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1.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(2): e309, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383655

ABSTRACT

La malformación congénita de la vía aérea pulmonar (MVAP), antes llamada malformación adenomatoidea quística pulmonar, es una rara anormalidad del desarrollo de las vías respiratorias terminales. Las lesiones son de distribución y tamaños variables, usualmente unilaterales. El diagnóstico puede realizarse desde el período prenatal mediante ecografía gestacional, encontrándose, en ocasiones, graves repercusiones fetales. En los recién nacidos la enfermedad puede manifestarse con dificultad respiratoria aguda. En niños y adultos puede diagnosticarse ante infecciones pulmonares recurrentes u otras complicaciones. En pacientes sintomáticos está indicado el tratamiento quirúrgico para prevenir infecciones y la transformación neoplásica; sin embargo, sigue siendo controversial el tratamiento profiláctico frente al tratamiento expectante en pacientes asintomáticos. Se presenta el caso clínico de una lactante de 2 meses, que en el curso de una bronquiolitis se realizó una radiografía de tórax que evidenció una imagen radiolúcida del lóbulo medio. La tomografía computada visualizó gran imagen quística en pulmón derecho, que podría corresponder a una MVAP. Se decidió tratamiento quirúrgico coordinado. Se realizó una segmentectomía, confirmándose con anatomía patológica una MVAP tipo IV. Evolucionó favorablemente.


Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM), formerly called pulmonary cystic adenomatoid malformation, is a rare developmental abnormality of the terminal airways. Lesions are of variable size and distribution, usually unilateral. The diagnosis can be made from the prenatal period by means of gestational ultrasound, occasionally causing serious fetal repercussions. In newborns, the disease may manifest itself through acute respiratory distress. In children and adults it can be diagnosed through recurrent lung infections or other complications. In symptomatic patients, surgical treatment is indicated to prevent infections and neoplastic transformation. However, prophylactic versus expectant management in asymptomatic patients remains controversial. We present the clinical case of a 2-month-old infant who, during the course of bronchiolitis underwent a chest X-ray that revealed a radiolucent image of the middle lobe. The computed tomography scan showed a large cystic image in the right lung, which could be linked to an CPAM. The surgical treatment was carried out and the segmentectomy confirmed a pathological type IV CPAM. The patient evolved favorably.


A malformação congênita das vias aéreas pulmonares (MVAP), anteriormente chamada de malformação adenomatoide cística pulmonar, é uma anormalidade rara do desenvolvimento das vias aéreas terminais. As lesões são de tamanho e distribuição variáveis, geralmente unilaterais. O diagnóstico pode ser feito desde o pré-natal por meio da ultrassonografia gestacional, podendo encontrar repercussões fetais graves. Em recém-nascidos, a doença pode se manifestar com dificuldade respiratória aguda. Em crianças e adultos, pode ser diagnosticada com infecções pulmonares recorrentes ou outras complicações. Em pacientes sintomáticos, o tratamento cirúrgico é indicado para prevenir infecções e transformações neoplásicas; no entanto, o tratamento profilático versus expectante em pacientes assintomáticos permanece controverso. Apresentamos o caso clínico de uma criança de 2 meses que foi submetida a radiografia de tórax durante bronquiolite, que revelou imagem radiotransparente do lobo médio. A tomografia computadorizada mostrou grande imagem cística em pulmão direito, que poderia corresponder a uma MVAP. O tratamento cirúrgico foi realizado e a segmentectomia confirmou um tipo IV de MVAP com patologia. A criança evoluiu favoravelmente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung, Congenital/diagnostic imaging , Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung, Congenital/surgery , Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung, Congenital/pathology
2.
Pediátr. Panamá ; 51(2): 68-71, sept 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392083

ABSTRACT

La lesión por inhalación es uno de los factores de riesgo que más contribuye a la mortalidad de pacientes quemados. La mortalidad asociada a la inhalación de humo es de 48 al 76%, se ha determinado que la mortalidad asociada con las quemaduras aumenta aproximadamente en 20% al combinarse con lesión por inhalación. En Panamá, específicamente en el Hospital del Niño Doctor José Renán Esquivel (HDNJRE), en los últimos 20 años han ocurrido 181 lesiones por inhalación, con una mortalidad asociada del 1.1%. Por esto la importancia de la detección temprana y manejo agresivo de esta patología. Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente de 9 años quien sufre quemadura térmica por gasolina de un 25.5% y lesión por inhalación referido a nuestra unidad. (provisto por Infomedic International)


Inhalation injury is one of the risk factors that most contributes to the mortality of burned patients. Mortality associated with smoke inhalation ranges from 48 to 76%, and it has been determined that the mortality associated with burns increases by approximately 20% when combined with inhalation injury. In Panama, specifically in Hospital del Niño, in the last 20 years, 181 inhalation injuries have occurred, with an associated mortality of 1.1%. Therefore, the importance of early detection and aggressive management of this pathology. We present the clinical case of a 9-year-old patient who suffered a 25.5% gasoline thermal burn and inhalation injury referred to our unit. (provided by Infomedic International)

3.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(4): 329-337, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386104

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The objective of this meta-analysis was to study the diagnostic value of lung ultrasound (LUS) for transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). Methods: Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched, and the last search date was October 31, 2020. Studies on the diagnostic accuracy of pulmonary ultrasound for transient tachypnea were included. The quality assessment of the included study was assessed using the Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. A meta-analysis was performed using Meta-Disc 1.4. A random-effects model was used and subgroup analysis was carried out to identify possible sources of heterogeneity. Results: A total of 378 articles were retrieved and nine studies with 3239 patients were included in the present meta-analysis. The overall quality of the included studies was moderate to high. The result of threshold analysis shows that there was no threshold effect. However, there was a significant heterogeneity caused by non-threshold effects in the included studies. A random-effects model was used. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, PLR and NLR were 0.55 (95% CI: 0.51-0.58), 0.98 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99), 58.30 (95% CI: 14.05-241.88) and 0.28 (95% CI: 0.18-0.43). The pooled DOR and AUC were 689.12 (95% CI: 68.71 to 6911.79) and 0.994. The results of subgroup analysis showed that the LUS diagnostic criteria and gold standard might be responsible for heterogeneity. Choosing "DLP combined with B line" as the diagnostic standard of LUS and choosing CXR as the gold standard could significantly improve the diagnostic performance of LUS. Conclusion: LUS is a promising method to diagnose TTN. Only DLP is not enough to diagnose TTN, while DLP combined with B-line has good diagnostic performance.

4.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(3): 370-379, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376533

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The objective of this study is to investigate the protective mechanism of dexmedetomidine (Dex) in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) of diabetic rats by inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Methods: Initially, healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. Then, three weeks after the induction, Dex or lentiviral vector (LV)-HIF-1α was injected into the rats 30 minutes prior to the MIR modeling. After four weeks, lung tissues were harvested for pathological changes observation and the wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio determination. Afterwards, oxidative stress indicators and pro-inflammatory factors were measured. In addition, HIF-1α expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Results: Dex could suppress inflammatory cell infiltration, improve lung tissue structure, reduce pathological score and the W/D ratio, and block oxidative stress and inflammatory response in MIR-induced ALI of diabetic rats. Besides, Dex could also inhibit HIF-1α expression. Moreover, Dex + LV-HIF-1α reversed the protective role of Dex on diabetic MIR-induced ALI. Conclusion: Our study has made it clear that Dex inhibited the upregulation of HIF-1α in diabetic MIR-induced ALI, and thus protect lung functions by quenching the accumulation of oxygen radical and reducing lung inflammatory response.

5.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 34(2): 212-219, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394910

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a influência da mechanical power e de seus componentes na ventilação mecânica em SARS-CoV-2; identificar os valores dos componentes da ventilação mecânica e verificar suas correlações entre si e com a mechanical power e efeitos sobre o resultado das fórmulas de Gattinoni-S e Giosa. Métodos: Estudo observacional, longitudinal, analítico e quantitativo dos parâmetros do respirador e da mechanical power no SARS-CoV-2. Resultados: A mechanical power média foi de 26,9J/minuto (Gattinoni-S) e 30,3J/minuto (Giosa). A driving pressure foi de 14,4cmH2O, a pressão de platô de 26,5cmH2O, a pressão expiratória positiva final 12,1cmH2O, a elastância de 40,6cmH2O/L, o volume corrente foi de 0,36L e a frequência respiratória de 32/minuto. A correlação entre as fórmulas de Gattinoni e de Giosa foi de 0,98, com viés de -3,4J/minuto e diferença na correlação da pressão de resistência de 0,39 (Gattinoni-S) e 0,24 (Giosa). Entre os componentes, destacaram-se as correlações da elastância com a driving pressure (0,88), pressão expiratória positiva final (-0,54) e volume corrente (-0,44). Conclusão: Na análise da ventilação mecânica da SARS-CoV-2, constatou-se que as correlações de seus componentes com a mechanical power influenciaram em seus valores momentâneos elevados, e que as correlações de seus componentes entre si influenciaram em seu comportamento ao longo do tempo. Por possuírem efeitos específicos sobre as fórmulas de Gatinnoni-S e Giosa, os componentes da ventilação mecânica tiveram influência em seus cálculos e causaram divergências nos valores da mechanical power.


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the influence of mechanical power and its components on mechanical ventilation for patients infected with SARS-CoV-2; identify the values of the mechanical ventilation components and verify their correlations with each other and with the mechanical power and effects on the result of the Gattinoni-S and Giosa formulas. Methods: This was an observational, longitudinal, analytical and quantitative study of respirator and mechanical power parameters in patients with SARS-CoV-2. Results: The mean mechanical power was 26.9J/minute (Gattinoni-S) and 30.3 J/minute (Giosa). The driving pressure was 14.4cmH2O, the plateau pressure was 26.5cmH2O, the positive end-expiratory pressure was 12.1cmH2O, the elastance was 40.6cmH2O/L, the tidal volume was 0.36L, and the respiratory rate was 32 breaths/minute. The correlation between the Gattinoni and Giosa formulas was 0.98, with a bias of -3.4J/minute and a difference in the correlation of the resistance pressure of 0.39 (Gattinoni) and 0.24 (Giosa). Among the components, the correlations between elastance and driving pressure (0.88), positive end-expiratory pressure (-0.54) and tidal volume (-0.44) stood out. Conclusion: In the analysis of mechanical ventilation for patients with SARS-CoV-2, it was found that the correlations of its components with mechanical power influenced its high momentary values and and that the correlations of its components with each other influenced their behavior throughout the study period. Because they have specific effects on the Gatinnoni-S and Giosa formulas, the mechanical ventilation components influenced their calculations and caused divergence in the mechanical power values.

6.
Rev. mex. anestesiol ; 45(2): 138-141, abr.-jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395030

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: Los tumores pulmonares congénitos son patologías poco frecuentes; asimismo, cuando requieren intervención quirúrgica, el médico anestesiólogo se enfrenta a un reto en el manejo de estos pacientes. Presentación del caso: En este artículo describimos el caso y el manejo anestésico de un recién nacido de 37.5 semanas de gestación (SDG) y 26 días de vida extrauterina, programado para toracotomía posterolateral izquierda más lobectomía inferior izquierda y colocación de catéter venoso central bajo anestesia combinada (anestesia general balanceada más bloqueo caudal con bupivacaína y morfina). Conclusiones: Las consideraciones anestésicas para los procedimientos quirúrgicos en neonatos y/o pacientes pediátricos se convierten en un reto para el anestesiólogo, debido a la inmadurez de algunos de los sistemas, se considera que la técnica anestésica idónea para el adecuado manejo de los pacientes neonatales sigue siendo la técnica combinada. El anestesiólogo debe mantener en mente dicha técnica así como los eventos y/o efectos secundarios que se puedan derivar de la misma y de este modo instaurar de manera oportuna el tratamiento pertinente.


Abstract: Introduction: Congenital lung tumors are rare pathologies, likewise when surgical intervention is required, the anesthesiologist faces a challenge in the anesthetic management of these patients. Presentation of the case: The following article describes the case of a 26-day-old newborn child scheduled for left posterolateral thoracotomy plus lower left lobectomy and central venous catheter placement under combined anesthesia (balanced general anesthesia plus caudal block with bupivacaine and morphine). Conclusions: Anesthetic considerations for surgical procedures in neonates and/or pediatric patients become a challenge for the anesthesiologist, due to the immaturity of some of the systems, thus considering that the ideal anesthetic technique for the proper management of in neonatal patients, the combined technique continues, with epidural blocks for the management of peri- and postoperative pain. The anesthesiologist must keep in mind this technique as well as the events and/or side effects that may derive from it, thus establishing the pertinent treatment in a timely manner.

7.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 86(2): 83-92, jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387606

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Dar a conocer la experiencia en nuestro departamento de imágenes y presentar los hallazgos de radiografía (Rx) y tomografía computada (TC) que hemos observado en nuestra serie de casos con diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. Método: Estudio retrospectivo analítico de los hallazgos de Rx y TC en una serie de pacientes que asistieron al servicio de urgencias por sospecha de COVID-19 en los hospitales universitarios dependientes de nuestra institución en el periodo comprendido entre el 1 de marzo y el 31 de mayo de 2020. Resultados: En el período de estudio se detectaron 127 casos de COVID-19 positivos en nuestra institución. A 57 (45%) de ellos se les realizó Rx. En 46 (80%) de ellas no mostraron hallazgos patológicos. En 8 (14%) pacientes se observaron opacidades parcheadas en vidrio esmerilado y en 3 (5%) en asociación con consolidaciones. La distribución fue predominantemente bilateral y en los lóbulos inferiores. A 11 pacientes se les realizó TC de tórax y 9 (81%) manifestaron infiltrados en vidrio esmerilado, mostrando preferencia por las áreas periféricas y los lóbulos superiores, asociándose a consolidaciones en 4 (36%) casos. Un paciente (9%) presentó patrón en empedrado y otros 2 mostraron opacidades (18%) redondeadas en vidrio esmerilado. Dos pacientes (18%) no tuvieron hallazgos patológicos. Como hallazgos atípicos, se evidenció derrame pleural en 2 pacientes (18%) y neumotórax en uno (9%) en uno de ellos. Conclusiones: Nuestra experiencia demostró como características frecuentes la presencia de opacidades parcheadas en vidrio esmerilado y consolidaciones parcheados de distribución predominantemente en los lóbulos inferiores.


Abstract Objective: To show the experience in our radiology department at X-ray and computed tomography (CT) imaging findings in patients with confirmed COVID-19. Method: Retrospective analytical study of the radiological findings on X-ray and CT on a series of patients who attended the emergency department on suspicion of COVID-19 at university hospitals dependent of our institution in the period between March 1 and May 31, 2020. Results: During the study period, 127 cases of COVID-19 were detected in our institution. X-rays were performed in 57 (45%) of them, 46 (80%) of which did not show pathological findings. In total, 8 (14%)manifested as patchy ground glass opacities, and 3 (5%), in association with consolidations. The distribution was predominantly bilateral and in the lower lobes. Eleven patients underwent chest CT, 9 (81%) of these showed ground glass opacities, showing a preference for peripheral areas and upper lobes, associated with consolidations in 4 (36%) of them. One patient (9%) presented crazy paving and 2 rounded (18%) ground glass opacities. Two patients (18%) showed no pathological findings. As atypical findings, pleural effusion was evident in two (18%) patients, and pneumothorax, in one (9%). Conclusions: Our experience demonstrated the presence of patchy ground glass opacities and patchy consolidative opacities predominantly in the lower lobes as frequent features.

8.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 82(2): 185-191, mayo 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375860

ABSTRACT

Resumen La ecografía pulmonar (EP) ha demostrado ser una herramienta útil para detectar el grado de compromiso pulmonar en neumonía y síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo. El presente estudio evalúa la asociación entre la puntuación de EP de 12 regiones y el ingreso de terapia intermedia a terapia intensiva en pacientes con neumonía por COVID-19. Se incluyó un total de 115 pacientes con diagnóstico de neumonía confirmada por radiografía de tórax, por SARS-CoV-2, se realizó una EP junto con la evaluación de laboratorio que incluyó la medición de marcadores inflamatorios (linfocitos, proteína C reactiva, Dímero D, procalcitonina, ferritina, lactato deshidrogenasa y pro péptido natriurético de tipo B). Se utilizó una puntuación ecográfica pul monar que caracteriza el grado de afección pulmonar como leve, moderado y grave, y se comparó el resultado con los marcadores inflamatorios de laboratorio. En el análisis univariado se observó una asociación entre la puntuación de la EP, los niveles elevados de procalcitonina y péptido natriurético cerebral y el ingreso a terapia intensiva. En el análisis multivariado solo la puntuación de EP fue un predictor independiente de requerimiento de terapia intensiva.


Abstract Lung ultrasound (LUS) has shown to be a useful tool to detect the degree of pulmonary involvement in patients with pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The present study evaluates the association of the 12-region lung ultrasound score and the requirements of intensive care unit, in patients with COVID-19 infection who were admitted to intermediate care in a specialized hospital; 115 patients with a diagnosis of pneumonia confirmed by chest radiography secondary to SARS-CoV-2 were included, LUS was performed together with the laboratory evaluation that included the measurement of inflammatory biomarkers (lymphocytes, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, procalcitonin, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and pro B-type natriuretic peptide). Lung ultrasound score was used, characterizing the degree of lung involvement as mild, moderate, and severe, and the results were compared with inflammatory biomarkers. In the univariate analysis, an association was observed between the lung ultrasound score, elevated levels of procalcitonin and brain natriuretic peptide, and the admission to intensive care. In the multivariate analysis, only the lung ultrasound score was an independent predictor of need for intensive therapy.

9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 82(2): 297-299, mayo 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375874

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lung tumorlets are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms of 0.5 cm or less in diameter that extend beyond the basement membrane. Although they are associated with bronchiectasis and fibrosis they tend to be asymptomatic and behave in a benign way, usually being diagnosed as incidental microscopic nests of neuroendocrine cells in lung tissue. We present a case of a pulmonary tumorlet finding after right upper lobectomy for lung cancer.


Resumen. Los tumorlets pulmonares son neoplasias neuroendocrinas poco frecuentes, que se extienden más allá de la membrana basal y miden 0.5 cm o menos de diámetro. Aunque suelen asociarse a bronquiectasias y fibrosis pulmonar, suelen ser asintomáticas comportándose de una manera indolente, siendo usualmente diagnosticadas de forma incidental en el estudio microscópico de una pieza pulmonar. Presentamos el caso de un tumorlet pulmonar incidental luego de una lobectomía superior derecha por cáncer de pulmón.

10.
Radiol. bras ; 55(3): 151-155, May-june 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387081

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the utility of computed tomography (CT) scans to detect and assess the margin status of pulmonary nodules that were insufflated after being resected by video-assisted thoracic surgery. Materials and Methods: This was a novel multicenter study conducted at two national referral centers for thoracic diseases. Patients suspected of having lung cancer underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery for the resection of pulmonary nodules, which were submitted to postoperative CT. Measurements from the CT scans were compared with the results of the histopathological analysis. Results: A total of 37 pulmonary nodules from 37 patients were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 65 years (range, 36-84 years), and 27 (73%) were female. A CT analysis of insufflated specimens identified all 37 nodules, and 33 of those nodules were found to have tumor-free margins. The histopathological analysis revealed lung cancer in 30 of the nodules, all with tumor-free margins, and benign lesions in the seven remaining nodules. Conclusion: Postoperative CT of insufflated suspicious lung lesions provides real-time detection of pulmonary nodules and satisfactory assessment of tumor margins. This initial study shows that CT of insufflated lung lesions can be a valuable tool at centers where intraoperative histopathological analysis is unavailable.


Resumo Objetivo: Investigar a utilidade da tomografia computadorizada (TC) para a detecção e avaliação de margens de nódulos pulmonares que foram insuflados após ressecção por cirurgia torácica videoassistida. Materiais e Métodos: Um inédito estudo multicêntrico foi conduzido em dois centros de referência nacional para doenças torácicas. Nódulos foram ressecados por cirurgia torácica videoassistida de pacientes com suspeita de câncer de pulmão e submetidos a TC pós-operatória. As medidas radiológicas da TC foram comparadas com as da análise patológica. Resultados: Um total de 37 pacientes foi avaliado. A idade média foi de 65 anos (variação: 36-84 anos) e 27 indivíduos (73%) eram do sexo feminino. A análise por TC dos espécimes insuflados identificou todas as 37 lesões e 33 delas com margens livres. A análise patológica revelou 30 casos de câncer de pulmão, todos com margens livres, e sete lesões não malignas. Conclusão: A TC pós-operatória de lesões pulmonares insufladas com suspeita de malignidade provê detecção em tempo real de nódulos pulmonares e aceitável avaliação de margens tumorais. Este estudo inicial demonstra que a TC de lesões pulmonares insufladas pode ser uma ferramenta valiosa em centros em que a análise histopatológica intraoperatória é indisponível.

11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(4): 502-506, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376148

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The NELSON study demonstrated a positive association between computed tomography scanning and reduced mortality associated with lung cancer. The COPD-LUCSS-DLCO is a tool designed to improve screening selection criteria of lung cancer for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the discriminating value of both scores in a community-based cohort of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. METHODS: A retrospective study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients followed in pulmonology consultation for a period of 10 years (2009-2019) was conducted. The NELSON criteria and COPD-LUCSS-DLCO score were calculated for each patient at the time of the study inclusion. The lung cancer incidence was calculated for each of the subgroups during the follow-up period. RESULTS: A total of 103 patients were included in the study (mean age 64.7±9.2 years, 88.3% male). Applying the COPD-LUCSS-DLCO score, high-risk patients have a 5.9-fold greater risk of developing lung cancer versus the low risk. In contrast, there was no significant association between NELSON selection criteria and lung cancer incidence. The area under the curve was 0.69 for COPD-LUCSS-DLCO and 0.59 for NELSON criteria. Comparing test results showed no differences. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the COPD-LUCSS-DLCO score in clinical practice can help to detect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in greater risk of developing lung cancer with better performance than NELSON criteria. Therefore, models that include a risk biomarker strategy can improve selection criteria and consequently can enhance a better lung cancer prediction.

12.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 86(1): 58-63, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376430

ABSTRACT

Resumen La neumonía en organización es un tipo de enfermedad pulmonar intersticial difusa que puede ser idiopática (criptogénica) o secundaria a numerosas etiologías, y se asocia con hallazgos clínicos y de laboratorio inespecíficos. Su diagnóstico y tratamiento exigen un equipo interdisciplinario, en el que las imágenes desempeñan un papel indispensable. Se presenta una serie de nueve casos, haciendo énfasis en las características clínicas y profundizando en los diversos patrones imagenológicos identificados. También se aporta una revisión de las variantes recientemente descritas.


Abstract Organizing pneumonia is a type of diffuse interstitial lung disease that can be idiopathic (cryptogenic) or secondary to numerous etiologies, and is an entity associated with nonspecific clinical and laboratory findings. Its diagnosis and treatment require an interdisciplinary team in which images play an indispensable role. The presentation of a series of nine cases is made, emphasizing the clinical characteristics and delving into the various identified imaging patterns. A review of the recently described variants is also provided.

13.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(2): 209-214, ene.-abr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376879

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Scimitar syndrome is a congenital malformation with an incidence of 1-3 per 100,000 live births, consisting of abnormal drainage of the right pulmonary veins. The age of diagnosis varies according to the severity of the pathology, which depends on the degree of cardiac and pulmonary malformation. The case of a patient with a late diagnosis of the syndrome due to a silent course is reported despite severe anatomical alterations. Clinical Case: A 76-year-old female was admitted due to a 6-month clinical picture of progressive dyspnea to minimal efforts. A transthoracic echocardiogram was performed showing severe pulmonary hypertension of 96 mmHg with abnormal communication between the right pulmonary veins and the inferior vena cava, confirmed by CT angiography. Discussion: The late clinical course in relation to severe anatomical malformations has not been described in the scientific literature due to its high mortality in childhood.


Resumen Introducción: El síndrome de la cimitarra es una malformación congénita con una incidencia de 1 a 3 por cada 100,000 nacidos vivos, que consiste en un drenaje anormal de las venas pulmonares derechas. La edad en el momento del diagnóstico varía según la severidad de la patología, la cual depende del grado de malformación cardíaca y pulmonar. Se reporta el caso de una paciente con diagnóstico tardío del síndrome dado por un curso silencioso a pesar de tener alteraciones anatómicas severas. Caso clínico: mujer de 76 años de edad quien se hospitaliza por un cuadro clínico de seis meses de evolución consistente en disnea progresiva de mínimos esfuerzos. Se le practica un ecocardiograma transtorácico evidenciando hipertensión pulmonar severa de 96 mmHG con una comunicación anormal entre las venas pulmonares derechas y la vena cava inferior, confirmada por angiografía por TC. Discusión: El curso clínico tardío con relación a las malformaciones anatómicas severas no se ha descrito en la literatura científica dada su alta mortalidad en la infancia.

14.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 204-211, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374713

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: General anesthesia causes pulmonary atelectasis within few minutes of induction. This can have significant impact on postoperative outcome of cancer patients undergoing prolonged reconstructive surgeries. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of sonographically detected perioperative atelectasis on the need for postoperative oxygen supplementation, bronchodilator therapy and assisted chest physiotherapy in patients undergoing free flap surgeries for head and neck carcinoma. Methods: Twenty eight head and neck cancer patients underwent bilateral pulmonary ultrasonographic assessments before and after lung surgery. Lung ultrasound scores, serum lactate, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio were measured both at the beginning and at end of the surgery. Patients were scanned in the supine position and the number of single and confluent B lines was noted. These values were correlated with the need for oxygen therapy, requirement of bronchodilators and total weaning time to predict the postoperative outcome. Other factors affecting weaning were also studied. Results: Among twenty eight patients, seven had mean lung ultrasound score of ≥10.5 which correlated with prolonged weaning time (144.56±33.5min vs. 66.7±15.7min; p = 0.005). The change in lung ultrasound score significantly correlated with change in PaO2/FiO2 ratio (r = −0.56, p = 0.03). Elevated total leukocyte count >8200 ΜL and serum lactate >2.1 mmoL/L also predicted prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: This preliminary study detected significant levels of perioperative atelectasis using point of care lung ultrasonography in head and neck cancer patients undergoing long duration surgical reconstructions. Higher lung ultrasound scores highlighted the need for frequent bronchodilator nebulizations as well as assisted chest physiotherapy and were associated with delayed weaning. We propose more frequent point of care lung ultrasonographic evaluations and use of recruitment maneuvers to reduce the impact of perioperative pulmonary atelectasis.


Resumo Introdução: A anestesia geral causa atelectasia pulmonar poucos minutos após sua indução. Isso pode ter um impacto significativo no resultado pós-operatório de pacientes com câncer submetidos a cirurgias reconstrutivas prolongadas. Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto das atelectasias perioperatórias detectadas por ultrassonografia na necessidade de suplementação pós-operatória de oxigênio, terapia broncodilatadora e fisioterapia respiratória assistida em pacientes com carcinoma de cabeça e pescoço submetidos a cirurgias com uso de retalho livre. Método: Foram submetidos a avaliações ultrassonográficas pulmonares bilaterais antes e após a cirurgia 28 pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Os escores de ultrassonografia pulmonar, lactato sérico, razão PaO2/FiO2 foram medidos no início e no fim da cirurgia. Os pacientes foram avaliados na posição supina e o número de linhas B confluentes e únicas foi observado. Esses valores foram correlacionados com a necessidade de oxigenoterapia, necessidade de broncodilatadores e tempo total de desmame para predizer o resultado pós-operatório. Outros fatores que afetam o desmame também foram estudados. Resultados: Entre os 28 pacientes, sete apresentaram escore médio de ultrassonografia pulmonar ≥ 10,5, que se correlacionou com o tempo de desmame prolongado (144,56 ± 33,5 minutos vs. 66,7 ± 15,7 minutos; p = 0,005). A mudança no escore de ultrassonografia pulmonar correlacionou-se significantemente com a mudança na razão PaO2/FiO2 (r = −0,56, p = 0,03). A contagem total elevada de leucócitos > 8200 uLe o nível de lactato sérico >2,1 mmoL/L também previram ventilação mecânica pós-operatória prolongada. Conclusão: Este estudo preliminar detectou um nível significante de atelectasia perioperatória com ultrassonografia pulmonar no local de atendimento em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço submetidos a reconstruções cirúrgicas de longa duração. Escores mais altos de ultrassonografia pulmonar enfatizaram a necessidade de nebulizações broncodilatadoras frequentes e fisioterapia respiratória assistida e foram associados a desmame tardio. Propomos avaliações ultrassonográficas pulmonares mais frequentes no local de atendimento e o uso de manobras de recrutamento para reduzir o impacto das atelectasias pulmonares perioperatórias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Atelectasis/etiology , Pulmonary Atelectasis/therapy , Pulmonary Atelectasis/diagnostic imaging , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Free Tissue Flaps , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms/complications , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Postoperative Complications , Bronchodilator Agents , Ultrasonography/adverse effects , Lactates , Lung
15.
Univ. salud ; 24(1): 76-84, ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1361188

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La COVID-19 es una enfermedad que desencadena infecciones respiratorias graves como el síndrome respiratorio agudo severo, que puede requerir atención prolongada intra y extrahospitalaria. Objetivo: Brindar recomendaciones y pautas para una correcta evaluación y tratamiento del paciente con COVID-19 mediante la rehabilitación pulmonar. Materiales y métodos: Revisión de la literatura en las bases de datos MEDLINE, PEDRO, Scielo y en Google Scholar, a partir de las palabras clave: COVID-19, Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto, Enfermedades pulmonares, Rehabilitación, pruebas de función respiratoria, Unidad de cuidado intensivo; seleccionando, aquellos artículos que presentaran información sobre rehabilitación en pacientes con COVID-19 y otras alteraciones con compromiso similar como el Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo y las Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales Difusas. Resultados: Para realizar una intervención en paciente con COVID-19 u otra alteración respiratoria como Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto y Enfermedad Pulmonar Intersticial Difusa, es necesario realizar un adecuado diagnóstico de la enfermedad, una minuciosa evaluación integral y una intervención basada en las necesidades de cada individuo. Conclusiones: El paciente intrahospitalario puede recibir intervención enfocada a evitar el deterioro funcional y una vez son dados de alta la rehabilitación pulmonar extrahospitalaria podría ser una alternativa eficaz en el tratamiento para los pacientes.


Introduction: COVID-19 is a disease that triggers serious respiratory infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, which requires treatment on an inpatient and outpatient basis. Objective: To provide recommendations and guidelines for the appropriate assessment and treatment of COVID-19 patients through pulmonary rehabilitation. Materials and methods: A literature review using MEDLINE, PEDRO, Scielo and Google Scholar databases and the keywords: COVID-19, Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Pulmonary diseases, Rehabilitation, Respiratory function tests, Intensive Care Unit. Articles that described information regarding rehabilitation in COVID-19 patients and other similar dysfunctions such as Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Diffuse Interstitial Lung Diseases. Results: It is necessary to carry out an appropriate disease diagnosis, a detailed integral assessment, and an intervention based on the needs of each patient in order to intervene with either COVID-19 patients or cases with other respiratory dysfunctions such as Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Diffuse Interstitial Lung Disease. Conclusions: Inpatients can be subjected to an intervention focused on avoiding functional failure. Once they are discharged, outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation could be an effective treatment alternative for these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rehabilitation , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Tract Infections , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Critical Care , Lung Diseases
16.
Rev. mex. ing. bioméd ; 43(1): 1208, Jan.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389187

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is a disease that mainly affects the lung tissue. The detection of lesions caused by this disease can help to provide an adequate treatment and monitoring its evolution. This research focuses on the bi- nary classification of lung lesions caused by COVID-19 in images of computed tomography (CT) using deep learning. The database used in the experiments comes from two independent repositories, which contains tomographic scans of patients with a positive diagnosis of COVID-19. The output layers of four pre-trained convolutional networks were adapted to the proposed task and re-trained using the fine-tuning technique. The models were validated with test images from the two database's repositories. The model VGG19, considering one of the repositories, showed the best performance with 88% and 90.2% of accuracy and recall, respectively. The model combination using the soft voting technique presented the highest accuracy (84.4%), with a recall of 94.4% employing the data from the other repository. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.92 at best. The proposed method based on deep learning represents a valuable tool to automatically classify COVID-19 lesions on CT images and could also be used to assess the extent of lung infection.

17.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 38(1): 20-25, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388168

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las Vasculitis Asociadas a Anticuerpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos (VAA) son infrecuentes, pero de amplio espectro de presentación. Si bien el consenso de clasificación de Chapel Hill del año 2012, sigue vigente, la tendencia actual es clasificarlas de acuerdo al marcador inmunológico: anti-Proteinasa 3 (PR3) o anti-mieloperoxidasa (MPO). Las manifestaciones pulmonares clásicas son la hemorragia alveolar y los nódulos pulmonares. En los últimos 10 años se ha descrito la enfermedad pulmonar difusa (EPD). Los estudios epidemiológicos son escasos, y suelen representar en su mayoría poblaciones norteamericanas o europeas. El objetivo es describir las características del compromiso pulmonar al debut en VAA en un centro universitario. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: De un total de 190 pacientes con diagnóstico de VAA se incluyeron 170 en seguimiento en nuestro centro. Se revisaron aspectos clínicos, demográficos, laboratorio e imagenológicos de los pacientes incluidos. RESULTADOS: De los 170 pacientes, 112 (65,88%) presentaron compromiso pulmonar. 106 (94,64%) de los pacientes fueron anticuerpos anti citoplasma de neutrófilos (ANCA) positivos; de estos, 56 (53,27%) MPO (+) y 39 (36,45%) PR-3 (+). Un tercio de los pacientes de ambos grupos presentó hemorragia alveolar. En los pacientes MPO (+) predomina la EPD (53,5%) y en PR-3 (+) los nódulos pulmonares (69,23%). Destaca la baja frecuencia de patología obstructiva asociada. CONCLUSIONES: El compromiso pulmonar en las VAA es prevalente y heterogéneo. En nuestra serie, destaca la frecuencia de EPD en VAA MPO (+), lo que releva la importancia del estudio con ANCA en paciente con diagnóstico y seguimiento por EPD.


INTRODUCTION: Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) are uncommon, but of broad spectrum of presentation. Although the 2012 Chapel Hill classification consensus remains valid, the current trend is to classify them according to the immunological marker: anti-Proteinase 3 antibody (PR-3) or anti-Myeloperoxidase antibody (MPO). The classic pulmonary manifestations are alveolar hemorrhage and pulmonary nodules. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been described in the last 10 years. Epidemiological studies are scarce, and they usually represent mostly North American or European populations. The objective is to describe the characteristics of lung involvement upon debut in AAV in a university center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of a total of 190 patients diagnosed with AAV, 170 were included in follow-up at our center. Clinical, demographic, laboratory and imaging aspects of the included patients were reviewed. RESULTS: Of the 170 patients, 112 (65.88%) had lung involvement. 106 (94.64%) of the patients were ANCA (+); of these, 56 (53.27%) MPO (+) and 39 (36.45%) PR-3 (+). One third of the patients in both groups had alveolar hemorrhage. In MPO (+) patients, ILD predominates (53.5%) and in PR-3 (+) pulmonary nodules (69.23%). The low frequency of associated obstructive pathology stands out. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary manifestations in AAVs are frequent and heterogeneous. Locally, the association of ILD and AAV MPO (+) stands out, which highlights the importance of ANCA study in patients with diagnosis and follow-up by ILD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/complications , Biomarkers/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/classification , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/epidemiology , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/diagnostic imaging , Inflammation/etiology , Antibodies/analysis
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(3): 313-317, Mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376126

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY BACKGROUND: Serum tumor markers are molecules that are secreted by tumor cells and may be present in small amounts in the serum of healthy individuals. Their role as prognostic factors in lung cancer remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic role of CEA, CA 19-9, CA 15-3, and CA 125 in non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 112 patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer from two Oncology Centers were retrospectively analyzed. Tumor marker levels were measured prior to treatment. Data regarding clinical characteristics and overall survival were collected. RESULTS: Median overall survival of all patients was 15.97 months. Pre-treatment elevations of CA 125 and CA 15-3 were associated with shorter overall survival (p=0.004 and p=0.014, respectively). Single CEA and CA 19-9 elevations were not associated with a worse prognosis. Patients with two or more elevated markers had a statistically significant decrease in overall survival (p=0.008). In the multivariate analysis, smoking status and number of positive tumor markers at diagnosis were independently associated with a worse prognosis. CONCLUSION: High pre-treatment levels of tumor markers were correlated with decreased survival in patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer.

19.
Rev. argent. reumatolg. (En línea) ; 33(1): 35-38, ene. - mar. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394708

ABSTRACT

Resumen El síndrome antisintetasa es una miopatía inflamatoria idiopática (MII) de origen autoinmune, poco frecuente, que se caracteriza por la presencia de autoanticuerpos antisintetasa ARNt (generalmente anti-Jo1), asociado frecuentemente a miositis, enfermedad pulmonar intersticial, poliartritis, manos de mecánico y fenómeno de Raynaud. Se reporta el caso de una mujer de 45 años de edad que presenta este síndrome con características fenotípicas de dermatomiositis y responde de forma favorable luego de la administración del tratamiento con glucocorticoides asociado a metotrexato.


Abstract Anti-synthetase syndrome is a rare autoimmune inflammatory myopathy characterized by autoantibodies against tRNA synthetases (most commonly anti-Jo1) with clinical features that include myositis, interstitial lung disease, polyarthritis, mechanic's hands and Raynaud's phenomenon. We report a 45-year-old woman who presented with dermatomyositis phenotypical features and a significant improvement with corticosteroids and metotrexate treatment.

20.
Acta méd. colomb ; 47(1): 1-6, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374096

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la fibrosis pulmonar idiopática (FPI) es una enfermedad pulmonar intersticial (EPID) de mal pronóstico, considerada huérfana en Colombia. Un diagnóstico correcto tiene implicaciones para el paciente y los costos de atención. Los grupos de discusión multidisciplinaria (GDM) se consideran el estándar de oro en el diagnóstico. No hay estudios previos en Colombia de la experiencia de un GDM. Objetivos: evaluar el impacto de un GDM en una institución de cuarto nivel en Bogotá en cambio de diagnóstico de pacientes con EPID y la concordancia entre el diagnóstico inicial y final de FPI. Material y métodos: pacientes con EPID evaluados entre 2015-2018 por el GDM conformado por neumólogos, radiólogo, patólogo y reumatólogos. Criterios ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT de diagnóstico de FPI. Descripción del cambio en el diagnóstico y concordancia entre el diagnóstico inicial y del GDM en FPI. Resultados: de 165 pacientes con EPID se cambió el diagnóstico en 35.2%. En 77.3% pacientes con diagnóstico inicial de FPI y en 6.7% con diagnóstico inicial diferente a FPI el GDM confirmó FPI. Al descartar FPI, los principales diagnósticos fueron neumonitis de hipersensibilidad en fase crónica (29.4%) y neumonía intersticial no específica (23.5%). El índice kappa entre el diagnóstico inicial y final de FPI fue 0.71 (0.60-0.82). Conclusiones: el GDM en EPID tuvo un importante impacto clínico demostrado por un alto porcentaje de cambió del diagnóstico de remisión. Se descartó el diagnóstico inicial de FPI en un porcentaje significativo de pacientes y se ratificó en un grupo menor sin esta sospecha clínica inicial. (Acta Med Colomb 2022; 47. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2022.2017).


Abstract Introduction: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an interstitial lung disease (ILD) with a poor prognosis, considered an orphan disease in Colombia. An accurate diagnosis has implications for the patient and healthcare costs. Multidisciplinary discussion groups (MDGs) are considered the gold standard for diagnosis. There are no prior studies in Colombia on the experience of an MDG. Objectives: to evaluate the impact of an MDG in a quaternary care institution in Bogotá on the change in the diagnosis of patients with ILD and the concordance between the initial and final diagnosis of IPF. Materials and methods: patents with ILD evaluated from 2015-2018 by the MDG made up of pulmonologists, a radiologist, a pathologist and rheumatologists. The ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT diagnostic criteria for IPF. A description of changes in the diagnosis and the agreement between the initial diagnosis and the MDG diagnosis of IPF. Results: out of 165 patients with ILD, the diagnosis was changed in 32.5%. The MDG confirmed IPF in 77.3% of patients with an initial diagnosis of ILD and 6.7% of those with a different initial diagnosis. When IPF was ruled out, the main diagnoses were chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (24.8%) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (23.5%). The Kappa index between the initial and final IPF diagnoses was 0.71 (0.60-0.82). Conclusions: the MDG on ILD had a significant clinical impact evidenced by a high percentage of change in the referral diagnosis. The initial diagnosis of IPF was ruled out in a significant percentage of patients and confirmed in a smaller group which did not have this initial clinical suspicion. (Acta Med Colomb 2022; 47. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2022.2017).

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