiones del mundo, dentro de un sistema dominado por las formas de producción y difusión del conocimiento noreurocéntricas. Esto también es una realidad para el conocimiento en Terapia Ocupacional, donde la influencia occidental y anglosajona sigue predominando sobre las epistemologías locales y decoloniales. Comprender las raíces y las implicaciones de estas diferencias y brechas es vital para contrarrestar las disparidades sociales y en salud, en todos los campos de la práctica profesional. Esta editorial apunta a promover el análisis crítico acerca de algunos elementos que determinan las disparidades en la difusión y la visibilidad del conocimiento en Terapia Ocupacional entre el Norte y el Sur global, y su impacto en la formación, la investigación y la práctica.


Many authors from different disciplines have voiced a gap in knowledge value and production with a mainstream Euro-American-centric knowledge production system. This is also a reality in occupational therapy knowledge, where a heavy Western and Anglo-Saxon influence continues to undermine local epistemologies. Understanding the roots and implications of those differences is vital in combating health and social disparities across all practice settings. This editorial attempt to promote critical awareness of some elements that determine the differences in knowledge diffusion and visibility in Occupational Therapy between the global North and global South and their impact on education, research, and practice.


Vários estudos denunciaram lacunas importantes na avaliação do conhecimento produzido nas diferentes regiões do mundo, em um sistema dominado pelos modos norte-eurocêntricos de produção e difusão de conhecimento. Essa também é uma realidade para o conhecimento em Terapia Ocupacional, em que a influência ocidental e anglo-saxônica continua a predominar sobre as epistemologias locais e decoloniais. A compreensão das raízes e as implicações dessas diferenças e lacunas é vital para combater as disparidades sociais e de saúde, em todos os campos da prática profissional. Este editorial visa promover a análise crítica sobre alguns elementos que determinam disparidades na difusão e na visibilidade do conhecimento em Terapia Ocupacional entre o Norte e o Sul global, e o seu impacto na formação, na pesquisa e na prática.


Subject(s)
Systems for Evaluation of Publications , Scientific and Technical Publications , Occupational Therapy , Knowledge , Information Dissemination , Knowledge Management
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(2): 441-457, Fev. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356081

ABSTRACT

Abstract This review evaluated the knowledge of health professionals (HP) about breastfeeding and factors that leading the weaning. A search was performed in four electronics databases and the grey literature. The search strategy included Mesh terms and synonyms. No language or date restrictions were adopted. Studies that evaluated the knowledge of HP about breastfeeding and weaning were considered eligible. The studies retrieved by the searches were evaluated by two independently examiners. From 1,417 studies retrieved, 35 were included. Many countries and professionals from different health areas were analyzed. No studies evaluated the dentists' knowledge. Although the included HP know the benefits of breastfeeding for health, the length of breastfeeding recommended by the World Health Organization, exclusive or not, was not aligned with all professionals' endorsement. Information about weaning is scarce; however, HP are mindful of the main potential causes of early weaning. The knowledge of HP is conflicting about breastfeeding and unusual about weaning. Furthermore, no studies were found that presented data on the knowledge of dentists on the subject. Thus, assessments of dentists' knowledge and education measures for HP are necessary since they are frequently questioned about these issues.


Resumo Esta revisão avaliou o conhecimento dos profissionais de saúde (PS) sobre amamentação e fatores que levam ao desmame. Realizou-se buscas em quatro bancos de dados eletrônicos e literatura cinzenta. A estratégia de busca incluiu termos Mesh e sinônimos. Não se adotou restrição de idioma ou data. Estudos avaliando o conhecimento dos PS sobre amamentação e desmame foram elegíveis. Estudos recuperados pelas buscas foram avaliados por dois examinadores independentes. Dos 1.417 estudos recuperados, 35 foram incluídos. Muitos países e PS de diferentes áreas foram analisados. Nenhum estudo avaliou o conhecimento dos dentistas. Embora os PS conheçam os benefícios da amamentação, a duração recomendada pela Organização Mundial da Saúde, exclusiva ou não, não está alinhada com o endosso de todos os PS. Considerando o desmame, a informação é escassa. No entanto, os PS estão atentos às principais causas potenciais do desmame precoce. O conhecimento dos PS é conflitante sobre amamentação e incomum sobre o desmame. Não foram encontrados estudos que apresentassem dados sobre o conhecimento de dentistas sobre a temática. Investigações quanto ao conhecimento dos mesmos e medidas de educação para todos os PS são necessárias, considerando que são frequentemente questionados sobre o tema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Feeding , Health Personnel , Weaning
20.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 75(1): e20200782, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1288464

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to understand the work process dimensions related to innovative actions developed by nurses in Primary Health Care. Methods: qualitative, descriptive study, developed in Primary Health Care in a city in the Southern Region of Brazil. Seventy-six nurses, who worked in management and assistance, participated in this study through semi-structured interviews. After data processing by IRAMUTEQ software, the textual analysis occurred by descending hierarchical classification. Results: forty-two innovative actions, considered by the participants as new ways of working, were identified. There was a predominance of innovative actions related to the Management and Assist dimensions; we noticed the fragility of the actions to contemplate all the nurse's work process dimensions. Final Considerations: the predominance of innovative actions was related to users' assistance and better conditions in the teamwork process, besides highlighting the role of nurses in the perspective of a new way of working in health services.


RESUMEN Objetivos: aprender dimensiones del proceso laboral relacionadas a acciones innovadoras desarrolladas por enfermeras en la Atención Primaria de Salud. Métodos: estudio cualitativo, descriptivo, desarrollado en la Atención Primaria de Salud de un municipio del Sur brasileño. Participaron 76 enfermeras que actuaban en la gestión y asistencia, por medio de entrevista semiestructurada. El análisis textual ocurrió tras el procesamiento de datos por software IRAMUTEQ, por clasificación jerárquica descendente. Resultados: identificaron 42 acciones innovadoras, consideradas por participantes como nuevas maneras laborales. Predominaron acciones innovadoras relacionadas a las dimensiones Administrar y Asistir; ha visto debilidad de acciones para contemplaren todas dimensiones del proceso laboral de la enfermera. Consideraciones Finales: el predominio de las acciones innovadoras se relacionó a asistencia prestada a usuarios y a mejores condiciones en el proceso laboral en equipo, además destacar el papel de las enfermeras en la perspectiva de un nuevo modo de trabajarse en los servicios de salud.


RESUMO Objetivos: apreender as dimensões do processo de trabalho relacionadas às ações inovadoras desenvolvidas por enfermeiras na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Métodos: estudo qualitativo, descritivo, desenvolvido na Atenção Primária à Saúde de um município do Sul do Brasil. Participaram 76 enfermeiras que atuavam na gestão e assistência, por meio de entrevista semiestruturada. A análise textual ocorreu após o processamento dos dados pelo software IRAMUTEQ, pela classificação hierárquica descendente. Resultados: identificaram-se 42 ações inovadoras, consideradas pelos participantes como novas formas de trabalho. Predominaram ações inovadoras relacionadas às dimensões Administrar e Assistir; notou-se fragilidade das ações para contemplarem todas as dimensões do processo de trabalho da enfermeira. Considerações Finais: o predomínio das ações inovadoras relacionou-se à assistência prestada aos usuários e às melhores condições no processo de trabalho em equipe, além de destacar o papel das enfermeiras na perspectiva de um novo modo de se trabalhar nos serviços de saúde.

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