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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928008

ABSTRACT

As an important active ingredient in the rare Chinese herb Gastrodiae Rhizoma and also the main precursor for gastrodin biosynthesis, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol has multiple pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, and anti-cerebral ischemia. The pharmaceutical products with 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol as the main component have been increasingly favored. At present, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol is mainly obtained by natural extraction and chemical synthesis, both of which, however, exhibit some shortcomings that limit the long-term application of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol. The wild and cultivated Gastrodia elata resources are limited. The chemical synthesis requires many steps, long time, and harsh reaction conditions. Besides, the resulting by-products are massive and three reaction wastes are difficult to treat. Therefore, how to artificially prepare 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol with high yield and purity has become an urgent problem facing the medical researchers. Guided by the theory of microbial metabolic engineering, this study employed the genetic engineering technologies to introduce three genes ThiH, pchF and pchC into Escherichia coli for synthesizing 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol with L-tyrosine. And the fermentation conditions of engineering strain for producing 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol in shake flask were also discussed. The experimental results showed that under the conditions of 0.5 mmol·L~(-1) IPTG, 15 ℃ induction temperature, and 40 ℃ transformation temperature, M9 Y medium containing 200 mg·L~(-1) L-tyrosine could be transformed into(69±5)mg·L~(-1) 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, which has laid a foundation for producing 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol economically and efficiently by further expanding the fermentation scale in the future.


Subject(s)
Benzyl Alcohols , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Gastrodia/chemistry , Metabolic Engineering , Tyrosine/metabolism
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1408-1420, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927789

ABSTRACT

Ergothioneine is a multifunctional physiological cytoprotector, with broad application in foods, beverage, medicine, cosmetics and so on. Biosynthesis is an increasingly favored method in the production of ergothioneine. This paper summarizes the new progress in the identification of key pathways, the mining of key enzymes, and the development of natural edible mushroom species and high-yield engineering strains for ergothioneine biosynthesis in recent years. Through this review, we aim to reveal the molecular mechanism of ergothioneine biosynthesis and then employ the methods of fermentation engineering, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology to greatly increase the yield of ergothioneine.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Ergothioneine/metabolism , Fermentation , Metabolic Engineering
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1390-1407, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927788

ABSTRACT

It is among the goals in metabolic engineering to construct microbial cell factories producing high-yield and high value-added target products, and an important solution is to design efficient synthetic pathway for the target products. However, due to the difference in metabolic capacity among microbial chassises, the available substrate and the yielded products are limited. Therefore, it is urgent to design related metabolic pathways to improve the production capacity. Existing metabolic engineering approaches to designing heterologous pathways are mainly based on biological experience, which are inefficient. Moreover, the yielded results are in no way comprehensive. However, systems biology provides new methods for heterologous pathway design, particularly the graph-based and constraint-based methods. Based on the databases containing rich metabolism information, they search for and uncover possible metabolic pathways with designated strategy (graph-based method) or algorithm (constraint-based method) and then screen out the optimal pathway to guide the modification of strains. In this paper, we reviewed the databases and algorithms for pathway design, and the applications in metabolic engineering and discussed the strengths and weaknesses of existing algorithms in practical application, hoping to provide a reference for the selection of optimal methods for the design of product synthesis pathway.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Biosynthetic Pathways , Metabolic Engineering , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Systems Biology
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1360-1372, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927786

ABSTRACT

Yarrowia lipolytica is a non-conventional yeast with unique physiological and metabolic characteristics. It is suitable for production of various products due to its natural ability to utilize a variety of inexpensive carbon sources, excellent tolerance to low pH, and strong ability to secrete metabolites. Currently, Y. lipolytica has been demonstrated to produce a wide range of carboxylic acids with high efficiency. This article summarized the progress in engineering Y. lipolytica to produce various carboxylic acids by using metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches. The current bottlenecks and solutions for high-level production of carboxylic acids by engineered Y. lipolytica were also discussed, with the aim to provide useful information for relevant studies in this field.


Subject(s)
Carboxylic Acids/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Synthetic Biology , Yarrowia/metabolism
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1339-1350, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927784

ABSTRACT

Human activities increase the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), which leads to global climate warming. Microbial CO2 fixation is a promising green approach for carbon neutral. In contrast to autotrophic microorganisms, heterotrophic microorganisms are characterized by fast growth and ease of genetic modification, but the efficiency of CO2 fixation is still limited. In the past decade, synthetic biology-based enhancement of heterotrophic CO2 fixation has drawn wide attention, including the optimization of energy supply, modification of carboxylation pathway, and heterotrophic microorganisms-based indirect CO2 fixation. This review focuses on the research progress in CO2 fixation by heterotrophic microorganisms, which is expected to serve as a reference for peaking CO2 emission and achieving carbon neutral by microbial CO2 fixation.


Subject(s)
Carbon Cycle , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Heterotrophic Processes , Humans , Synthetic Biology
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1307-1321, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927782

ABSTRACT

Tetrapyrrole compounds are a class of compounds with important functions. They exist in living organisms and have been widely used in agriculture, food, medicine, and other fields. The cumbersome process and high cost of chemical synthesis, as well as the shortcomings of unstable quality of animal and plant extraction methods, greatly hampered the industrial production and applications of tetrapyrrole compounds. In recent years, the rapid development of synthetic biology has provided new tools for microorganisms to efficiently synthesize tetrapyrrole compounds from renewable biomass resources. This article summarizes various strategies for the biosynthesis of tetrapyrrole compounds, discusses methods to improve its biosynthesis efficiency and future prospects, with the aim to facilitate the research on biosynthesis of tetrapyrrole compounds.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Plants/genetics , Synthetic Biology , Tetrapyrroles
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 796-806, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927745

ABSTRACT

Ergothioneine (ERG) is a natural antioxidant that has been widely used in the fields of food, medicine and cosmetics. Compared with traditional plant extraction and chemical synthesis approaches, microbial synthesis of ergothioneine has many advantages, such as the short production cycle and low cost, and thus has attracted intensive attention. In order to engineer an ergothioneine high-yielding Escherichia coli strain, the ergothioneine synthesis gene cluster egtABCDE from Mycobacterium smegmatis and egt1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe were introduced into E. coli BL21(DE3) to generate a strain E1-A1 harboring the ergothioneine biosynthesis pathway. As a result, (95.58±3.2) mg/L ergothioneine was produced in flask cultures. To further increase ergothioneine yield, the relevant enzymes for biosynthesis of histidine, methionine, and cysteine, the three precursor amino acids of ergothioneine, were overexpressed. Individual overexpression of serAT410STOP and thrA resulted in an ergothioneine titer of (134.83±4.22) mg/L and (130.26±3.34) mg/L, respectively, while co-overexpression of serAT410STOP and thrA increased the production of ergothioneine to (144.97±5.40) mg/L. Eventually, by adopting a fed-batch fermentation strategy in 3 L fermenter, the optimized strain E1-A1-thrA-serA* produced 548.75 mg/L and 710.53 mg/L ergothioneine in glucose inorganic salt medium and rich medium, respectively.


Subject(s)
Culture Media , Ergothioneine/metabolism , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Fermentation , Histidine/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 760-771, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927742

ABSTRACT

Fatty acids (FA) are widely used as feed stocks for the production of cosmetics, personal hygiene products, lubricants and biofuels. Ogataea polymorpha is considered as an ideal chassis for bio-manufacturing, due to its outstanding characteristics such as methylotroph, thermal-tolerance and wide substrate spectrum. In this study, we harnessed O. polymorpha for overproduction of fatty acids by engineering its fatty acid metabolism and optimizing the fermentation process. The engineered strain produced 1.86 g/L FAs under the optimized shake-flask conditions (37℃, pH 6.4, a C/N ratio of 120 and an OD600 of seed culture of 6-8). The fed-batch fermentation process was further optimized by using a dissolved oxygen (DO) control strategy. The C/N ratio of initial medium was 17.5, and the glucose medium with a C/N ratio of 120 was fed when the DO was higher than 30%. This operation resulted in a titer of 18.0 g/L FA, indicating the potential of using O. polymorpha as an efficient cell factory for the production of FA.


Subject(s)
Culture Media , Fatty Acids , Fermentation , Metabolic Engineering , Saccharomycetales/metabolism
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 705-718, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927738

ABSTRACT

As an important dicarboxylic acids existing in nature, glucaric acid has been widely used in medical, health, and polymer materials industry, therefore it is considered as one of the "top value-added chemicals from biomass". In this study, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a chassis microorganism, the effects of overexpression of myo-inositol transporter Itr1, fusional expression of inositol oxygenase MIOX4 and uronate dehydrogenase Udh, and down-expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene ZWF1 on the glucaric acid production were investigated. The results showed that the yield of glucaric acid was increased by 26% compared with the original strain Bga-3 under shake flask fermentation after overexpressing myo-inositol transporter Itr1. The yield of glucaric acid was increased by 40% compared with Bga-3 strain by expressing the MIOX4-Udh fusion protein. On these basis, the production of glucaric acid reached 5.5 g/L, which was 60% higher than that of Bga-3 strain. In a 5 L fermenter, the highest yield of glucaric acid was 10.85 g/L, which was increased 80% compared with that of Bga-3 strain. The application of the above metabolic engineering strategy improved the pathway efficiency and the yield of glucaric acid, which may serve as a reference for engineering S. cerevisiae to produce other chemicals.


Subject(s)
Fermentation , Glucaric Acid/metabolism , Inositol Oxygenase/genetics , Metabolic Engineering , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 592-604, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927730

ABSTRACT

Cyanobacteria are important photosynthetic autotrophic microorganisms and are considered as one of the most promising microbial chassises for photosynthetic cell factories. Glycogen is the most important natural carbon sink of cyanobacteria, playing important roles in regulating its intracellular carbon distributions. In order to optimize the performances of cyanobacterial photosynthetic cell factories and drive more photosynthetic carbon flow toward the synthesis of desired metabolites, many strategies and approaches have been developed to manipulate the glycogen metabolism in cyanobacteria. However, the disturbances on glycogen metabolism usually cause complex effects on the physiology and metabolism of cyanobacterial cells. Moreover, the effects on synthesis efficiencies of different photosynthetic cell factories usually differ. In this manuscript, we summarized the recent progress on engineering cyanobacterial glycogen metabolism, analyzed and compared the physiological and metabolism effects caused by engineering glycogen metabolism in different cyanobacteria species, and prospected the future trends of this strategy on optimizing cyanobacterial photosynthetic cell factories.


Subject(s)
Carbon/metabolism , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Cyanobacteria/metabolism , Glycogen/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Photosynthesis/physiology
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 478-505, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927723

ABSTRACT

Yarrowia lipolytica, as an important oleaginous yeast, has been widely used in metabolic engineering. Y. lipolytica is considered as an ideal host for the production of natural products such as terpenes, polyketides and flavonoids, due to its ability to utilize a variety of hydrophobic substrates, high stress tolerance to acid and salt, high flux of tricarboxylic acid cycle and the ability in providing abundant the common precursor acetyl-CoA. Recently, more and more tools for genetic editing, gene expression and regulation has been developed in Y. lipolytica, which facilitate the metabolic engineering of Y. lipolytica for bio-manufacturing. In this review, we summarized the recent progresses in developing gene expression and natural product synthesis in Y. lipolytica, and also discussed the challenges and possible solutions in heterologous synthesis of natural products in this yeast.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/metabolism , Gene Editing , Metabolic Engineering , Polyketides/metabolism , Yarrowia/metabolism
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4314-4328, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921508

ABSTRACT

5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) plays an important role in the fields of medicine and agriculture. 5-ALA can be produced by engineered Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum. We systematically engineered the C4 metabolic pathway of C. glutamicum to further improve its ability to produce 5-ALA. Firstly, the hemA gene encoding 5-ALA synthase (ALAS) from Rhodobacter capsulatus and Rhodopseudomonas palustris were heterologously expressed in C. glutamicum, respectively. The RphemA gene of R. palustris which showed relatively high enzyme activity was selected. Screening of the optimal ribosome binding site sequence RBS5 significantly increased the activity of RphemA. The ALAS activity of the recombinant strain reached (221.87±3.10) U/mg and 5-ALA production increased by 14.3%. Subsequently, knocking out genes encoding α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase inhibitor protein (odhI) and succinate dehydrogenase (sdhA) increased the flux of succinyl CoA towards the production of 5-ALA. Moreover, inhibiting the expression of hemB by means of sRNA reduced the degradation of 5-ALA, while overexpressing the cysteine/O-acetylserine transporter eamA increased the output efficiency of intracellular 5-ALA. Shake flask fermentation using the engineered strain C. glutamicum 13032/∆odhI/∆sdhA-sRNAhemB- RBS5RphemA-eamA resulted in a yield of 11.90 g/L, which was 57% higher than that of the original strain. Fed-batch fermentation using the engineered strain in a 5 L fermenter produced 25.05 g/L of 5-ALA within 48 h, which is the highest reported-to-date yield of 5-ALA from glucose.


Subject(s)
Aminolevulinic Acid/metabolism , Corynebacterium glutamicum/metabolism , Fermentation , Metabolic Engineering , Rhodobacter capsulatus/enzymology , Rhodopseudomonas/enzymology
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4266-4276, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921504

ABSTRACT

Dopamine is the precursor of a variety of natural antioxidant compounds. In the body, dopamine acts as a neurotransmitter that regulates a variety of physiological functions of the central nervous system. Thus, dopamine is used for the clinical treatment of various types of shock. Dopamine could be produced by engineered microbes, but with low efficiency. In this study, DOPA decarboxylase gene from Sus scrofa (Ssddc) was cloned into plasmids with different copy numbers, and transformed into a previously developed L-DOPA producing strain Escherichia coli T004. The resulted strain was capable of producing dopamine from glucose directly. To further improve the production of dopamine, a sequence-based homology alignment mining (SHAM) strategy was applied to screen more efficient DOPA decarboxylases, and five DOPA decarboxylase genes were selected from 100 candidates. In shake-flask fermentation, the DOPA decarboxylase gene from Homo sapiens (Hsddc) showed the highest dopamine production (3.33 g/L), while the DOPA decarboxylase gene from Drosophila Melanogaster (Dmddc) showed the least residual L-DOPA concentration (0.02 g/L). In 5 L fed-batch fermentations, production of dopamine by the two engineered strains reached 13.3 g/L and 16.2 g/L, respectively. The residual concentrations of L-DOPA were 0.45 g/L and 0.23 g/L, respectively. Finally, the Ssddc and Dmddc genes were integrated into the genome of E. coli T004 to obtain genetically stable dopamine-producing strains. In 5 L fed-batch fermentation, 17.7 g/L of dopamine was produced, which records the highest titer reported to date.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dopa Decarboxylase/genetics , Dopamine/biosynthesis , Drosophila melanogaster/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Humans , Metabolic Engineering
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4158-4168, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921496

ABSTRACT

Pentostatin is a nucleoside antibiotics with a strong inhibitory effect on adenosine deaminase, and is widely used in the clinical treatment of malignant tumors. However, the high cost hampers its application. In the past 10 years, the biosynthesis of pentostatin were focused on strain breeding, optimization of medium composition and fermentation process. To date, there are no reviews summarizing the elucidated biosynthetic mechanism of pentostatin. This review starts by introducing the various chemical route for production of pentostatin, followed by summarizing the mechanisms of pentostatin biosynthesis in different microorganisms. Finally, challenges for biosynthesis of pentostatin were discussed, and strategies for regulating and improving the microbial synthesis of pentostatin were proposed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pentostatin
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888787

ABSTRACT

Mushrooms are abundant in bioactive natural compounds. Due to strict growth conditions and long fermentation-time, microbe as a production host is an alternative and sustainable approach for the production of natural compounds. This review focuses on the biosynthetic pathways of mushroom originated natural compounds and microbes as the production host for the production of the above natural compounds.


Subject(s)
Agaricales/chemistry , Bacteria/metabolism , Biological Products/metabolism , Biosynthetic Pathways , Fermentation , Metabolic Engineering
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887977

ABSTRACT

Ginkgolides,the unique terpenoids in Ginkgo biloba,have a significant effect on the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Metabolic regulation and synthetic biology strategies are efficient methods to obtain high-quality ginkgolides. The present study reviewed the cloning and functions of genes related to the biosynthetic pathway of ginkgolides,as well as relevant studies of omics,genetic transformation,and metabolic regulation in recent years,and predicted the research trends and prospects,aiming to provide a reference for discovering the key genes related to the biosynthetic pathway and the biosynthesis of ginkgolides.


Subject(s)
Ginkgo biloba/genetics , Ginkgolides , Humans , Lactones , Plant Extracts , Terpenes
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2803-2812, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887843

ABSTRACT

Bacitracin is a broad-spectrum antibiotics mainly produced by Bacillus, and is used as veterinary medicine in the fields of livestock and poultry breeding. Insufficient supply of precursor amino acids might be an important factor that hinders high-level microbial production of bacitracin. We investigated the effect of strengthening L-cysteine supply on bacitracin production by an industrial bacitracin producer, Bacillus licheniformis DW2. Overexpression of cysK encoding L-cysteine synthase led to a 9.17% increase of the bacitracin titer. Moreover, overexpression of cysE encoding L-serine acetyltransferase and cysP encoding thiosulfate/sulfate intracellular transporter increased the bacitracin titers by 7.23% and 8.52%, respectively. Moreover, overexpression of a putative cystine importer TcyP led to a 29.19% increase of intracellular L-cysteine, and bacitracin titer was increased by 7.79%. Subsequently, the strong promoter PbacA was used to replace the promoters of genes cysP, cysE and tcyP in strain DW2::ysK, respectively. The resulted strain CYS4 (DW2::cysK-PbacA-(cysP)-PbacA(cysE)- PbacA(tcyP) produced 910.02 U/mL bacitracin, which was 21.10% higher than that of the original strain DW2 (747.71 U/mL). Together with the experiments in 3 L fermenters, this research demonstrated that enhancing intracellular L-cysteine supply is an effective strategy to increase bacitracin production of B. licheniformis.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Bacillus licheniformis/genetics , Bacitracin , Cysteine , Metabolic Engineering
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2765-2778, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887839

ABSTRACT

Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are difficult to be degraded, and bioremediation has received increasing attention for remediating the hydrocarbon polluted area. This review started by introducing the interphase adaptation and transport process of hydrocarbon by microbes. Subsequently, the advances made in the identification of hydrocarbon-degrading strains and genes as well as elucidation of metabolic pathways and underpinning mechanisms in the biodegradation of typical petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants were summarized. The capability of wild-type hydrocarbon degrading bacteria can be enhanced through genetic engineering and metabolic engineering. With the rapid development of synthetic biology, the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted area can be further improved by engineering the metabolic pathways of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes, or through design and construction of synthetic microbial consortia.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental , Hydrocarbons , Petroleum , Petroleum Pollution/analysis , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2085-2104, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887783

ABSTRACT

Terpenoids are a group of structurally diverse compounds with good biological activities and versatile functions such as anti-cancer and immunity-enhancing effects, and are widely used in food, healthcare and medical industries. Facilitated by the increasing understandings on the natural biosynthetic pathways of terpenoids in recent years, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered into high-yield strains for production of a variety of terpenoids, some of which have reached or become close to the level required by industrial production. In this connection, synthetic biology driven biotechnological production of terpenoids has become a promising alternative to chemical synthesis and traditional extraction approaches. This article summarizes the recent process in engineering S. cerevisiae for terpenoids biosynthesis, highlighting the effect of synthetic biology strategies by taking a couple of typical terpenoids as examples.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways , Metabolic Engineering , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Synthetic Biology , Terpenes
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2050-2076, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887781

ABSTRACT

Plant polyphenols are phenylpropanoid derivatives including phenolic acids, stilbenes, curcumins and flavonoids. These compounds display a variety of biological and pharmacological activities such as antioxidation, vasorelaxation, anti-coagulation, anti-inflammation, anti-tumor and anti-virus, conferring a huge application potential in the sectors of drugs, foods, cosmetics, and chemicals. Microorganisms have become important hosts for heterologous synthesis of natural products due to the advantages of fast growth, easiness of culture and industrial operation. In recent years, the development of synthetic biology has boosted the microbial synthesis of plant natural products, achieving substantial progress. In this review, we summarize the synthesis of plant polyphenols in engineered Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other microorganisms equipped with the designed biosynthetic pathways of polyphenols. We also discuss the optimization strategies such as precursor engineering, dynamic regulation, and co-cultivation to improve the production of polyphenols and propose future prospects for polyphenol pathway engineering.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways , Metabolic Engineering , Plants , Polyphenols , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics
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