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1.
Rev. Bras. Neurol. (Online) ; 58(3): 21-28, jul.-set. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400412

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: O Acidente Vascular Encefálico (AVE) é uma síndrome de déficit neurológico agudo atribuído à lesão vascular do Sistema Nervoso (SN). As técnicas de Inteligência Artificial (IA) na Medicina ­ como algoritmos de Redes Neurais Artificiais (RNAs) ­ têm ajudado na tomada de decisões clínicas voltadas para essa condição. Objetivo: o objetivo desta revisão será avaliar como as redes neurais artificiais estão sendo utilizadas para a predição de diagnóstico de AVE. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática de artigos indexados nas bases de dados PubMed, BVS, SciELO, Cochrane e SpringerLink, entre janeiro e fevereiro de 2022. Os critérios de inclusão e filtros para esse trabalho foram: artigos relacionados ao tema, estudos randomizados, coorte e ensaios clínicos, trabalhos em humanos, realizados nos últimos 5 anos, apenas nos idiomas Português, Inglês e Espanhol e com texto completo disponível gratuitamente. Os parâmetros de exclusão foram: artigos duplicados, fuga ao tema, artigos de revisão e trabalhos que não preenchiam todos os critérios de inclusão. Resultados: As RNAs estão sendo utilizadas, principalmente, para avaliação de áreas de lesões isquêmicas e hemorrágicas por métodos de segmentação e os exames mais utilizados para a modelagem dos programas têm sido Ressonância Magnética (RM) e Tomografia Computadorizada (TC). Além da TC e RM, a angiorressonância e angiotomografia também estão sendo utilizadas para o modelamento do algoritmo e são úteis por apresentarem maior sensibilidade para detecção de infartos. Conclusão: Algoritmos de segmentação e classificação aplicados nas RNAs fazem parte da medicina personalizada e servem de base para médicos na prática clínica.


Background: Stroke is an acute neurological deficit syndrome attributed to vascular injury to the Nervous System (NS). Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques in Medicine ­ such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) algorithms ­ have helped in making clinical decisions aimed at this condition. Objective: the objective of this review will be to evaluate how artificial neural networks are being used to predict the diagnosis of stroke. Methods: This is a systematic review of articles indexed in PubMed, VHL, SciELO, Cochrane and SpringerLink databases, between January and February 2022. The inclusion criteria and filters for this work were: articles related to the topic, studies randomized, cohort and clinical trials, studies in humans, carried out in the last 5 years, only in Portuguese, English and Spanish and with full text available free of charge. The exclusion parameters were: duplicate articles, escape from the topic, review articles and works that did not meet all the inclusion criteria. Results: ANNs are being used mainly for the evaluation of areas of ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions by segmentation methods and the most used exams for modeling the programs have been Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT). In addition to CT and MRI, magnetic resonance angiography and tomography angiography are also being used to model the algorithm and are useful because they have greater sensitivity for detecting infarctions. Conclusion: Segmentation and classification algorithms applied in ANNs are part of personalized medicine and serve as a basis for physicians in clinical practice.

2.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 44(4): 370-377, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394066

ABSTRACT

Objective: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers add accuracy to the diagnostic workup of cognitive impairment by illustrating Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, there are no universally accepted cutoff values for the interpretation of AD biomarkers. The aim of this study is to determine the viability of a decision-tree method to analyse CSF biomarkers of AD as a support for clinical diagnosis. Methods: A decision-tree method (automated classification analysis) was applied to concentrations of AD biomarkers in CSF as a support for clinical diagnosis in older adults with or without cognitive impairment in a Brazilian cohort. In brief, 272 older adults (68 with AD, 122 with mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 82 healthy controls) were assessed for CSF concentrations of Aβ1-42, total-tau, and phosphorylated-tau using multiplexed Luminex assays; biomarker values were used to generate decision-tree algorithms (classification and regression tree) in the R statistical software environment. Results: The best decision tree model had an accuracy of 74.65% to differentiate the three groups. Cluster analysis supported the combination of CSF biomarkers to differentiate AD and MCI vs. controls, suggesting the best cutoff values for each clinical condition. Conclusion: Automated analyses of AD biomarkers provide valuable information to support the clinical diagnosis of MCI and AD in research settings.

3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389845

ABSTRACT

Resumen La inteligencia artificial posee una larga historia, llena de innovaciones que han dado como resultado diferentes recursos diagnósticos de alto rendimiento, que se encuentran disponibles actualmente. En este artículo se presenta una revisión sobre la inteligencia artificial y sus aplicaciones en medicina. El trabajo se centra en la especialidad de otorrinolaringología con el objetivo de informar a la comunidad médica la importancia y las aplicaciones más destacadas en los diferentes procesos diagnósticos dentro de la especialidad. Incluimos una sección para el análisis del estado actual de la inteligencia artificial en otorrinolaringología en Chile, así como los desafíos a enfrentar a futuro para utilizar la inteligencia artificial en la práctica médica diaria.


Abstract Artificial intelligence has a long history full of innovations that have resulted in different high-performance diagnostic resources currently available. This work has reviewed the artificial intelligence definition and its applications to medicine. We focused our review on otolaryngology's specialty to inform the medical community of the importance and the most relevant applications in the different diagnostic processes. We include an analysis of the current state of artificial intelligence in otolaryngology in Chile, and the challenges to be faced in the future to use artificial intelligence into daily medical practice.

4.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(1): 56-58, mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1369565

ABSTRACT

En el artículo anterior se introdujo el tema y se desarrolló cómo es la recolección y análisis de datos, la selección y entrenamiento de modelos de aprendizaje automático supervisados y los métodos de validación interna que permiten corroborar si el modelo arroja resultados similares a los de otros conjuntos de entrenamiento y de prueba. En este artículo continuaremos con la descripción de la evaluación del rendimiento, la selección del modelo más adecuado para identificar la característica que se va a evaluar y la validación externa del modelo. Además, el artículo resume los desafíos existentes en la implementación del Machine Learning desde la investigación al uso clínico. (AU)


In the previous article, we introduced topics such as data collection and analysis, selection and training of supervised machine learning models and methods of internal validation that allow to corroborate whether the model yields similar results to other training and test sets.In this article, we will continue with the description of the performance evaluation, selecting the most appropriate model to identify the characteristic to evaluate and the external validation of the model. In addition, the article summarizes the actual challenges in the implementation of machine learning from research to clinical use. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Models, Educational , Benchmarking/methods , Machine Learning , Biomedical Technology/methods , Health Sciences, Technology, and Innovation Management
5.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 112-116, Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364362

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: There is a high demand for stroke patient data in the public health systems of middle and low-income countries. Objective: To develop a stroke databank for integrating clinical or functional data and benchmarks from stroke patients. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional, prospective study. A tool was developed to collect all clinical data during hospitalizations due to stroke, using an electronic editor of structured forms that was integrated with electronic medical records. Validation of fields in the electronic editor was programmed using a structured query language (SQL). To store the results from SQL, a virtual table was created and programmed to update daily. To develop an interface between the data and user, the Embarcadero Delphi software and the DevExpress component were used to generate the information displayed on the screen. The data were extracted from the fields of the form and also from cross-referencing of other information from the computerized system, including patients who were admitted to the stroke unit. Results: The database was created and integrated with the hospital electronic system, thus allowing daily data collection. Quality indicators (benchmarks) were created in the database for the system to track and perform decision-making in conjunction with healthcare service managers, which resulted in improved processes and patient care after a stroke. An intelligent portal was created, in which the information referring to the patients was accessible. Conclusions: Based on semi-automated data collection, it was possible to create a dynamic and optimized Brazilian stroke databank.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Há alta demanda de dados de pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) nos sistemas de saúde de países de baixa e média renda. Objetivo: Desenvolver um banco de dados de AVC para integrar dados clínicos ou funcionais e indicadores de qualidade de pacientes com AVC. Métodos: Estudo observacional, transversal e prospectivo. Foi desenvolvida uma ferramenta para coletar dados clínicos durante as internações por AVC por meio de um editor eletrônico de formulários estruturados integrado ao prontuário eletrônico. A validação dos campos no editor eletrônico foi programada em linguagem de consulta estruturada (SQL). Para armazenar os resultados da SQL, uma tabela virtual foi criada e programada para atualização diária. Para desenvolver interface entre os dados e o usuário, foram utilizados o software Embarcadero Delphi e o componente DevExpress para gerar informações apresentadas na tela. Os dados foram extraídos dos campos do formulário e também do cruzamento de outras informações do sistema informatizado, incluindo pacientes internados na unidade de AVC. Resultados: O banco de dados foi criado e integrado ao sistema eletrônico do hospital, permitindo coleta diária de dados. Indicadores de qualidade foram criados no banco de dados para que o sistema acompanhasse e realizasse a tomada de decisão com os gestores dos serviços de saúde, resultando em melhoria no processo e no atendimento ao paciente após AVC. Foi criado um portal inteligente, no qual eram registradas as informações referentes aos pacientes. Conclusões: Com a coleta de dados semiautomática, foi possível criar um banco de dados de AVC dinâmico e otimizado em unidade de AVC no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke , Electronic Health Records , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Collection , Prospective Studies
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920594

ABSTRACT

@#With the improvement of computer computing capability and the accumulation of a large amount of medical data, artificial intelligence is gradually being applied in the diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial tumors. Artificial intelligence technology can assist doctors in clinical diagnosis and improve the efficiency of clinical work and the accuracy of diagnosis. In recent years, researchers have focused primarily on the recognition of medical images. The commonly used method is to annotate a large number of images by experts for learning image features by machines. The available literature has been able to utilize artificial intelligence technology to diagnose tumors by analyzing medical images, pathological sections, and tumor photos. The main issues in the current research are uneven labeling data quality, small data size, limited research problems, and single data modalities. These problems need to be solved through the continuous improvement of algorithms and the accumulation of high-quality data. The future direction of artificial intelligence applications should be to integrate medical data from multiple sources, assist doctors in diagnosis, and explore a variety of noninvasive and easy-to-use new methods for the early diagnosis of tumors. This may completely change the existing diagnosis and treatment model of oral and maxillofacial tumors.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920552

ABSTRACT

@#In recent years, artificial intelligence technology has developed rapidly and has been gradually applied to the fields of clinical image data processing, auxiliary diagnosis and prognosis evaluation. Research has shown that it can simplify doctors’ clinical tasks, quickly provide analysis and processing results, and has high accuracy. In terms of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment, artificial intelligence can assist in the rapid fixation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional cephalometric measurements. In addition, it is also widely used in the efficient processing and analysis of three-dimensional dental molds data, and shows considerable advantages in determining deciding whether orthodontic treatment needs tooth extraction, thus assisting in judging the stage of growth and development, orthodontic prognosis and aesthetic evaluation. Although the application of artificial intelligence technology is limited by the quantity and quality of training data, combining it with orthodontic clinical diagnosis and treatment can provide faster and more effective analysis and diagnosis and support more accurate diagnosis and treatment decisions. This paper reviews the current application of artificial intelligence technology in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment in the hope that orthodontists can rationally treat and use artificial intelligence technology in the clinic, and make artificial intelligence better serve orthodontic clinical diagnosis and treatment, so as to promote the further development of intelligent orthodontic diagnosis and treatment processes.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913153

ABSTRACT

With the advent of the era of 5G and big data, complex medical data with multiple dimensions and a large sample size bring both opportunities and challenges for clinical medicine in the new era. Compared with conventional methods, artificial intelligence can detect the hidden patterns within large datasets, and more and more scholars are applying such advanced technology in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. After development and perfection for more than half a century, liver transplantation has become the most effective treatment method for end-stage liver diseases. Unlike the analysis of "single-patient" data in other fields, liver transplantation usually requires the consideration of the features of both the donor and the recipient and the variables during transplantation, thus generating a larger volume of medical data than other diseases, which is particularly in line with the advantages of artificial intelligence. Effective application of artificial intelligence and its combination with clinical research will usher in the new era of precision medicine. The advantages and limitations of artificial intelligence technology should be comprehensively discussed for the cross-application of artificial intelligence in liver transplantation, and the future directions of this field should also be proposed.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913142

ABSTRACT

Deep learning is a process in which machine learning obtains new knowledge and skills by simulating the learning behavior of human brain through massive data training and analysis. With the development of medical technology, a large amount of data has been accumulated in the medical field, and the research on data may help to understand the relationships and rules within data and predict the onset and prognosis of human diseases. Deep learning can find the hidden information in data and has been increasingly used in the medical field. Primary liver cancer is a malignant tumor with high incidence and mortality rates, poor prognosis, and a high recurrence rate, and early diagnosis, timely treatment, and prediction of recurrence have always been the research hotspots in recent years. This article reviews the advances in the application of deep learning in the diagnosis and recurrence of liver cancer from the aspects of risk prediction, postoperative recurrence, and survival risk prediction.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To predict the trends for fine-scale spread of Oncomelania hupensis based on supervised machine learning models in Shanghai Municipality, so as to provide insights into precision O. hupensis snail control.@*METHODS@#Based on 2016 O. hupensis snail survey data in Shanghai Municipality and climatic, geographical, vegetation and socioeconomic data relating to O. hupensis snail distribution, seven supervised machine learning models were created to predict the risk of snail spread in Shanghai, including decision tree, random forest, generalized boosted model, support vector machine, naive Bayes, k-nearest neighbor and C5.0. The performance of seven models for predicting snail spread was evaluated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), F1-score and accuracy, and optimal models were selected to identify the environmental variables affecting snail spread and predict the areas at risk of snail spread in Shanghai Municipality.@*RESULTS@#Seven supervised machine learning models were successfully created to predict the risk of snail spread in Shanghai Municipality, and random forest (AUC = 0.901, F1-score = 0.840, ACC = 0.797) and generalized boosted model (AUC= 0.889, F1-score = 0.869, ACC = 0.835) showed higher predictive performance than other models. Random forest analysis showed that the three most important climatic variables contributing to snail spread in Shanghai included aridity (11.87%), ≥ 0 °C annual accumulated temperature (10.19%), moisture index (10.18%) and average annual precipitation (9.86%), the two most important vegetation variables included the vegetation index of the first quarter (8.30%) and vegetation index of the second quarter (7.69%). Snails were more likely to spread at aridity of < 0.87, ≥ 0 °C annual accumulated temperature of 5 550 to 5 675 °C, moisture index of > 39% and average annual precipitation of > 1 180 mm, and with the vegetation index of the first quarter of > 0.4 and the vegetation index of the first quarter of > 0.6. According to the water resource developments and township administrative maps, the areas at risk of snail spread were mainly predicted in 10 townships/subdistricts, covering the Xipian, Dongpian and Tainan sections of southern Shanghai.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Supervised machine learning models are effective to predict the risk of fine-scale O. hupensis snail spread and identify the environmental determinants relating to snail spread. The areas at risk of O. hupensis snail spread are mainly located in southwestern Songjiang District, northwestern Jinshan District and southeastern Qingpu District of Shanghai Municipality.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bayes Theorem , China/epidemiology , Ecosystem , Gastropoda , Supervised Machine Learning
12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2950-2962, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939924

ABSTRACT

Lipid nanoparticle (LNP) is commonly used to deliver mRNA vaccines. Currently, LNP optimization primarily relies on screening ionizable lipids by traditional experiments which consumes intensive cost and time. Current study attempts to apply computational methods to accelerate the LNP development for mRNA vaccines. Firstly, 325 data samples of mRNA vaccine LNP formulations with IgG titer were collected. The machine learning algorithm, lightGBM, was used to build a prediction model with good performance (R 2 > 0.87). More importantly, the critical substructures of ionizable lipids in LNPs were identified by the algorithm, which well agreed with published results. The animal experimental results showed that LNP using DLin-MC3-DMA (MC3) as ionizable lipid with an N/P ratio at 6:1 induced higher efficiency in mice than LNP with SM-102, which was consistent with the model prediction. Molecular dynamic modeling further investigated the molecular mechanism of LNPs used in the experiment. The result showed that the lipid molecules aggregated to form LNPs, and mRNA molecules twined around the LNPs. In summary, the machine learning predictive model for LNP-based mRNA vaccines was first developed, validated by experiments, and further integrated with molecular modeling. The prediction model can be used for virtual screening of LNP formulations in the future.

13.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 796-808, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939839

ABSTRACT

In contrast to traditional representational perspectives in which the motor cortex is involved in motor control via neuronal preference for kinetics and kinematics, a dynamical system perspective emerging in the last decade views the motor cortex as a dynamical machine that generates motor commands by autonomous temporal evolution. In this review, we first look back at the history of the representational and dynamical perspectives and discuss their explanatory power and controversy from both empirical and computational points of view. Here, we aim to reconcile the above perspectives, and evaluate their theoretical impact, future direction, and potential applications in brain-machine interfaces.


Subject(s)
Biomechanical Phenomena , Brain-Computer Interfaces , Motor Cortex/physiology , Neurons/physiology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939827

ABSTRACT

Organoid models are used to study kidney physiology, such as the assessment of nephrotoxicity and underlying disease processes. Personalized human pluripotent stem cell-derived kidney organoids are ideal models for compound toxicity studies, but there is a need to accelerate basic and translational research in the field. Here, we developed an automated continuous imaging setup with the "read-on-ski" law of control to maximize temporal resolution with minimum culture plate vibration. High-accuracy performance was achieved: organoid screening and imaging were performed at a spatial resolution of 1.1 μm for the entire multi-well plate under 3 min. We used the in-house developed multi-well spinning device and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity model to evaluate the toxicity in kidney organoids using this system. The acquired images were processed via machine learning-based classification and segmentation algorithms, and the toxicity in kidney organoids was determined with 95% accuracy. The results obtained by the automated "read-on-ski" imaging device, combined with label-free and non-invasive algorithms for detection, were verified using conventional biological procedures. Taking advantage of the close-to-in vivo-kidney organoid model, this new development opens the door for further application of scaled-up screening using organoids in basic research and drug discovery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney , Organoids , Pluripotent Stem Cells
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939630

ABSTRACT

At present, the upper limb function of stroke patients is often assessed clinically using a scale method, but this method has problems such as time-consuming, poor consistency of assessment results, and high participation of rehabilitation physicians. To overcome the shortcomings of the scale method, intelligent upper limb function assessment systems combining sensors and machine learning algorithms have become one of the hot research topics in recent years. Firstly, the commonly used clinical upper limb functional assessment methods are analyzed and summarized. Then the researches on intelligent assessment systems in recent years are reviewed, focusing on the technologies used in the data acquisition and data processing parts of intelligent assessment systems and their advantages and disadvantages. Lastly, the current challenges and future development directions of intelligent assessment systems are discussed. This review is hoped to provide valuable reference information for researchers in related fields.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Humans , Physical Therapy Modalities , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke Rehabilitation , Upper Extremity
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934367

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish a differential diagnosis model for IgA nephropathy and non-IgA nephropathy based on machine learning algorithms.Methods:Retrospective study adopted,from 2019 to 2020,260 patients were referred to the Department of Nephrology at the First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, the First People′s Hospital in Yunnan province, and Yan′an Hospital of Kunming city. All patients were diagnosed by renal pathology, 130 cases of primary IgA nephropathy, the 130 cases of non-IgA nephropathy. Collection of materials, including gender and age, 28 clinical data, and routine laboratory test results,the sex ratio of IgA nephropathy group and non-IgA nephropathy group were 59∶71 and 64∶66 respectively, the ages were 37.20 (21.89, 53.78) and 43.30 (27.77, 59.18) years, respectively. 260 patients were divided into a training set (70%, 182 cases) and a test set (30%, 78 cases). Using the decision tree, random forests, support vector machine, extreme gradient boosting to establish a differential diagnosis model for IgA nephropathy and non-IgA nephropathy. Based on the true positive rate, true negative rate, false-positive rate, false-negative rate, accuracy, subjects features work area under the curve(AUC), the precision ratio, recall ratio, and F1 score, comprehensively evaluate the performance of each model, finally, the best performance of the model was chosen. Using SPSS 25.0 to analyze the data, P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results:The accuracy of the decision tree, support vector machine, random forests and extreme gradient boosting establish differential diagnosis model was 67.95%, 70.51%, 80.77% and 83.33%, respectively; AUC values was 0.74, 0.76, 0.80 and 0.83; Judgment for primary IgA nephropathy F1 score was 0.73, 0.72, 0.80 and 0.83, respectively. The efficiency of the extreme gradient boosting model based on the above evaluation indicators is the highest, its diagnosis of IgA nephropathy of the sensitivity and specificity respectively 89% and 79%. The variable importance from high to low was blood albumin, IgA/C3, serum creatinine, age, urine protein, urine albumin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, urea.Conclusion:The differential diagnosis model for IgA nephropathy was established successfully and non-IgA nephropathy and the efficiency performance of the extreme gradient boosting algorithm was the best.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934359

ABSTRACT

Objective:To screen out the differentially regulated metabolites by the analysis of serum metabolic fingerprints, and to provide potential biomarkers for diagnosis of lung cancer.Methods:A total of 228 subjects were enrolled in Changhai Hospital from January 27, 2021 to June 4, 2021, including 97 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients and 131 healthy individuals. Serum samples were collected from the enrolled cohort according to a standard procedure, and the enrolled cohort was divided into a training set and a completely independent validation set by stratified random sampling. The metabolic fingerprints of serum samples were collected by previously developed nano-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (nano-LDI MS). After age and gender matching of the training set, a diagnostic model based on serum metabolic fingerprints was established by machine learning algorithm, and the classification performance of the model was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.Results:Serum metabolic fingerprint for each sample was obtained in 1 minute using a novel nano-LDI MS, with consumption of only 1 μl original serum sample. For the training set, the area under ROC curve (AUC) of the constructed classifier for diagnosis of lung cancer was 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.97), with a sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 89%. For the independent validation set, the AUC reached 0.96 (95% CI 0.90-1.00) with a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 94%, which showed no significant decrease compared to training set. We also identified a biomarker panel of 5 metabolites, demonstrating a unique metabolic fingerprint of lung cancer patients. Conclusion:Serum metabolic fingerprints and machine learning were combined to establish a diagnostic model, which can be used to distinguish between lung cancer patients and healthy controls. This work sheds lights on the rapid metabolic analysis for clinical application towards in vitro diagnosis.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933445

ABSTRACT

Objective:To develop a pretest probability model of obstructive coronary artery disease with machine learning based on multi-site Chinese population data.Methods:Chinese regiStry in early deTection and Risk strAtificaTion of coronary plaques (C-Strat) study is a prospective multi-center cohort study, in which consecutive patients with suspected obstructive coronary artery disease and ≥64 detector row coronary computed tomography angioplasty (CCTA) evaluation were included. Data from the patients were randomly split into a training set (70%) and a test set (30%). More than 50% of coronary artery stenosis by CCTA was defined as positive outcome. A boosted ensemble algorithm (XGBoost), 10-fold cross-validation and Bayesian optimization were used to establish a new prediction model-CARDIACS(pretest probability model from Chinese registry in eARly Detection and rIsk stratificAtion of Coronary plaques Study), and a logistic regression was used to establish a model-LOGISTIC in training set. The test set was used for validation and comparison among CARDIACS, LOGISTIC, UDFM (updated Diamond-Forrester Model) and DFCASS(Diamond-Forrester and CASS).Results:The study population included 29 455 patients with age of (57.0±9.7) years and 44.8% women, of whom 19.1% (5 622/29 455) had obstructive coronary artery disease. For CARDIACS, the age, the reason for visit and the body mass index (BMI) were the most important predictive variables. In the independent test set, the area under the curve (AUC) of CARDIACS was 0.72 (95% CI 0.70-0.73), which was significantly superior to that of LOGISTIC (AUC 0.69, 95% CI 0.68-0.71, P=0.015), UDFM (AUC 0.64, 95% CI 0.62-0.65, P<0.001) and DFCASS (AUC 0.66, 95% CI 0.64-0.67, P<0.001), respectively. Conclusion:Based on Chinese population, the study developed a new pretest probability model--CARDIACS, which was superior to the traditional models. CARDIACS is expected to assist in the clinical decision-making for patients with stable chest pain.

19.
Chinese Journal of Radiology ; (12): 425-430, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932525

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the value of CT-radiomics based machine learning model in predicting the abundance of tumor infiltrating CD8 +T cells and the prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients. Methods:A total of 150 pancreatic cancer patients who underwent surgical excision and confirmed by pathology from Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center between December 2011 and January 2017 were retrospectively enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into the training set ( n=105) and the validation set ( n=45) in a 7∶3 ratio with simple random sampling. The immunohistochemical method was used to assess the abundance of tumor infiltrating CD8 +T cells, and the patients were then divided into high infiltrating group ( n=75) and low infiltrating group ( n=75) according to the median. The prognosis between the 2 groups was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Radiomic features were extracted from preoperative venous-phase enhanced CT images in the training set. The Wilcoxon test, the max-relevance and min-redundancy algorithm were used to select the optimal feature set. Three supervised machine learning models (decision tree, random forest and extra tree) were established based on the optimal feature set to predict the abundance of tumor infiltrating CD8 +T cells. Performance of above-mentioned models to predict the abundance of tumor infiltrating CD8 +T cells in pancreatic cancer was tested in the validation set. The evaluation parameters included area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), F1-score, accuracy, precision and recall. Results:The median overall survival time of patients in high infiltrating group and low infiltrating group were 875 days and 529 days, respectively (χ2=11.53, P<0.001). The optimal feature set consisted of 10 radiomic features in training set. In the validation set, the decision tree, random forest and extra tree model showed the AUC of 0.620, 0.704 and 0.745, respectively; corresponding to a F1-score of 0.457, 0.667 and 0.744, the accuracy of 57.8%, 68.9% and 75.6%, the precision of 66.7%, 73.7% and 80.0%, the recall of 34.8%, 60.9% and 69.6%. Conclusions:Pancreatic cancer patients with high tumor infiltrating CD8 +T cells have better prognosis than those with low tumor infiltrating CD8 +T cells. The radiomics-based extra tree model is valuable in predicting the CD8 +T cells infiltrating level in pancreatic cancer.

20.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 260-264, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931860

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the value of machine learning methods for predicting in-hospital mortality in trauma patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).Methods:A retrospective non-intervention case-control study was performed. Trauma patients with ARDS met the Berlin definition were extracted from the the Medical Information Mart for Intensive CareⅢ (MIMICⅢ) database. The basic information [including gender, age, body mass index (BMI), pH, oxygenation index, laboratory indexes, length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), the proportion of mechanical ventilation (MV) or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), acute physiology scoreⅢ(APSⅢ), sequential organ failure score (SOFA) and simplified acute physiology scoreⅡ(SAPSⅡ)], complications (including hypertension, diabetes, infection, acute hemorrhagic anemia, sepsis, shock, acidosis and pneumonia) and prognosis data of patients were collected. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to screen meaningful variables ( P < 0.05). Logistic regression model, XGBoost model and artificial neural network model were constructed, and the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) was performed to evaluate the predictive value of the three models for in-hospital mortality in trauma patients with ARDS. Results:A total of 760 trauma patients with ARDS were enrolled, including 346 mild cases, 301 moderate cases and 113 severe cases; 618 cases survived and 142 cases died in hospital; 736 cases received MV and 65 cases received CRRT. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis screened out significant variables, including age [odds ratio ( OR) = 1.035, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.020-1.050, P < 0.001], BMI ( OR = 0.949, 95% CI was 0.917-0.983, P = 0.003), blood urea nitrogen (BUN; OR = 1.019, 95% CI was 1.004-1.033, P = 0.010), lactic acid (Lac; OR = 1.213, 95% CI was 1.124-1.309, P < 0.001), red cell volume distribution width (RDW; OR = 1.249, 95% CI was 1.102-1.416, P < 0.001), hematocrit (HCT, OR = 1.057, 95% CI was 1.019-1.097, P = 0.003), hypertension ( OR = 0.614, 95% CI was 0.389-0.968, P = 0.036), infection ( OR = 0.463, 95% CI was 0.289-0.741, P = 0.001), acute renal failure ( OR = 2.021, 95% CI was 1.267-3.224, P = 0.003) and sepsis ( OR = 2.105, 95% CI was 1.265-3.502, P = 0.004). All the above variables were used to construct the model. Logistic regression model, XGBoost model and artificial neural network model predicted in-hospital mortality with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.737 (95% CI was 0.659-0.815), 0.745 (95% CI was 0.672-0.819) and 0.757 (95% CI was 0.680-0.884), respectively. There was no significant difference between any two models (all P > 0.05). Conclusion:Logistic regression model, XGBoost model and artificial neural network model including age, BMI, BUN, Lac, RDW, HCT, hypertension, infection, acute renal failure and sepsis have good predictive value for in-hospital mortality of trauma patients with ARDS.

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