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1.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 123-128, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907024

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer’s disease (AD)is a common latent neurodegenerative disease ,which is characterized by cognitive impairment,loss of learning and memory function ,abnormal behavior and dementia. At present ,there is no specific drug to effectively prevent or reverse AD. Gardenia jasminoides is the dried and mature fruit of G. jasminoides J. Ellis ,a gardenia plant in Rubiaceae. Its chemical components mainly include iridoids ,triterpenoids,organic acids and volatile oils ,among which iridoids are the main active components of G. jasminoides . This paper summarizes the researches on the mechanism of iridoids from G. jasminoides against AD at home and abroad in recent years ,in order to provide reference for the development of new drugs against AD.

2.
International Eye Science ; (12): 83-86, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906736

ABSTRACT

@#The incidence of dry eye is increasing year by year, and it has become one of the most common ophthalmic diseases. The main symptoms of dry eye disease are dry, foreign body sensation, burning in eyes, itchy and viscous secretion. These discomforts affect the daily life, efficiency of work and study, mental health and physical function of patients with dry eye. Dry eye is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface characterized by a loss of homeostasis of the tear film, and accompanied by ocular symptoms, in which tear film instability and hyperosmolarity, ocular surface inflammation and damage, and neurosensory abnormalities play etiological roles. Meanwhile, there are changes in the tissue structure and ocular surface microenvironment of the eyes of patients with dry eye. In view of the fact that dry eye is an important public health problem, which seriously affects people's visual quality and life quality, studying the pathophysiology of dry eye is of great significance for efficient diagnosis, more targeted treatment and reduction of adverse events. This paper reviewed the research progress in the pathophysiology of dry eye in recent years.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923019

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that widely existing in traditional Chinese medicine. They have many biological activities and pharmacological effects. In recent years, studies have found that flavonoids can play an effective protective role in the treatments of ischemic stroke and ischemic heart disease through various ways. The mechanisms of their protective effects have been systematically explained in detail. For example, flavonoids can affect pathophysiological mechanisms such as antioxidant, inhibition of inflammatory response, apoptosis and autophagy pathway. This paper reviews the protective effect and mechanisms of the treatments of flavonoids on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ischemic diseases by referring to relevant literatures. The purpose is to provide reference for future research and development of drugs for the treatments of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 251-264, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922939

ABSTRACT

Taking patient needs as the core and realizing clinical value as the guidance are the purpose and path of drug discovery. Whether the first-in-class drug or follow-on drugs are all to meet the demands of patients for drugs that are not treatable or more safe and effective. In order to realize clinical value, innovative drugs driven by basic biological research include three elements: understanding the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis; Grasping the microscopic features of the disease; clarifying the mechanism of action of drugs. The interrelation among the three is the translational medicine, and the medicinal chemistry plays an important role in the translations. That is, based on the results of basic research in biology/medicine, knowledge of the molecular mechanism of disease depends upon the establishment of various in vitro/in vivo models to find the key node and molecular regulation for the treatment of disease. Combined with the knowledge of gene deletion and variation, proteomics, epigenetics and other technologies, the molecular mechanism of disease provides multi-molecular information on the level of gene, proteins, enzymes, receptors, ion channels and signal transduction for molecular drug design. Insight into the microscopic characteristics of diseases would deepen the understanding of the molecular mechanism of the pathogenesis, as well as provide a feasible scientific path for the creation of new drugs. When the molecular mechanism of disease and the action mechanism of drugs are clarified, we have a deeper and wider understanding of the application of existing drugs (or active compounds), and may offer new ideas for drug design and application. In this translational process the medicinal chemistry plays a key role which requires medicinal chemists to break through the habitual thinking and working mode, backtracking (upstream) to basic research and its achievements and applying to the direction of creating new drugs in time, as well as paying attention to the clinical requirements (downstream) and implementing the specific content of the transformation process for the R&D of innovative drugs.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 399-408, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922931

ABSTRACT

To investigate the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanism of the main flavonoid components of Silybum marianum (S. marianum) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we identified nine flavonoids in S. marianum through TCMSP, PubChem database and corresponding literatures. The potential therapeutic targets of NAFLD were predicted by SwissTargetPrediction, GeneCards and Venny 2.1.0 platform, while the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of potential targets was analyzed using String platform and Cytoscape software. Then GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed using David 6.8 database, followed by molecular docking verification using AutoDock software. In vitro, components with higher degree value in the "components-targets-pathway" network were chosen for further analysis. L02 cells were used to establish lipid accumulation model and treated with different components. Furthermore, the effects of four pure active compounds from S. marianum on lipid accumulation in hepatocytes were analyzed by oil red O staining. The results showed that the main nine flavonoids extracted from S. marianum contained 24 potential NAFLD targets. Several critical pathways closely related to NAFLD process were identified by GO and KEGG enrichment analysis, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-Akt) pathway, type 2 diabetes pathway, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) pathway and insulin resistance pathway. The results of molecular docking further indicated that the core components displayed strong binding abilities with key targets respectively, and silandrin showed better binding activity as compared to other components. The results obtained from L02 cells showed that the lipid accumulation was reduced by treatment with isosilybin A, isosilybin B, silydianin and silychristin, while the activity of isosilybin B was better than that of isosilybin A. Taken together, we concluded that the main flavone components of S. marianum could improve lipid accumulation through multiple signaling pathway in hepatocytes, and this could be a potential new strategy for the treatment of NAFLD.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 492-499, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922915

ABSTRACT

A novel sort of nano-component was extricated and isolated from Descurainiae Semen Carbonisatum (DSC), and its hemostatic component was considered through pharmacological experiments. A muffle furnace was used to prepare DSC at 250 ℃, 300 ℃ and 350 ℃, and the DSC dialysate at each temperature was obtained by the extraction and separation method. Low-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) were utilized to characterize the nano-components. Ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV-Vis), fluorescence spectroscopy (FL) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized to measure its optical characteristics and functional group information. The anti-hemorrhagic effects were evaluated by liver bleeding tests and the related hemostatic mechanisms of the obtained nano-components were further assessed by detecting blood coagulation and PLT quantity to discuss the hemostasis mechanism. The experiments complied with the Animal Ethics Committee of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine. TEM results showed that there was a novel type of nano-component in the DSC dialysate bag, which was named DSC nano-components (DSC-NCs). The experimental results of liver bleeding in mice showed that DSC-NCs prepared at 250 ℃, 300 ℃, and 350 ℃ could reduce the bleeding time of mice liver. Among them, DSC-NCs prepared at 350 °C had the best effect. In addition, DSC-NCs prepared at various temperatures can also reduce the prothrombin time (PT) value, increase the fibrinogen (FIB) value and the platelet (PLT) value to varying degrees. DSC-NCs have a certain hemostatic effect, which may be related to the activation of the exogenous coagulation system, the increase of FIB value and the increase of platelet content. This provides a new research direction for exploring the treatment of bleeding diseases, and provides a new perspective for the potential application of DSC-NCs in the medical field.

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 343-352, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922910

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy burdening people globally, with increasing morbidity and mortality nowadays, due to the alternation in the diet type and lifestyle in modern society. Berberine, a type of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, is widely present in numerous medicinal plants, particularly including Coptidis Rhizoma. Mounting evidence reveals that berberine possesses an array of pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammation, anti-bacterium, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes mellitus and so on. In particular, berberine exhibits substantial inhibition on various types of cancers including CRC. Hereby, we sought to systematically review the suppressive effect of berberine on CRC through the diminishment of the proliferation and metastasis, induction of apoptosis, arrest of cell cycle, regulation of inflammatory reaction, the reverse of chemotherapeutic resistance and restoration of gut microbiota in CRC, so as to shed light on the in-depth mechanisms underlying the treatment of CRC with berberine in the clinical setting.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 287-295, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922905

ABSTRACT

Diabetic retinopathy (DR), one of the common complications of diabetes, is the main cause of blindness. Due to the limitations of the existing clinical treatment methods, it is urgent to develop new targets or/and new therapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the clinical trials of anti-DR drugs in recent years, and we note that gene therapy is a potential direction for DR treatment development. Due to the characteristics of ocular structure, including small size, a relatively independent organ, immune privilege and the opportunity for local administration, gene therapy could well be advantageous in the treatment of DR. Furthermore, the long-term therapeutic effects of gene therapy also improve compliance by DR patients. All these indicate that gene therapy is likely a future direction for development of DR therapies.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 716-723, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922896

ABSTRACT

This study identified the exact molecular mechanisms of baicalein on neuroinflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 cells. Bioinformatics methods and molecular docking were integrated for predicting the potential targets and mechanisms of baicalein. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot were used to analyze the predicted key targets [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)], the expression level of protein related to signal transducer and activator of transcription 1/nuclear factor kappa-B (STAT1/NF-‍κB) signaling pathway and its upstream regulator NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX2), and then the mechanism of baicalein in alleviating neuroinflammation was explored. The results showed that iNOS and COX-2 were predicted as the key targets and NF-κB signaling pathway was one of the important pathways by bioinformatics methods and molecular docking. Experimental verification showed that baicalein could significantly reduce the expression of iNOS and COX-2, inhibit the phosphorylation of NF-κB and STAT1 and the production of NOX2 in LPS-induced BV-2 cells. To sum up, baicalein could effectively inhibit the inflammatory reaction in LPS-induced BV-2 cells through regulating NOX2 (gp91phox/p47phox)/STAT1/NF-κB pathway.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 783-792, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922891

ABSTRACT

Molecular mass distribution of Astragalus polysaccharides is wide. Astragalus polysaccharides prepared by conventional water extraction and alcohol precipitation are mostly mixture of macromolecules. Although studies have shown that Astragalus polysaccharides have two-sided immunomodulation, the relationship between anti-inflammatory components and molecular mass distribution of Astragalus polysaccharides is not clear. Therefore, Astragalus polysaccharides were extracted by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. The relative molecular weight of them was determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). Astragalus polysaccharides with different molecular weights were separated and prepared by membrane separation. RAW 264.7 cells were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to establish an inflammatory cell model in vitro and the anti-inflammatory polysaccharide were screened. The anti-inflammatory regulation mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharides was analyzed by the LC-MS/MS metabonomics technology. The results showed that APS was composed of APS-Ⅰ ( > 2 000 kDa) and APS-Ⅱ (10 kDa). APS-Ⅰ was composed of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, arabinose and the molar ratios of these monosaccharide of APS-I were 0.54∶0.26∶12.24∶17.24∶8.46∶1. APS-II was composed of rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, arabinose and the molar ratios of these monosaccharide of APS-II were 0.26∶0.14∶24.04∶0.62∶1. APS-Ⅰ and APS-Ⅱ had no cell toxicity to RAW 264.7 macrophage in the range of 0-100 μg·mL-1. Compared with the model group, APS-I at a concentration of 0-100 μg·mL-1could significantly inhibit the secretion of NO and TNF-α by RAW 264.7, and can significantly promote the secretion of IL-10. APS-I had better anti-inflammatory activity than APS-II in vitro. The metabolomics results showed that 32 different metabolites were found between the model group and blank group; APS-I group can significantly callback 18 different metabolites; mainly related to arginine biosynthesis, arginine and proline metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, citric acid cycle (TCA cycle), cysteine and methionine acid metabolism, tryptophan metabolism. This study found that APS-I had better anti-inflammatory activity than APS-II in vitro, and its mechanism may be closely related to amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism, which indicated the direction for further clarifying the pharmacodynamic material basis of Astragalus polysaccharides.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 757-765, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922876

ABSTRACT

UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS metabonomics technology was used to clarify the metabolic regulation pathways by which Platycodon total saponins (PTS) exert antitussive and expectorant effects in a mouse cough model, in which coughing is induced by concentrated ammonia, and in a phenol red excretion model. After approval by the Experimental Animal Ethics Committee of Jiangxi University of Chinese Medicine (Approval No. JZLLSC-20190235), the mice were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a positive drug group and a PTS group. Endogenous metabolites in mouse serum were identified by UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used for multivariate analysis. Metabolic pathways were analyzed by the Metaboanalyst platform. The results show that PTS can significantly prolong the cough latent period and cough frequency of mice, and significantly increase phenol red excretion. UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS identified 19 metabolites related to cough, and PTS significantly decreased 16 of them; 17 metabolites related to expectoration were identified, and PTS decreased the levels of all. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that linoleic acid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism were the main pathways involved in serum metabolite changes in this mouse cough model. Linoleic acid metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism and α-linolenic acid metabolism were the main pathways involved in serum metabolite changes in the phenol red excretion model. This study is the first to elucidate the regulation of antitussive and expectorant metabolic pathways and the effect of PTS on these pathways.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920799

ABSTRACT

Objective To review the Naegleria fowleri and primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by the naegleria fowleri, so as to strengthen the public awareness of the disease and its prevention. Methods We reviewed the literatures and reports, and summarized the following information: epidemic status, life cycle and characteristics, environmental distribution and infection routes, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment, prevention and control measures. Results Primary amoeba meningoencephalitis is a water-borne disease caused by the Naegleria fowleri, which enters human body through the nose and arrives at the central nervous system through olfactory nerve, leading to hemorrhagic and necrotic meningitis. Although the disease is rare, it has a fatality rate of 95%. Most of the patients reported were healthy children or young adults who had nasal contact with water contaminated with Naegleria fowleri a week before symptoms appeared. At present, its pathology can be divided into contact mechanism and non-contact mechanism. In contact mechanism, the Naegleria fowleri relies on the phagocytosis of food cup on its surface and the release of cytolytic molecules that directly destroy host cells. In non-contact mechanism, the Naegleria fowleri has toxic effects by secreting proteins. The clinical symptoms are episodic, with an average time of five days from illness to death. At beginning, the symptoms may include headache, vomiting, fever and other influenza-like symptoms, followed by central nervous system symptoms, such as stiff neck, drowsiness, anorexia, fear and so on. Intravenous or intrathecal injection of amphotericin B is considered to be the basic treatment of this disease, which can be combined with other adjunct therapies such as ventricular shunt and cooling to reduce encephaledema. Conclusion Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is a rare but highly fatal disease. We should strengthen the public awareness of the disease and its prevention, especially to avoid nasal contact with contaminated water. We should also strengthen scientific research, improve the level of diagnosis, and develop effective drugs to prevent the disease before it happens.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920781

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the resistance development of Aedes albopictus to commonly used insecticides in Yangpu District of Shanghai, China, and to provide scientific bases for the control of A. albopictus and the emergency treatment of dengue fever. Methods The larva immersion method recommended by WHO was used to assay the median lethal concentration (LC50) of A. albopictus larva. SPSS 25.0 was used to calculate the toxicity baselines of insecticides. Results A. albopictus kept a medium resistance to beta-cypermethrin, and the resistance ratios were 14.44, 10.00, 17.78, respectively, in 2015, 2017, 2019. The mosquitos kept a high resistance to permethrin, and the resistance ratios were 54.00, 140.00, 52.00 respectively, in 2015, 2017, 2019. Besides, A. albopictus also kept a medium resistance to propoxur, and the resistance ratios were 15.34, 13.06, 10.83 respectively, in 2015, 2017, 2019. To deltamethrin, A. albopictus showed high resistance in 2015 and medium resistance in 2017, the resistance ratios were 40.00 and 35.00. To temephos, A. albopictus showed low resistance in 2015, with the resistance ratio of 9.38. Conclusion A. albopictus has developed high resistance to permethrin in Yangpu District of Shanghai, and cautious and reduced use of permethrin is suggested. It is necessary to implement and adopt the strategy of comprehensive management, in order to establish the long-term mechanism for mosquito control and prevention.

14.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 548-554, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920723

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the mechanism of curcumol inhibiting the pro liferation of breast cancer cells T 47D. METHODS MTT assay was used to detect the inhibitory effects of different doses of curcumol (0,6.25,12.5,25,50,100 μg/mL)on the proliferation of T 47D cells. After treated with curcumol (12.5,25,50,100 μg/mL),the morphology of T 47D cells was observed by inverted phase contrast microscope. The cell cycle and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)were detected by flow cytometry. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)was used to detect the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA),cell cycle regular p 21 and cyclin-dependent kinase 2(CDK2)mRNA. Western blot assay was used to detect the protein expression of CDK 2,CDK6,Cyclin D ,PCNA,nucler transcription factor E 2-related factor (Nrf2)and Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1(Keap1). Breast cancer cells T 47D were divided into 2 groups,one group was given different doses of curcumol ,and another group was given curcumol 33 μg/mL for 6,12,24,48 h. After the optimal oxidation time and administration concentration were determined according to the results of the above two groups ,the blank control group ,N-acetylcysteine(NAC)group(ROS antioxidant NAC alone ),curcumol group (curcumol alone ),curcumol combined with NAC group (pretreatment with ROS antioxidant NAC ,and then adding into curcumol ). Cell cycle and fluorescence intensity of ROS were detected. RESULTS Curcumol could significantly increase the inhibitory rate of the proliferation of T 47D cells (P<0.05 or P<0.01),and showed a certain dose and time dependent trend. Curcumol blocked the , cycle in the G 1 phase and significantly increased the level of ROS (P<0.05 or P<0.01);ROS antioxidant NAC could significantly reverse above inductive effect of curcumol (P< 0.01). qRT-PCR showed that curcumol down-regulated the com expression of PCNA and CDK 2 mRNA and up-regulated the expression of p 21 mRNA(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Western blot assay showed that curcumol significantly down-regulated the edu.cn protein expression of Keap 1,Nrf2,CDK2,CDK6 and Cyclin D(P<0.05,P<0.01);ROS antioxidant NAC could reverse the down-regulation effects of curcumol on the expression of these proteins(P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Curcumol may induce oxidative stress and cell arrest in G 1 phase to inhibit the proliferation of T 47D cells.

15.
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E186-E191, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920689

ABSTRACT

In recent years, with the increase of traffic accidents and the further development of aging, the incidence of pelvic fracture is gradually increasing. Based on the in-depth study about biomechanics of pelvic fracture fixation, the surgical treatment has been widely carried out. The purpose of surgical treatment is to effectively reduce and fix the fracture, correct deformity, restore integrity and stability of the pelvis, and minimize the complications caused by internal and external fixation. How to improve stability of the pelvis while ensuring therapeutic effect is a problem that every doctor will face in clinic. This paper summarizes the biomechanical research progress of pelvic fracture in recent years from the aspects of anatomy, normal biomechanics, classification and biomechanics of pelvic fracture fixation, so as to provide some references for reasonable treatment of pelvic fracture.

16.
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E091-E097, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920674

ABSTRACT

Objective To predict and assess biomechanical responses and injury mechanisms of the thorax and abdomen for small-sized females in vehicle collisions. Methods The accurate geometric model of the thorax and abdomen was constructed based on CT images of Chinese 5th percentile female volunteers. A thoracic-abdominal finite element model of Chinese 5th percentile female with detailed anatomical structure was developed by using the corresponding software. The model was validated by reconstructing three groups of cadaver experiments (namely, test of blunt anteroposterior impact on the thorax, test of bar anteroposterior impact on the abdomen, test of blunt lateral impact on the chest and abdomen). Results The force-deformation curves and injury biomechanical responses of the organs from the simulations were consistent with the cadaver experiment results, which validated effectiveness of the model. Conclusions The model can be used for studying injury mechanisms of the thorax and abdomen for small-sized female, as well as developing small-sized occupant restraint systems and analyzing the forensic cases, which lays foundation for developing the whole body finite element model of Chinese 5th percentile female.

17.
International Eye Science ; (12): 240-243, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913030

ABSTRACT

@#Primary angle-closure glaucoma(PACG)is an irreversible disease-causing blindness, the damage of optic nerve is caused by elevated intraocular pressure(IOP)as a result of angle-closure. Angle-closure is a fundamental pathologic process in PACG. In addition, PACG is characterized by elevated IOP as a result of mechanical obstruction of the trabecular meshwork by either apposition of the peripheral iris to the trabecular meshwork or by a synechial closed angle. In recent years, with the development of ophthalmic imaging technology, the iris has been recognized as necessary to complement anatomical risk factors in assessing the risk of PACG. In this review, we intend to describe the potential role of the iris in the pathogenesis of PACG, so as to provide new ideas and directions for prevention and treatment of such disease.

18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55: e0349, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360814

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Polymyxin antibiotics are disfavored owing to their potential clinical toxicity, especially nephrotoxicity. However, the dry antibiotic development pipeline, together with the increasing global prevalence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria, have renewed clinical interest in these polypeptide antibiotics. This review highlights the current information regarding the mechanisms of resistance to polymyxins and their molecular epidemiology. Knowledge of the resistance mechanisms and epidemiology of these pathogens is critical for the development of novel antibacterial agents and rapid treatment choices.

19.
ACM arq. catarin. med ; 50(1): 23-35, 13/04/2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354452

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O aumento da população idosa contribuiu para acréscimo no número de casos de fraturas relacionadas a traumas de baixa energia, como as quedas. Fraturas do terço proximal estão entre os maiores problemas de saúde pública acometendo principalmente indivíduos do sexo feminino, com idade superior a 60 anos. Objetivo: Identificar o perfil epidemiológico de fratura proximal de fêmur em idosos atendidos em um hospital geral e a sua associação com sexo e idade. Método: Estudo observacional transversal, realizado em um hospital público de referência da Grande Florianópolis. Foram incluídos dados de 300 prontuários eletrônicos de pacientes com idade igual ou superior a 60 anos, com diagnóstico, por radiografia, de fratura de fêmur proximal, entre 2015-2019. Realizada análise descritiva e analítica. Associações internas pelos testes Qui-quadrado ou Exato de Fischer, p<0,05. Trabalho aprovado pelo comitê de ética da UNISUL. Resultados: Observou-se que a maioria dos pacientes era do sexo feminino (66,3%), predomínio na faixa etária maior de 80 anos (48%), procedentes da Grande Florianópolis (95,7%). Mecanismo de trauma mais observado foi queda de própria altura (85,3%) e maior prevalência de fratura transtrocanteriana (71,3%), principalmente no sexo feminino (72,4%), mas também no masculino (69,3%). Conclusão: O estudo evidenciou que as fraturas ocorreram mais no sexo feminino e na faixa etária dos maiores de 80 anos, a partir de queda da própria altura e maior prevalência da fratura transtocanteriana. Observou-se também, percentual elevado de fraturas subtrocanteria


Introduction: The increase in the elderly population contributed to an increase in the number of cases of fractures related to low-energy trauma, such as falls. Fractures of the proximal third are among the biggest public health problems affecting mainly female individuals, over the age of 60 years. Objective: to identify the epidemiological profile of proximal fracture of the femur in the elderly treated at a general hospital and association with sex and age. Method: Observational cross-sectional study at a public reference hospital in Florianópolis city and surroundings. Data from 300 electronic medical records of patients aged 60 years or over, diagnosed by radiography with a proximal femur fracture between 2015-2019 were included. Descriptive and analytical analysis was performed. Internal associations using the Chi-square or Fischer's Exact tests, p <0.05. Work approved by the UNISUL ethics committee. Results: It was observed that the majority of patients were female (66.3%), predominantly in the age group older than 80 years (48%), from Florianópolis city and surroundings. (95.7%). The most observed trauma mechanism was a fall from a height (85.3%) and a predominance of transtrochanteric fractures (71.3%), mainly in females (72.4%), but also in males (69.3%). Conclusion: The study showed that fractures occur more in females and in the age group above 80 years, due to falling from their own height and with a higher prevalence of transtrochanteric fractures. There was also a high percentage of subtrochanteric fractures, with a statistically significant association, in the age group of 60 - 69 years.

20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 327-334, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248930

ABSTRACT

Ovariohysterectomy (OHE) is the most performed elective surgery in veterinary medicine. Although this procedure brings benefits both to the animal and public health, acquired urinary incontinence is a possible complication resultant from it. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence and evaluate size, breed, and time of surgery as risk factors in a population of spayed female dogs in the Hospital de Clínicas Veterinárias da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, in the year of 2013, through the use of a multiple-choice screening instrument. Identified estimated prevalence was 11.27% and main risk factors were as follows: large size (OR = 7.12 IC95% = 1.42 - 35.67), Rottweiler breed (OR = 8.92; IC95% = 5.25 - 15.15), Pit-bull breed (OR = 4.14; IC95% = 2.19 - 7.83), and Labrador breed (OR = 2.73; IC95% = 1.53 - 4.87). Time of surgery was not considered a risk factor for urinary incontinence in this population (OR = 1.45; IC95% = 0.86 - 2.40). Even though most owners reported a small impact on their relationship with the animal, urinary incontinence hazard should be addressed before spaying.(AU)


A ovário-histerectomia (OHE) é a cirurgia eletiva mais realizada em medicina veterinária. Embora seja um procedimento que beneficie a saúde pública e do animal, a incontinência urinária adquirida é uma complicação possível resultante desse procedimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de incontinência urinária e avaliar porte, raça e momento da castração como fatores de risco em uma população de cadelas castradas no HCV/UFRGS, no ano de 2013, através do uso de um instrumento de triagem de múltipla escolha. A prevalência estimada foi de 11,27% e os principais fatores de risco foram: grande porte (OR = 7,12 IC95% = 1,42 - 35,67), raça Rottweiler (OR = 8,92; IC95% = 5,25 - 15,15), raça Pitbull (OR = 4,14; IC95% = 2,19 - 7,83) e raça Labrador (OR = 2,73; IC95% = 1,53 - 4,87). O tempo da cirurgia não foi considerado fator de risco para incontinência urinária nessa população (OR = 1,45; IC95% = 0,86 - 2,40). Embora a maioria dos proprietários tenha relatado um pequeno impacto no relacionamento com o animal, a possibilidade de incontinência urinária deve ser devidamente discutida antes da castração.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Urethra/pathology , Urinary Incontinence/etiology , Urinary Incontinence/veterinary , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Castration/veterinary , Hysterectomy/veterinary
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