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1.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(2): 88-91, 20220801.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380445

ABSTRACT

El fenómeno de Lucio es un estado reaccional grave, poco frecuente, mediado por inmunocomplejos que se observa típicamente en los casos de lepra lepromatosa difusa. En Paraguay, corresponde aproximadamente al 2% de los casos de lepra diagnosticados en la mayoría de los casos, se presenta como debut de la enfermedad. Se manifiesta con lesiones en la piel de tipo máculas y placas purpúricas poligonales, generalmente sin compromiso visceral. El diagnóstico lo confirma el estudio histopatológico y es fundamental realizar el diagnóstico diferencial con vasculitis de otras etiologías.


Lucio's phenomenon is a rare and severe reactional state mediated by immune complexes that is commonly seen in cases of diffuse lepromatous leprosy. In Paraguay, it represents approximately 2% of leprosy diagnosed cases, mainly as a debut of the disease. It manifests with macule-type skin lesions and polygonal purpuric plaques, generally without visceral involvement. The diagnosis is confirmed by the histopathological study and it is essential to consider differential diagnosis such as vasculitis of other etiologies.


Subject(s)
Leprosy , Leprosy, Lepromatous
2.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(4): 431-437, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386105

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze the prevalence of Mycobacterium leprae detection and the associated factors among social contacts in the school environment of multibacillary cases living in a hyperendemic municipality of the state of Mato Grosso. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 236 social contacts of multibacillary leprosy from public schools and residents in Cuiabá (Mato Grosso) in 2018. The sources of information were interviews and nasal swab tests for molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction - PCR. For the prevalence ratio estimates, crude and adjusted analyses were performed using robust Poisson regression and their respective confidence intervals (95% CI). The ArcGIS 9.1 software was used for the geographic distribution analyses. Results: The prevalence of detection of M. leprae in social contacts was 14%. A total of 63.6% of the schools surveyed had 5.1% to 50% of the social contacts of leprosy with positive PCR. The analysis of the geographic distribution in the neighborhoods showed a high prevalence of infection, being higher than 50% in some localities. The highest proportion of positive results occurred in the northern region of the city and from a precarious socioeconomic class. Conclusion: The results showed a high prevalence of detection of M. leprae among social contacts in areas with poor socioeconomic conditions. In these regions, there is a greater risk of

3.
Cogit. Enferm. (Online) ; 27: e82221, Curitiba: UFPR, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1394307

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: analisar o perfil sociodemográfico e clínico dos casos notificados de hanseníase em menores de 15 anos, no município de São Luís - Maranhão - Brasil. Método: estudo descritivo realizado com 826 casos notificados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, em São Luís - Maranhão, no período de 2010 a 2019. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e foram expressos em frequências absolutas e relativas. Resultados: faixa etária entre 10 e 14 anos (60,29%), masculino (51,09%), cor parda (69,59%), ensino fundamental incompleto (39,58%), multibacilar (62,71%), forma clínica dimorfa (54,24%), até cinco lesões (74,45%), zero a dois nervos afetados (83,23%), sem baciloscopia (46,28%), casos novos (93,70%), demanda espontânea (46,38%) e grau zero de incapacidade no diagnóstico (78,98%). Conclusão: foram demostrados parâmetros hiperendêmicos com elevado risco para a doença. Destaca-se a importância de criar estratégias de controle e prevenção para reduzir a transmissão da hanseníase em crianças.


ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the sociodemographic and clinical profile of reported cases of Hansen´s disease in children under 15 years old in the municipality of São Luís - Maranhão - Brazil. Method: descriptive study conducted with 826 cases reported in the Notifiable Diseases Information System, in São Luís - Maranhão, in the period from 2010 to 2019. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and were expressed in absolute and relative frequencies. Results: age group between 10 and 14 years (60.29%), male (51.09%), brown (69.59%), incomplete elementary education (39.58%), multibacillary (62.71%), dimorphic clinical form (54.24%), up to five lesions (74.45%), zero to two nerves affected (83.23%), no bacilloscopic (46.28%), new cases (93.70%), spontaneous demand (46.38%) and zero degree of disability at diagnosis (78.98%). Conclusion: hyper-endemic parameters with high risk for the disease were demonstrated. It is important to create control and prevention strategies to reduce Hansen´s disease transmission in children.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar el perfil sociodemográfico y clínico de los casos notificados de lepra en niños menores de 15 años, en el municipio de São Luís - Maranhão - Brasil. Método: estudio descriptivo realizado con 826 casos notificados en el Sistema de Información de Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria, en São Luís - Maranhão, en el período de 2010 a 2019. Los datos se analizaron mediante estadísticas descriptivas y se expresaron en frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: edad entre 10 y 14 años (60,29%), sexo masculino (51,09%), color marrón (69,59%), educación elemental incompleta (39,58%), multibacilar (62,71%), forma clínica dimórfica (54,24%), hasta cinco lesiones (74,45%), de cero a dos nervios afectados (83,23%), sin baciloscopia (46,28%), casos nuevos (93,70%), demanda espontánea (46,38%) y cero grado de discapacidad en el momento del diagnóstico (78,98%). Conclusión: se demostraron parámetros hiperendémicos con alto riesgo de enfermedad. Destaca la importancia de crear estrategias de control y prevención para reducir la transmisión de la lepra en los niños.

4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(6): 2255-2258, jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375007

ABSTRACT

Resumo A hanseníase é uma doença dermato-neurológica, infecciosa, sistêmica ou localizada, debilitante, causada por Mycobacterium leprae. No Brasil, a magnitude e o alto poder incapacitante mantêm a doença como um problema de saúde pública. Mancha na pele e dormência são sinais e sintomas patognomônicos na hanseníase. A Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde de 2019 (PNS-2019), do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), considerou a seguinte pergunta como proxy para estimar sua magnitude no país. "O(a) sr(a). tem mancha com dormência ou parte da pele com dormência?". No Brasil, 1.921.289 adultos referiram ter mancha ou parte da pele com dormência, sem diferenças regionais. Com relação ao grupo etário, quanto mais velho, maior a prevalência. Por exemplo, entre os de 18 a 29 anos (235.445) e de 30 a 39 anos (236.485), 0,7% possuía a condição, entre 40 e 59 anos (827.887), 1,5%, e entre os idosos, 1,8% (621.472). Poder estimar, em pesquisas de base populacional, com representatividade estatística, uma morbidade referida tal como a hanseníase é fundamental para apoiar a formulação de políticas públicas, notadamente as relativas às ações da atenção primária à saúde. Dessa forma, o IBGE cumpre seu papel constitucional de retratar a realidade da população brasileira e hoje é o principal avaliador externo do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e das políticas públicas instituídas no âmbito federal.


Abstract Leprosy is a debilitating, infectious, systemic or localized dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium lepra. In Brazil, the magnitude and high disabling power keep the disease as a public health problem. Skin spotting and numbness are pathognomonic signs and symptoms in leprosy. The Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) 2019 National Health Survey (PNS-2019) considered the following question as a proxy to estimate its magnitude in the country. "Do you have a spot with numbness or part of the skin with numbness?". In Brazil, 1,921,289 adults reported having a patch or part of the skin with numbness, with no regional differences. As for the age group, the older, the higher the prevalence, for example, between 18 to 29 years old (235,445) and 30 to 39 years old (236,485), 0.7% had the condition, between 40 to 59 years old (827,887), 1.5% and among the elderly, 1.8% (621,472). Being able to estimate, in population-based surveys, with statistical representativeness, a reported morbidity such as leprosy is essential to support the formulation of public policies, notably those related to primary health care actions. In this way, the IBGE fulfills its constitutional role of portraying the reality of the Brazilian population and today it is the main external evaluator of the Unified Health System (SUS) and of public policies developed by the federal level.

5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(2): 231-235, Mar.-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374231

ABSTRACT

Abstract Patients with lepromatous or borderline leprosy may present two types of vasculonecrotic reactions: Lucio's phenomenon (LP) and necrotic erythema nodosum leprosum (nENL). These are serious conditions, which mostly lead to life-threatening infectious and thrombotic complications. The authors report the case of a patient with leprosy recurrence associated with an atypical type II reaction with LP characteristics on histopathology.

6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(4): 1641-1652, abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374937

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study's objective was to analyze the spatial distribution pattern of new leprosy cases under 15 years and their contacts. A cross-sectional descriptive study covering sociodemographic characteristics and spatial analysis was carried out. The participants were from the city of Sobral, Ceará and the study was conducted between August 2014 and September 2015. Contacts were identified by the persons responsible for the children. Seropositivity was determined with the NDO-LID antigen, and positive cases were plotted on Voronoi polygons. Nine new cases of leprosy under 15 years of age have been found. The average number of people living with the cases was higher than the number of people living with non-household contacts. All household contacts were aware of other leprosy cases and had a higher rate of seropositive tests than non-household contacts. The index cases lived in the poorest regions of the municipality and hyper-endemic areas. Spatial analysis revealed a cluster of subclinical infection within a radius of 102 meters, suggesting that non-household transmission is related to proximity with seropositive individuals. In conclusion, the search for new leprosy cases cannot be restricted to household contacts.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o padrão de distribuição espacial de novos casos de hanseníase em menores de 15 anos e seus contatos. Estudo transversal, descritivo, abrangendo características sociodemográficas e análise espacial. Os participantes eram de Sobral, Ceará e o estudo foi realizado entre agosto de 2014 e setembro de 2015. Os contatos foram identificados pelos responsáveis pelas crianças. A soropositividade foi determinada com o antígeno NDO-LID e os casos positivos foram plotados em polígonos de Voronoi. Nove novos casos de hanseníase em menores de 15 anos foram encontrados. O número médio de pessoas que conviviam com os casos foi superior ao número de pessoas que conviviam com contatos não domiciliares. Todos os contatos domiciliares sabiam de outros casos de hanseníase e apresentaram maior taxa de testes soropositivos do que os contatos não domiciliares. Os casos índice residiam nas regiões mais pobres do município e em áreas hiperendêmicas. A análise espacial revelou um agrupamento de infecção subclínica em um raio de 102 metros, sugerindo que a transmissão não domiciliar está relacionada à proximidade com indivíduos soropositivos. Concluindo, a busca por novos casos de hanseníase não pode se restringir aos contatos domiciliares.

7.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(287): 7553-7567, abr.2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372473

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar a prevalência de pacientes notificados com hanseníase em São Luís, Maranhão, durante 2010-2020. Método: estudo descritivo, exploratório, retrospectivo, transversal, quantitativo, realizado no Banco de Dados público do DATASUS cuja coleta ocorreu em agosto de 2021. A amostra foi composta por 9.387 pacientes notificados com Hanseníase. Resultados: observa-se prevalência amostral em maio de 2012, sexo masculino, faixa etária entre 30-39 anos, Ensino Médio completo, pardos, casos multibacilares, avaliação de incapacidade física e de cura no estágio Grau 0, apresentaram mais que cinco lesões, baciloscopia negativa, episódios sem reação,sendo abordados como casos novos cuja forma prevalente foi a dimorfa, tendo como esquema terapêutico mais prescrito a poliquimioterapia durante 12 meses e prevalência de cura. Conclusão: houve uma prevalência dos casos de hanseníase em homens jovens com bom grau de instrução escolar. Apesar da alta prevalência de casos novos, o tratamento foi efetivo de modo a levá-los à cura.(AU)


Objective: to identify the prevalence of patients notified with leprosy in São Luís, Maranhão, during 2010-2020. Method: descriptive, exploratory, retrospective, cross-sectional, quantitative study, conducted in the public database of the DATASUS whose collection occurred in August 2021. The sample was composed of 9,387 patients notified with Leprosy. Results: sample prevalence was observed in May 2012, male gender, age range 30-39 years, complete High School, brown, multibacillary cases, evaluation of physical disability and cure in Grade 0 stage, presented more than five lesions, negative bacilloscopy, episodes without reaction, being addressed as new cases whose prevalent form was the dimorphic, having as the most prescribed therapeutic scheme the polychemotherapy for 12 months and prevalence of cure. Conclusion: there was a prevalence of leprosy cases in young men with good schooling. Despite the high prevalence of new cases, the treatment was effective in order to lead them to cure(AU)


Objetivo: identificar la prevalencia de pacientes con lepra notificados en São Luís, Maranhão, durante 2010-2020. Método: estudio descriptivo, exploratorio, retrospectivo, transversal, cuantitativo, realizado en la base de datos pública DATASUS, la cual fue recolectada en agosto de 2021. La muestra estuvo conformada por 9.387 pacientes reportados con lepra. Resultados: se tiene una muestra de prevalencia en mayo de 2012, sexo masculino, grupo etario entre 30-39 años, bachillerato completo, pardos, casos multibacilares, valoración de incapacidad física y curación en la etapa Grado 0, presentaba más de cinco lesiones, baciloscopía negativa , episodios sin reacción, siendo abordados como casos nuevos cuya forma prevalente fue borderline, siendo el régimen terapéutico más prescrito la polimedicación durante 12 meses y prevalencia de cura.Conclusión: había una prevalencia de casos de lepra en hombres jóvenes con buena escolaridad. A pesar de la alta prevalencia de casos nuevos, el trataminto fue eficaz de manera que los curará(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Disease Notification , Leprosy/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Health Information Systems , Sociodemographic Factors
8.
J. health sci. (Londrina) ; 24(1): 06-11, 20220322.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362801

ABSTRACT

The individuals with Hansen's disease experience situations of prejudice that, together with stigma and discrimination, culminate in social isolation and restrictions in social relationships. The aim of this study was to assess the perception of leprosy patients about their quality of life. This is a cross-sectional, quantitative study, whose convenience sample consisted of 94 leprosy patients, undergoing treatment, who attended health units in the city of Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. A structured questionnaire with sociodemographic data and information about the patient's knowledge about leprosy, prejudice, self-esteem and quality of life, was applied between April and August 2018.The results showed in the investigated population a predominance of males (55.3%), individuals with high school education (28.7%) and with an income ranging from 1 to 3 minimum wages (67%).The interviewees pointed out the side effects (44.7%) and the duration period (28.7%) as the greatest difficulty in the treatment. Most of the investigated (72.3%) had great knowledge about the disease, among which 26.6% had already suffered the leprosy reaction.40.4% of individuals were depressed and sad, and 69.1% had problems in employment after the diagnosis of the disease. When the quality of life was investigated, 45.7% of leprosy patients classified the domains evaluated between bad and very bad. Physical pain was associated with 43.7% of the individuals being unable to perform daily tasks. It can be concluded that leprosy causes suffering beyond pain and discomfort, with great social and psychological impact. (AU)


Os pacientes com hanseníase vivenciam situações de preconceito que, com o estigma e a discriminação, culminam para o isolamento social e a restrição dos relacionamentos sociais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a percepção do paciente com hanseníase sobre sua qualidade de vida. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, quantitativo, cuja amostra de conveniência foi composta por 94 pacientes hansenianos, em fase de tratamento, que frequentavam as Unidades de Saúde do município de Cuiabá/MT, Brasil. Um questionário estruturado com dados sociodemográficos e informações sobre o conhecimento do paciente sobre a hanseníase, preconceito, autoestima e qualidade de vida, foi aplicado entre abril e agosto de 2018. Os resultados mostraram, na população investigada, um predomínio de indivíduos do sexo masculino (55,3%), com ensino médio completo (28,7%) e com renda entre 1 e 3 salários mínimos (67%). Os entrevistados apontaram como maior dificuldade do tratamento os efeitos colaterais (44,7%) e o período de duração (28,7%). A maioria dos investigados (72,3%) apresentava grande conhecimento sobre a doença, dentre os quais 26,6% já haviam sofrido a reação hansênica. 40,4% dos indivíduos encontravam-se deprimidos e tristes e 69,1%, tiveram problemas no emprego após o diagnóstico da doença. Quando a qualidade de vida foi investigada, 45,7% dos hansenianos classificaram os domínios avaliados entre ruim e muito ruim. A dor física foi associada ao impedimento do desempenho das tarefas diárias por 43,7% dos indivíduos. Pode-se concluir que a hanseníase causa sofrimento aos indivíduos que ultrapassa a dor e o mal-estar estritamente vinculados ao prejuízo físico, com grande impacto social e psicológico. (AU)

9.
RECIIS (Online) ; 16(1): 28-47, jan.-mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366518

ABSTRACT

A colaboração científica entre pesquisadores, instituições e países tem despertado o interesse de estudiosos da ciência da informação que desejam conhecer as relações estabelecidas entre os atores envolvidos, a dinâmica e a evolução dos padrões sociais na comunicação científica. Por meio de análise bibliométrica, este estudo objetiva visualizar a rede de colaboração científica entre a comunidade discursiva que conduz pesquisas sobre hanseníase no Brasil, por meio das relações de coautoria institucional. As características da colaboração foram estudadas a partir da coautoria de 498 artigos indexados na base de dados Web of Science no período de 2016 a 2020. As análises revelam que parte significativa dos artigos foi publicada por um grupo reduzido de instituições e que as universidades, apesar de maior número, possuem publicações mais pulverizadas e não ocupam a centralidade da rede, que é dominada por institutos de pesquisa, que concentram grande número de publicações em poucas unidades.


Scientific collaboration between researchers, institutions and countries has aroused the interest of Information Science scholars who want to know the relationships established between the actors involved, the dynamics and evolution of social standards in scientific communication. Through bibliometric analysis, this study aims to visualize the network of scientific collaboration between the discursive community that conducts research on leprosy in Brazil through institutional co-authoring relationships. Collaboration characteristics were studied based on the co-authorship of 498 articles indexed in the Web of Science database in the period 2016-2020. The analyzes reveal that a significant part of the articles was published by a small group of institutions and that, despite the greater number, the universities have more widely distributed publications and don't occupy the centrality of the network, which is dominated by research institutes, which concentrate a large number of publications in a few units.


La colaboración científica entre investigadores, instituciones y países ha despertado el interés de los estudiosos de las Ciencias de la Información que quieren conocer las relaciones que se establecen entre los actores involucrados, la dinámica y evolución de los estándares sociales en la comunicación científica. A través del análisis bibliométrico, este estudio tiene como objetivo visualizar la red de colaboración científica entre la comunidad discursiva que realiza investigaciones sobre la lepra en Brasil a través de relaciones institucionales de coautoría. Las características de la colaboración fueran estudiadas a partir de la coautoría de 498 artículos indexados en la base de datos de Web of Science en el período de 2016 hasta 2020. Los análisis revelan que una parte importante de los artículos fue publicada por un grupo reducido de instituciones y que las universidades, aunque en mayor número, tienen publicaciones más dispersas y no ocupan la centralidad de la red, que es dominada por institutos de investigación, que concentran un gran número de publicaciones en pocas unidades.


Subject(s)
Humans , Scientific and Technical Activities , Authorship and Co-Authorship in Scientific Publications , Social Networking , Leprosy , Bibliometrics , Information Science , Database , Scientific Communication and Diffusion
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): 80-85, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388336

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad de Hansen o lepra es una enfermedad infecciosa crónica causada por Mycobacterium leprae, y que afecta principalmente la piel y nervios periféricos. En los últimos años, se ha logrado un mejor control de la enfermedad en forma global. Sin embargo, en Chile la incidencia de la lepra ha ido en aumento. Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente de 40 años, haitiano, con lesiones e histopatología compatibles con una lepra tuberculoide. Se discute la importancia en la educación sobre enfermedades menos prevalentes en Chile y se hace una revisión sobre la fisiopatología, clínica y clasificación de la enfermedad de Hansen.


Abstract Hansen's disease or leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, mainly affecting the skin and peripheral nerves. In recent years, a better control of the disease has been achieved globally. However, in Chile the incidence of leprosy has continued to increase. We present a case of a 40-year-old patient Haitian nationality with lesions and histopathology compatible with tuberculoid leprosy. We discuss the importance of education on less prevalent diseases in Chile, in conjunction with a review of the pathophysiology, clinic, and classification of Hansen's disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Leprosy, Tuberculoid/diagnosis , Leprosy, Tuberculoid/drug therapy , Chile , Haiti , Leprosy , Mycobacterium leprae
11.
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(1): 54-57, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360092

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leprosy presents a varied clinical spectrum. Lucius phenomenon is a rare leprosy reaction characterized by erythematous, painful, slightly infiltrated macules and hemorrhagic bullae that progress to ulceration. This case report describes a patient whose diagnosis of leprosy occurred in the presence of Lucius phenomenon. Late diagnosis and delay in the implementation of specific therapy contributed to an unfavorable outcome, highlighting the importance of early identification and treatment of this disease, as well as its complications.


Subject(s)
Leprosy
12.
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(1): 49-53, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360079

ABSTRACT

Abstract Erythema nodosum leprosum is a severe immune reaction that complicates the usual course of multibacillary leprosy. There is increased activation of T-cells in erythema nodosum leprosum. Treatment modalities available to date for the management are systemic steroids, thalidomide, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, minocycline, and apremilast but none of them is promising and safe. Mycobacterium indicus pranii is an atypical mycobacterium possessing strong immunomodulatory properties. The vaccine for this mycobacterium has been shown to have both immunotherapeutic and immunoprophylactic effects in multibacillary leprosy patients. We report a case of chronic recalcitrant erythema nodosum Leprosum which responded to Mycobacterium indicus pranii vaccine without any adverse effects, thereby suggesting its role as a novel therapeutic option in this reaction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vaccines , Leprosy, Lepromatous/drug therapy , Erythema Nodosum/drug therapy , Leprosy, Multibacillary , Mycobacterium
13.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2022. 155 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1397644

ABSTRACT

A hanseníase é uma doença infectocontagiosa de caráter crônico cuja transmissão ocorre, preferencialmente, pelo contato prolongado de um indivíduo susceptível com as secreções das vias aéreas de um indivíduo doente. Manifesta-se principalmente por lesões na pele, olhos e comprometimento de nervos periféricos que se não tratados precocemente, podem evoluir para incapacidade física. Essas incapacidades físicas são os principais aspectos estgmatizantes da hanseníase, ainda atrelados à concepções divinas. Nesse sentido, notas-se que a hanseníase é uma doença conhecida, porém, pouco compreendida pela população. Por isso, torna-se fundamental pesquisar sobre o potencial educativo e transformador dessas campanhas, se agem como obstáculo à transformação do estigma sobre a doença ou se são potencialmente transformadoras. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as representações sociodiscursivas das campanhas sobre hanseníase produzidas e circuladas pelo Ministério da Saúde; identificar e analisar os discursos produzidos nos cartazes das campanhas sobre hanseníase do Ministério da Saúde; identificar os aspectos da conjuntura social acerca da representação da hanseníase; analisar como as campanhas representam em sua linguagem multimodal a doença e as pessoas afetadas pela hanseníase; analisar e explanar criticamente sobre o potencial educativo e transformador das campanhas sobre hanseníase: agem como obstáculo à transformação do estigma sobre a doença ou são potencialmente transformadoras. Foi realizada uma pesquisa documental e discursiva sobre cartazes de campanhas sobre hanseníase, produzidas pelo Ministério da Saúde entre 2010 e 2021, disponibilizadas no Google Search Imagens, Ministério da Saúde, Movimento de Reintegração das Pessoas Atingidas pela Hanseníase, DHAW e Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Para análise do texto verbal foi utilizada a abordagem discursivo-crítica dialético-relacional de Norman Fairclough. Já a análise das imagens foi feita por meio da Gramática do Design Visual de Gunther Kress e Theo van Leeuwen para análise das imagens. Ao analisar os recursos semióticos produzidos nos 17 cartazes que compõem o corpus dessa pesquisa identificamos a articulação entre os discursos biomédico, pedagógico-instrutivo e do autocuidado. A multimodalidade dos cartazes constrói uma ideia positiva da doença, ao destacar imagens de corpos "saudáveis" em contato físico e cores que representam boas vibrações. Velam a realidade da vivência da doença ao desconsiderarem aspectos sociais importantes que envolvem a hanseníase. Contruir uma nova imagem para uma doença tão antiga não é um desafio fácil, principalmente quando se mantem relações com senso comum, permeado de estigmas. As escolhas feitas para a construção dos cartazes buscam reafirmar a hegemonia do saber biomédico influenciado pelo modelo cartesiano que reduz e fragmenta o corpo em partes, como se essas partes fossem mais importantes que o todo. Esse discurso foi construído na tentativa de imprimir na hanseníase a ideologia de uma doença crônica comum, desconsiderando todo seu percurso histórico cultural, que atualmente, representa um dos desafios no controle da doença no Brasil. Os discursos do autocuidado e pedagógico instrutivo buscam transferir para a sociedade a responsabilidade de procurarem pelo diagnóstico e tratamento da doença, que por muito tempo, estiveram sob responsabilidade do Estado


Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease whose transmission occurs, preferably, through prolonged contact of a susceptible individual with secretions from the airways of a sick individual. It is mainly manifested by lesions in the skin, eyes and impairment of peripheral nerves that, if not treated early, can progress to physical disability. These physical disabilities are the main stigmatizing aspects of leprosy, still linked to divine conceptions. In this sense, it is noted that leprosy is a known disease, however, little understood by the population. Therefore, it is essential to research the educational and transforming potential of these campaigns, whether they act as an obstacle to the transformation of the stigma about the disease or whether they are potentially transformative.To analyze the socio-discursive representations of leprosy campaigns produced and propagated by the Ministry of Health; to identify and analyze the discourses contained within the posters of the Ministry of Health's leprosy campaigns; to perform an identify of the social conjuncture on the representation of leprosy; analyze how campaigns represent the disease and the people affected by it in their multimodal language; critically analyze and explain the educational and transforming potential of leprosy campaigns: if they act as an obstacle to the transformation of the stigma about the disease or if they are potentially transformative. Documentary and discursive research on leprosy campaign posters, produced by the Ministry of Health between 2010 and 2021, available on Google Search Images, MS, MORHAN, DHAW, and FIOCRUZ. For verbal text analysis, Norman Fairclough's dialectical-relational approach to critical discourse was used. Image analysis was carried out using the Grammar of Visual Design by Gunther Kress and Theo van Leeuwen. The socio- discursive representations are guided by the biomedical ideology. Verbs in the imperative mood indicate that governments hold the population accountable for disease control actions. The multimodality of the posters builds a positive idea of the disease, by highlighting images of "healthy" bodies in physical contact and colors that represent good vibes. They veil the reality of experiencing the disease by omitting important social aspects involving leprosy. To build a new image for such an old disease is not an easy challenge, especially when relationships are kept with common sense, permeated by stigmas. It is noted that the discourses on leprosy are related, even if indirectly, with the memories that address the stigma and, therefore, the setbacks linked to the formation of social identity and the full exercise of citizenship. The posters, by presenting images of "perfect bodies" and disjointed body parts with the manifestations of the disease, reinforce the stereotypes of the disease, in the same way that they bring insecurity, fear, anxiety, and doubts about it. Such socio-discursive representations accumulate socially and, in this way, perpetuate the mutilating, segregating, punitive, and dishonorable representation of the disease of the past.


Subject(s)
Health Education , Health Communication , Leprosy , Communications Media , Academic Dissertation , Social Stigma
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e220014, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is a public health problem in Brazil that affects peripheral nerves, resulting in physical disabilities. During host-pathogen interactions, the immune response determines leprosy outcomes from a localised (paucibacillary) form to a disseminated (multibacillary) form. The recognition of M. leprae involves the DC-SIGN receptor, which is present on the dendritic cells (DCs) and participates in immune activation. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the association of polymorphisms in the promoter region of the gene encoding DC-SIGN (CD209) and the clinical form of leprosy, and to investigate its functional effects. METHODS The study population included 406 leprosy patients from an endemic area in Brazil [310 multibacillary (MB); 96 paucibacillary (PB)]. A functional evaluation based on the effects of the single nucleotide variant (SNV) associated with PB leprosy on the specific immune response was also performed. RESULTS The GA genotype and the presence of the A allele of rs735240 (-939G>A) were associated with PB leprosy [OR: 2.09 (1.18-3.69) and 1.84 (1.07-3.14), respectively]. Carriers of the A allele showed reduced expression of CD209 and TGF-β1 in leprosy lesions in comparison with individuals with GG genotype, in addition to a higher response to the Mitsuda test. CONCLUSION These data suggest that rs735240 influences the immune response against M. leprae and clinical presentation of leprosy.

15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e220025, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of Hansen's disease, causes neural damage through the specific interaction between the external phenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) and laminin subunit alpha-2 (LAMA2) from Schwann cells. OBJECTIVE To design a LAMA2-based peptide that targets PGL-1 from M. leprae. METHODS We retrieved the protein sequence of human LAMA2 and designed a specific peptide using the Antimicrobial Peptide Database and physicochemical parameters for antimycobacterial peptide-lipid interactions. We used the AlphaFold2 server to predict its three-dimensional structure, AUTODOCK-VINA for docking, and GROMACS programs for molecular dynamics simulations. FINDINGS We analysed 52 candidate peptides from LAMA2, and subsequent screening resulted in a single 60-mer peptide. The mapped peptide comprises four β-sheets and a random coiled region. This peptide exhibits a 45% hydrophobic ratio, in which one-third covers the same surface. Molecular dynamics simulations show that our predicted peptide is stable in aqueous solution and remains stable upon interaction with PGL-1 binding. In addition, we found that PGL-1 has a preference for one of the two faces of the predicted peptide, which could act as the preferential binding site of PGL-1. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our LAMA2-based peptide targeting PGL-1 might have the potential to specifically block this key molecule, suggesting that the preferential region of the peptide is involved in the initial contact during the attachment of leprosy bacilli to Schwann cells.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920389

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium leprae is virtually non-toxic. After invading the human body, it can grow and reproduce in large quantities in the tissues but does not cause any clinical symptoms. The manifestations of skin, mucous membrane and peripheral nerve damage of leprosy are mainly caused by the immune response of the body to the leprae. Schwann cells can support and nourish nerve fibers. As an important parasitic site of leprosy bacteria, Schwann cells are closely related to leprosy immunity, and the research on these cells is of great significance.

17.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 649-653, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934876

ABSTRACT

Objective@# To assess the implementation of National Leprosy Control Plan (2011-2020) in Zhejiang Province, so as to provide insights into leprosy control. @*Methods@#Leprosy control data were collected from the National Leprosy Management Information System of China, and health administrative sectors, centers for disease control and prevention and professional leprosy control institutions at each level in Zhejiang Province. According to the scheme for the final evaluation of National Leprosy Control Plan (2011-2020), the implementation of 12 indicators in Zhejiang Province in 2020 was investigated, including the current number of leprosy patients, prevalence of leprosy, proportion of training on leprosy control skills, proportion of regular leprosy treatment, proportion of treatment of adverse reactions, annual examination rate of close contacts, proportion of early case identification and awareness of leprosy control knowledge.@*Results@#There were 50 registered leprosy cases in Zhejiang Province by the end of 2020, with a decrease of 50.98% relative to in 2010. The prevalence of leprosy was less than 1/105 in 93 counties (districts) of Zhejiang Province, and the rate of training on leprosy control skills, rate of regular leprosy treatment, rate of treatment of adverse reactions, annual examination rate of close contacts, rate of early case identification were all 100% in Zhejiang Province. There were no new confirmed cases with diagnosis of leprosy having grade 2 deformity or disability, or no new cases with deformity or disability within 2 years following anti-leprosy therapy. In addition, the awareness of leprosy control knowledge was 91.67% among the public and 98.12% among the close contacts. All of the 12 indicators reached the requirements of the National Leprosy Control Plan (2011-2020). @* Conclusions @# The implementation of the National Leprosy Control Plan (2011-2020) in Zhejiang Province had achieved the targets defined in the final evaluation of the plan. Intensifying multi-sectoral joint leprosy prevention and control and improving early identification and standardized therapy of leprosy cases are recommended for future leprosy control in Zhejiang Province.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924177

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical characteristics of leprosy-related neuritis with bullous pemphigoid after treatment of paucibacillary leprosy. MethodsThe treatment of leprosy reaction combined with bullous pemphigoid of a cured case of leprosy was analysed. ResultsFive years after standard treatment for leprosy, erythema and vesicles appeared in the limbs without obvious inducement, and the disease became more and more severe. With clinical diagnosis and pathological examination, pemphigoid was confirmed, and the patients were given hormone treatment for leprosy reaction and anti-immunotherapy, as well as symptomatic supportive treatment. ConclusionLeprosy reaction and pemphigoid are both related to immunity, but the occurrence of both at the same time is relatively rare, so in the clinical process we should attach great importance to early detection, early diagnosis and prompt treatment to prevent further harm to the patient.

19.
Acta ortop. bras ; 30(3): e244354, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374153

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the functional results of surgically correcting drop foot in patients with leprosy and compare their SALSA, Social Participation, and AOFAS score. Methods: Overall, 22 patients were subjected to posterior tibial tendon transfer via the subcutaneous route to the foot dorsum with an average follow-up of 56 months (min 12, max 70). In our sample, 15 of the enrolled patients were men and seven, women, aged between 20 and 73 years old who were operated on from January 2014 to December 2017. The Pearson's correlation test (r) was used to measure the correlation among those scales. A p < 0.05 was considered significant between the pre- and pos-operative AOFAS scale scores. Results: Pre-operative average AOFAS score was 59.6 (min 35, max 74) and 77.2 postoperative (min 36, max 97) (p < 0.0001), postoperative Salsa and Social Participation scale, 30.6 and 22.5, respectively. Statistical analysis suggests a strong positive correlation between AOFAS and Salsa scales (r = −0.83) and AOFAS and social participation (r = −0.78). Average dorsiflexion was 5.4 degrees. Conclusion: The surgical correction of drop foot positively affects the quality of life and social participation of patients with leprosy. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Study.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o resultado funcional da cirurgia de correção de pé caído em pacientes hansênicos e comparar as escalas Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness (SALSA) e de Participação social pós-operatórias com o escore da American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS). Métodos: Avaliamos 22 pacientes submetidos à transposição do tibial posterior para o dorso do pé com mínimo de seguimento de 12 e máximo de 131 meses operados entre janeiro de 2013 e dezembro de 2017. Utilizamos o coeficiente de Pearson (r) para medir o grau de correlação entre as escalas funcionais e consideramos o valor de p < 0,05 na análise dos valores pré e pós-operatórios da AOFAS. Resultados: A média da AOFAS foi de 59,6 no pré-op (mín 35, máx 74) e 77,2 no pós-op (mín 36, máx 97) (p < 0,0001) e das escalas SALSA e participação social de 30,6 e 22,5 no pós-operatório. A análise estatística demonstrou correlação positiva forte (r = −0,83) com as escalas SALSA e de participação social (r = −0,78) quando comparadas ao AOFAS. O grau de dorsiflexão atingido foi de 5,4 graus em média. Linha de pesquisa: Evidência clínica e organizacional, modelos assistenciais, educacionais e avaliação de qualidade em APS - Pós-graduação em Clínica Médica da Faculdade de Medicina da UFRJ. Conclusão: A melhora da função através da correção cirúrgica do pé caído possui correlação direta na melhora da qualidade de vida dos pacientes portadores de hanseníase. Nível de Evidência III, Estudo Retrospectivo.

20.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 31(1): e2021951, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375389

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Analisar a distribuição espacial e temporal da hanseníase em cenário de baixa endemicidade no estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Métodos Estudo ecológico, sobre casos de hanseníase notificados no município de Ribeirão Preto, entre 2006 e 2016. A tendência temporal da taxa de detecção de hanseníase foi verificada mediante decomposição de séries temporais, e identificadas as áreas de alta e de baixa ocorrência da doença utilizando-se a técnica Getis-Ord Gi*. Resultados Foram registrados 890 casos, e a taxa de detecção apresentou uma tendência crescente no período analisado, com crescimento médio de 1% ao mês. Identificaram-se áreas de alta ocorrência da doença na região norte do município (99% e 95% de confiança). Conclusão A taxa de detecção de hanseníase apresentou tendência temporal crescente, e a análise espacial permitiu visualizar que a região do município com maior ocorrência da doença se caracteriza por apresentar as maiores desigualdades sociais.


Resumen Objetivo Analizar la distribución espacial y temporal de la lepra en un escenario de baja endemicidad en el estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Métodos Estudio ecológico con casos de lepra en Ribeirão Preto, entre 2006 y 2016. La tendencia temporal de la detección de la lepra se verificó a través de la descomposición de series de tiempo e identificaron áreas de alta y baja ocurrencia utilizando la técnica Getis-Ord Gi*. Resultados Fueron 890 casos y la tasa de detección mostró una tendencia creciente en el período de 2011 a 2015, con un crecimiento promedio de 1% mensual. Se identificaron áreas de alta ocurrencia de la enfermedad en la región norte de la ciudad (99% y 95% de confianza). Conclusión El análisis temporal mostró que la tasa de detección de lepra presentó una tendencia creciente y el análisis espacial mostró que la región de la ciudad con mayor ocurrencia de la enfermedad se caracteriza por presentar las mayores desigualdades sociales.


Abstract Objective To analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of leprosy in a scenario of low endemicity in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Ecological study with leprosy cases in Ribeirão Preto, between 2006 to 2016. The temporal trend of leprosy detection was verified through the decomposition of time series and identified areas of high and low occurrence of the disease using the Getis-Ord Gi* technique. Results There were 890 cases, and the detection rate showed an increasing trend in the period from 2011 to 2015, with an average growth of 1% per month. Areas of high occurrence of the disease were identified in the northern region of the city (99% and 95% confidence). Conclusion The temporal analysis showed that the rate of detection of leprosy presented an increasing trend, and the spatial analysis showed that the region of the municipality with the highest occurrence of the disease is characterized by presenting the greatest social inequalities.

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