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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 460-486, jul. 2024. graf, ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538009

ABSTRACT

This review presents advances in the implementation of high - throughput se quencing and its application to the knowledge of medicinal plants. We conducted a bibliographic search of papers published in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and analyzed the obtained data using VOSviewer (versi on 1.6.19). Given that medicinal plants are a source of specialized metabolites with immense therapeutic values and important pharmacological properties, plant researchers around the world have turned their attention toward them and have begun to examine t hem widely. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have reduced cost and time demands and accelerated medicinal plant research. Such research leverages full genome sequencing, as well as RNA (ribonucleic acid) sequencing and the analysis of the transcr iptome, to identify molecular markers of species and functional genes that control key biological traits, as well as to understand the biosynthetic pathways of bioactive metabolites and regulatory mechanisms of environmental responses. As such, the omics ( e.g., transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and genomics, among others) have been widely applied within the study of medicinal plants, although their usage in Colombia is still few and, in some areas, scarce. (185)


El extracto de cloroformo (CE) y las fracciones obtenidas de las raíces de Aldama arenaria se evaluaron para determinar su actividad antiproliferativa in vitro contra 10 líneas ce lulares tumorales humanas [leucemia (K - 562), mama (MCF - 7), ovario que expresa un fenotipo resistente a múltiples fármacos (NCI/ADR - RES), melanoma (UACC - 62), pulmón (NCI - H460), próstata (PC - 3), colon (HT29), ovario (OVCAR - 3), glioma (U251) y riñón (786 - 0)]. CE presentó actividad antiproliferativa débil a moderada (log GI 50 medio 1.07), mientras que las fracciones 3 y 4, enriquecidas con diterpenos de tipo pimarane [ent - pimara - 8 (14), ácido 15 - dien - 19 - oico y ent - 8(14),15 - pimaradien - 3 ß - ol], presentaron activid ad moderada a potente para la mayoría de las líneas celulares, con un log GI 50 medio de 0.62 y 0.59, respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron una acción antiproliferativa in vitro prometedora de las muestras obtenidas de A. arenaria , con los mejores resul tados para NCI/ADR - RES, HT29 y OVCAR - 3, y valores de TGI que van desde 5.95 a 28.71 µg.mL - 1, demostrando que los compuestos de esta clase pueden ser prototipos potenciales para el descubrimiento de nuevos agentes terapéuticos


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Colombia , Multiomics
2.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1535004

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the salivary metabolites profile of Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types I, II, IV, and VI patients. Material and Methods: The participants were asked to refrain from eating and drinking for one hour before sampling, performed between 7:30 and 9:00 a.m. Samples were centrifuged at 10.000 × g for 60 min at 4°C, and the supernatants (500µl) were stored at −80°C until NMR analysis. The salivary proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectra were acquired in a 500 MHz spectrometer, and TOCSY experiments were used to confirm and assign metabolites. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results: Differences in salivary metabolites were found among MPS types and the control, such as lactate, propionate, alanine, and N-acetyl sugar. Understanding these metabolite changes may contribute to precision medicine and early detection of mucopolysaccharidosis and its monitoring. Conclusion: The composition of low molecular weight salivary metabolites of mucopolysaccharidosis subjects may present specific features compared to healthy controls.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Saliva , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/instrumentation , Mucopolysaccharidoses/pathology , Metabolomics , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/instrumentation , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods
3.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 118-125, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006276

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveBased on ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), to evaluate the establishment of a mouse model of liver Yin deficiency by thyroid tablet suspension combined with 10% carbon tetrachloride(CCl4) from the perspective of non-targeted metabolomics, in order to lay the foundation for the establishment of a traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) syndrome model. MethodA total of 24 mice were randomly divided into blank group and model group. The model group was given thyroid tablet suspension(0.003 2 g·kg-1) by gavage for 14 consecutive days, and 10% CCl4(5 mL·kg-1) was intraperitoneally injected once a week to establish a liver Yin deficiency model, while the blank group was injected with an equal amount of olive oil intraperitoneally and gavaged with an equal amount of distilled water, and was fed with normal feed. After the modeling was completed, 6 mice in each group were randomly selected, the levels of alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate(cGMP), interleukin(IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)were measured in the mice serum, and malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), total protein(TP), hydroxyproline(HYP) and other indicators were measured in the mice liver. Liver tissue sections were taken for hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and observing pathological changes. The remaining 6 mice in each group were subjected to UPLC-Q-TOF-MS combined with principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were used to screen differential metabolites in the liver Yin deficiency mouse model, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) database was used to analyze the corresponding metabolic pathways of differential metabolites. ResultCompared with the blank group, mice in the model group showed liver Yin deficiency manifestations such as reduced body weight, fatigue and sleepiness, disheveled and lusterless hair, irritability. The levels of ALT, cAMP/cGMP, IL-6, AST, MDA, cAMP, TNF-α significantly increased(P<0.05, P<0.01), while the levels of SOD, IL-10 and cGMP significantly decreased(P<0.05, P<0.01), and the changes of HYP and TP were not statistically significant. Hepatic steatosis and distortion of the radial arrangement of the liver plate cells were seen in the section images of the model group, endogenous substances were clearly separated, and 252 differential metabolites were identified in the serum samples, which were mainly involved in the metabolic pathways of purine metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis and pyrimidine metabolism. A total of 229 differential metabolites were identified in the liver samples, mainly involving nucleotide metabolism, purine metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis, pyrimidine metabolism, antifolate resistance, insulin resistance, primary bile acid biosynthesis, prostate cancer, sulfur relay system, arachidonic acid metabolism and other metabolic pathways. ConclusionThe successful establishment of liver Yin deficiency model in mice by CCl4 combined with thyroid hormone is evaluated through the investigation of serum and liver metabolomics, combined with biochemical indicators, which provides a biological basis and experimental foundation for the Yin deficiency syndrome model of TCM.

4.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 166-174, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005266

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveMetabolomics was used to reveal the mechanism of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata(ALRP) in attenuating toxicity by processing from the aspects of amino acid metabolism, oxidative stress and energy metabolism by analyzing multiple metabolic pathways. MethodTwenty-four rats were randomly divided into control group, raw group and processed group, 8 rats in each group. The raw and processed group were given with 0.64 g·kg-1 of raw ALRP and processed ALRP respectively every day, the control group was given with an equal amount of normal saline once a day. After continuous administration for 7 days, the urine, serum and heart tissue of rats were collected. Pathological examination of the heart was carried out using hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, and the activities of lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) and creatine kinase-MB(CK-MB) in serum and cardiac tissues were detected by microplate assay and immunoinhibition assay. The effects of ALRP on rat heart before and after processing were compared and analyzed. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was used to perform urine metabolomics analysis, and multivariate statistical analysis was used to screen for differential metabolites related to ALRP in attenuating toxicity by processing, and pathway enrichment analysis was carried out to explore the processing mechanism. ResultHE staining showed that no obvious pathological changes were observed in the heart tissue of the control group, while obvious infiltration of inflammatory cells such as plasma cells and granulocytes was observed in the heart tissue of the raw group, indicating that the raw ALRP had strong cardiotoxicity. There was no significant difference in HE staining of heart tissue between the processed group and the control group, indicating that the toxicity of ALRP was significantly reduced after processing. Compared with the control group, the activities of LDH and CK-MB were significantly increased in serum and heart tissue of the raw group, and those were significantly decreased in serum and heart tissue of the processed group, suggesting that the myocardial toxicity of processed ALRP was reduced. A total of 108 endogenous differential metabolites associated with the raw ALRP were screened using multivariate statistical analysis in positive and negative modes, of which 51 differential metabolites were back-regulated by the processed ALRP. Biological analysis of the key regulatory pathways and associated network changes showed that the pathways related to toxicity of ALRP mainly included tryptophan metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, etc. The metabolic pathways related to the attenuation of processed ALRP mainly included aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism and caffeine metabolism. ConclusionThe processing technology of ALRP in Guilingji can significantly attenuate the cardiotoxicity of raw products, the mechanism mainly involves amino acid metabolism, oxidative stress and energy metabolism, which can provide experimental bases for the research related to the mechanism of toxicity reduction of ALRP by processing and its clinical safety applications.

5.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 38-43, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005211

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the effects of the Mongolian medicine Sugemule-4 on the metabolism of insomnia rats, and to preliminarily explore its possible mechanisms for improving insomnia. METHODS The rat model of chronic stress insomnia was established by tail clipping stimulation and intraperitoneal injection of p-chlorophenyl alanine solution. Twenty-four male rats were randomly divided into the normal group, model group, diazepam group (positive control, 0.92 mg/kg), and Sugemule-4 group (5.2 g/kg), with 6 rats in each group. Since the 7th day of tail clipping stimulation, the Sugemule-4 group and diazepam group began to be intragastrically administered with relevant medicine; the normal group and model group were intragastrically administered with an equal volume of distilled water, once a day, for 14 consecutive days. The learning and memory abilities of rats were tested using a water maze experiment, and the non-invasive sleep activity monitoring system was used to monitor the 24- hour sleep time of rats. A metabolomics study was conducted on rat serum and hippocampal tissue by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The multivariate statistical analysis method was adopted to analyze the differential metabolites in serum and hippocampal tissue of rats, and screen for differential metabolites and metabolic pathways among those groups. RESULTS Compared with the normal group, the escape latency of rats in the model group was significantly increased, the times of crossing platforms were significantly reduced, and the percentage of average 24-hour sleep time was significantly reduced (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the levels of the above indicators were significantly reversed in the diazepam group and Sugemule-4 group (P<0.05). Metabolomics studies found that a total of 9 differential metabolites were identified in rat serum and hippocampal tissue, including 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, canine urate, canine urinary quinolinic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine, phenol sulfate, 1-carboxyethyltyrosine, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) lactate, N-acetyl tyrosine, tyrosine and phenol sulfate, mainly involving 2 metabolic pathways of tryptophan and tyrosine.CONCLUSIONS Sugemule-4 can improve the sleep time and behavioral performance of insomnia rats, and its mechanism may be associated with affecting amino acid metabolic pathways such as tryptophan and tyrosine.

6.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 148-155, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003419

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveBased on ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS) and non-targeted metabolomics technology to discuss the central regulatory effect of Chaishao Liujuntang on chronic atrophic gastritis(CAG) rats with liver-depression and spleen-deficiency, and to look for the correlation between cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and metabolic status of gastric tissues. MethodA CAG rat model with liver-depression and spleen-deficiency was established by chemical induction, hunger and satiety disorders, chronic restraint and tail clamping stimulation, lasting for 16 weeks. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into a blank group of 8 rats and a model group of 20 rats. After the completion of modeling, 4 rats in the model group were taken to observe the pathological changes of gastric mucosa. The remaining model rats were randomly divided into a model group of 8 rats and a Chaishao Liujuntang group of 8 rats. Chaishao Liujuntang group rats were given 5.1 g·kg-1 by gavage, and the remaining rats were given equal volume sterilized water by gavage for 4 weeks. Macroscopic characteristics, behavioral indicators and histopathological changes of the gastric mucosa of rats in each group were observed and compared. UPLC-MS non-targeted metabolomics was used to explore the metabolic regulation effect of Chaishao Liujuntang on the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and stomach tissues of CAG rats with liver-depression and spleen-deficiency. Pearson correlation coefficient method was used to analyze the correlation between different tissue metabolites. ResultCompared with the model group, the macroscopic characteristics of rats in Chaishao Liujuntang group were improved, such as hair color, mental state and stool properties, and the number of times of crossing and standing in the open field experiment was significantly increased, and the static time of forced swimming was significantly reduced(P<0.01), and the gastric mucosa atrophy was reduced. The metabolic data from the cerebral cortex of rats in each group identified a total of 3 common potential biomarkers, but not enriched in pathways, 26 common potential biomarkers were identified in the hypothalamus, and the key metabolic pathways involved were mainly enriched in purine metabolism, glycerol phospholipid metabolism, D-glutamine and D-glutamic acid metabolism. Seventeen common potential biomarkers were identified in the stomach, and the key metabolic pathways involved were mainly enriched in thiamine metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis, and taurine and taurine metabolism. Correlation analysis of metabolites in different tissues revealed that multiple amino acids and their derivatives mediated metabolic connections between the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and stomach of rats. ConclusionThe metabolic disorders in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and stomach of CAG rats with liver-depression and spleen-deficiency have their own characteristics, mainly manifested by changes in the content of glycerol phospholipids, fatty acids and bile acid metabolites. Moreover, Chaishao Liujuntang may play a central regulatory role in CAG rats with liver-depression and spleen-deficiency by correcting the metabolic disorders of amino acids.

7.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 37-45, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003406

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of Jiaohong pills (JHP) and its prescription, Pericarpium Zanthoxyli (PZ) and Rehmanniae Radix (RR) cognitive dysfunction in scopolamine-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice and its mechanism through pharmacodynamic and metabolomics study. MethodThe animal model of AD induced by scopolamine was established and treated with PZ, RG and JHP, respectively. The effects of JHP and its formulations were investigated by open field test, water maze test, object recognition test, avoidance test, cholinergic system and oxidative stress related biochemical test. Untargeted metabolomics analysis of cerebral cortex was performed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-Quadrupole/Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS). ResultThe behavioral data showed that, compared with the model group, the discrimination indexes of the high dose of JHP, PZ and RR groups was significantly increased (P<0.05). The staging rate of Morris water maze test in the PZ, RR, high and low dose groups of JHP was significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), the crossing numbers in the PZ, JHP high and low dose groups were significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01); the number of errors in the avoidance test were significantly reduced in the PZ and high-dose JHP groups (P<0.01), and the error latencies were significantly increased in the JHP and its prescription drug groups (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the activities of acetylcholinesterase in the cerebral cortex of the two doses of JHP group and the PZ group were significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the activity of acetylcholinesterase in the high-dose JHP group was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the level of acetylcholine was significantly increased (P<0.01). At the same time, the contents of malondialdehyde in the serum of the two dose groups of JHP decreased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01). The results of metabolomics study of cerebral cortex showed that 149 differential metabolites were identified between the JHP group and the model group, which were involved in neurotransmitter metabolism, energy metabolism, oxidative stress and amino acid metabolism. ConclusionJHP and its prescription can antagonize scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction, regulate cholinergic system, and reduce oxidative stress damage. The mechanism of its therapeutic effect on AD is related to the regulation of neurotransmitter, energy, amino acid metabolism, and improvement of oxidative stress.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 382-394, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016643

ABSTRACT

Based on the strategy of metabolomics combined with bioinformatics, this study analyzed the potential allergens and mechanism of pseudo-allergic reactions (PARs) induced by the combined use of Reduning injection and penicillin G injection. All animal experiments and welfare are in accordance with the requirements of the First Affiliated Experimental Animal Ethics and Animal Welfare Committee of Henan University of Chinese Medicine (approval number: YFYDW2020002). Based on UPLC-Q-TOF/MS technology combined with UNIFI software, a total of 21 compounds were identified in Reduning and penicillin G mixed injection. Based on molecular docking technology, 10 potential allergens with strong binding activity to MrgprX2 agonist sites were further screened. Metabolomics analysis using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS technology revealed that 34 differential metabolites such as arachidonic acid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes were endogenous differential metabolites of PARs caused by combined use of Reduning injection and penicillin G injection. Through the analysis of the "potential allergen-target-endogenous differential metabolite" interaction network, the chlorogenic acids (such as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, and isochlorogenic acid A) and β-lactam allergens in the combination of the two may be mainly regulated by PLD1, PLA2G12A and CYP1A1. The three upstream signal target proteins mainly activate the arachidonic acid metabolic pathway, promote the degranulation of mast cells, release downstream endogenous inflammatory mediators, and induce PARs.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 713-723, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016614

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect of Flos Farfarae (FF) fumigation on cigarette smoke-induced lung injury mice, and analyze the metabolic profile of lung tissue by metabolomics. All animal experiments were conducted under the guidance and approval of the Animal Ethics Review Committee of Shanxi University (Approval number: SXULL2019014). By using HS-GC-MS to analyze volatile components of Flos Farfarae, 23 compounds were identified. The results showed that FF fumigation improved the lung tissue morphology of cigarette smoke-induced lung injury mice, lowered the levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). The lung tissue samples were applied for metabolomic analysis based on UHPLC-QTOF MS, the results showed that 70 metabolites were changed in the lung tissue of mice after cigarette exposure, and 35 of them could be regulated, including lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), 12-HETE, adenosine, and xanthine. These metabolites, such as LPC, 12-HETE, adenosine, and xanthine were mainly associated with the body's inflammatory response. It was observed that these metabolites are primarily involved in purine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, phospholipid metabolism, and pyruvate metabolism pathways. These findings suggest that the volatile terpenoids in the FF may regulate the metabolites associated with the inflammatory response in the lung tissue, such as lysophosphatidylcholine, 12-HETE, and adenosine, which could further alleviate lung inflammation induced by cigarette smoke through the metabolic pathways of purine metabolism and others. This study proved the scientific basis of the traditional application of FF fumigation, and provided a theoretical basis for the further product development.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 704-712, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016613

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to analyze the effects on cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells after intervention with Agrimonia pilosa (AP) and investigate Agrimonia pilosa anti-tumor activity in vitro. Meanwhile, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomics technology was used to analyze the changes of cellular metabolites and metabolic pathways. The results of this study will provide a theoretical and experimental basis for investigating the mechanism of the effect of Agrimonia pilosa on non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. The results showed that the cell nucleus of A549 cells crumpled and apoptosis occurred with the increase of drug concentration. The survival rate of the cells decreased, and the inhibition rate reached 21.5% and 91.74% under the low and high dose conditions, respectively. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content increased (P < 0.05). Metabolomics results showed significant differences in metabolism between groups, thirty-three distinct metabolites including LysoPC(24:0/0:0), LysoPC(17:0/0:0) and PC(O-40:5) were deduced. The pathway enrichment showed that the Agrimonia pilosa plays an anti-tumor role mainly by regulating the metabolism of glycerophosphate and purine in A549 cells, in which the effect on glycerophosphate metabolism pathway was most significant. The results of combined pharmacodynamics suggested that Agrimonia pilosa might induce apoptosis and inhibit the growth of A549 cells by regulating LysoPC(24:0/0:0), LysoPC(17:0/0:0) and PC(O-40:5) metabolites in A549 cells.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 724-734, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016610

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the antitussive and expectorant activity of platycodin D (PD) were studied by constructing a mouse cough induced by concentrated ammonia water and a mouse trachea phenol red excretion model. The mechanism of antitussive and expectorant effect of PD was studied by metabolomics. The animal experiment was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Jiangxi University of Chinese Medicine (approval number: JZLLSC-20220739). Then mice were randomly divided into the normal, model, positive drug, PD low-dose, PD medium-dose and PD high-dose group. The antitussive and expectorant effects of PD were evaluated using a cough mouse model induced by concentrated ammonia water and a mouse tracheal phenol red excretion model, respectively. UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was used to identify the metabolites of mouse lung tissue, and multivariate statistical analysis method of orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used for metabolites profile analysis. The differential metabolites were screened by variable projected importance value (VIP) and t-test results. Pathways for enrichment of differentiated metabolites were analyzed using the MetaboAnalyst platform. The comparative method was applied to analyze the differences in mechanisms of PD, Deapio-platycodin D (DPD) and total platycosides fraction. The results showed that PD at different concentrations could significantly prolong (P < 0.05) the incubation period of cough mice induced by ammonia water, reduce the coughs frequency, and significantly increase (P < 0.05) the amount of phenol red excretion in phenol red excretion model mice. PD could regulate 6 metabolic pathways of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, linoleic acid metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and tyrosine metabolism to exert antitussive effect. It could also regulate 8 metabolic pathways of linoleic acid metabolism, glyoxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid metabolism, glycerol phospholipid metabolism, citric acid cycle and arachidonic acid metabolism to exert an expectorant effect. However, only linoleic acid metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism could be regulated by the PD, total platycosides fraction and DPD, which may be ascribed to the structural difference of the platycosides and the interaction between platycosides and the intestinal microbiota. Functional analysis showed that these metabolic pathways are closely related to the regulatory mechanisms of anti-inflammatory response, immune function regulation, neurotransmitter release, cell signal transduction, energy metabolism and cell apoptosis. This study shows that PD possesses good antitussive and expectorant activities. In addition, the mechanism difference of PD, total platycosides fraction and DPD imply that the apiose in PD and the interaction between PD and intestinal microbiota could exert an important effect on the antitussive and expectorant mechanism of the platycosides.

12.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 810-815, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016529

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent chronic liver diseases in the world, affecting about one quarter of the global population, and it is estimated that NAFLD will become the main indication for liver transplantation by 2030. NAFLD can lead to significant abnormalities in the levels of a variety of amino acids including branched-chain amino acids, thereby promoting the development and progression of NAFLD. These results suggest that in addition to glucose and lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism also plays an important role in the progression of NAFLD. In order to systematically understand the role and mechanism of amino acid metabolism in NAFLD, this article reviews the research advances in amino acid metabolism in NAFLD. This article aims to explore the role and mechanism of amino acid metabolism in the progression of NAFLD, so as to provide ideas and a theoretical basis for clinical prevention and treatment.

13.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 169-175, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016476

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo study the changing characteristics of secondary metabolic compounds accumulated in Dendrobium nobile stems at different growth years, a simulated wild stone plant, in order to provide a theoretical basis for rational planning of the harvesting period of D. nobile. MethodUltra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) was used to detect and analyze the secondary metabolites in the stems of 1-year-old, 2-year-old, and 3-year-old D. nobile. The mass spectrometry data were processed using Analyst 1.6.3 software, and all samples were subjected to principal component analysis(PCA), cluster heat map analysis, partial least squares-discriminant analysis(PLS-DA), and differential secondary metabolites were screened based on variable importance in projection(VIP) values>1, fold change(FC)≥2 and FC≤0.5. Then differential secondary metabolites were identified based on relative molecular weight, fragmentation ions and mass spectrometry database, and enriched pathways were identified based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) database. ResultA total of 1 317 secondary metabolites were identified in the stems of D. nobile at three growth stages, with flavonoids, phenolic acids, alkaloids and terpenoids accounting for 76.55% of the total. Compared with the 1-year-old stems of D. nobile, 289 differential secondary metabolites were identified in the 2-year-old stems, of which 255 were up-regulated and 34 were down-regulated, 682 differential secondary metabolites were identified in the 3-year-old stems, of which 502 were up-regulated and 180 were down-regulated. Compared to the 2-year-old stems, the 3-year-old stems had 602 differential secondary metabolites, with 405 up-regulated and 197 down-regulated. As the growth stage of D. nobile increased, the top 10 up-regulated differential metabolites mainly included flavonoids, phenolic acids, phenylpropanoids and terpenoids, such as kaempferol derivatives, asperulosidic acid, apigenin derivatives, chrysoeriol derivatives, isorhamnetin derivatives, taxifolin derivatives, quercetin derivatives. KEGG enrichment analysis showed significant enrichment of secondary metabolites in the flavonoid biosynthesis, flavone, and flavonol biosynthesis, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathways with the increase of growth years. ConclusionWith the increase of the growth years, the levels of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, phenylpropanoids and terpenoids in the wild-grown D. nobile have been significantly enhanced. In practical production, grading based on different growth years can be carried out to improve the medicinal and economic values of D. nobile.

14.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics ; (12): 130-138, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014553

ABSTRACT

AIM: To explore the protective effect of astragalus glycyrrhiza decoction (AGD) on arsenic trioxide (ATO)-induced QT interval prolongation and its mechanism based on metabonomics. METHODS: The model of ATO-induced QT interval prolongation in rats was established, and ECG, blood routine, and metabonomics were detected, and the key targets were collected combined with network pharmacology. The possible candidate genes and pathways for the protective effect of AGD were screened by GO and KEGG enrichment analysis and then verified by experiments in vitro. RESULTS: AGD could significantly alleviate the ATO-induced QT interval of SD rats. GO enrichment analysis was mainly related to inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, inner cell vesicles, folds, inner cell vesicles, SMAD binding, R-SMAD binding, and signal receptor activator activity. KEGG analysis showed that it was mainly concentrated in the PI3K-Akt signal pathway, lipid and arteriosclerosis, FOXO signal pathway, TNF signal pathway, HIF-1, and other signal pathways. Through the H9c2 cell model in vitro, it was verified that AGD could reverse the expression of SIRT1 and FOXO1 proteins. CONCLUSION: AGD may improve the ATO-induced QT interval prolongation and reduce the cardiotoxicity of ATO by regulating the SIRT1 / FOXO1 signal pathway.

15.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 171-180, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013608

ABSTRACT

Aim In this study, a mouse model of psoriasis-like lesions induced by 62. 5 mg imiquimod was used to explore the effect and mechanism of Sophorae Flavescentis Radix and Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae combination for the topical treatment of psoriasis. Methods Firstly, the topical administration of Sophorae Flavescentis Radix and Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae combination for treating psoriasis in progressive and recurrent stages was evaluated by psoriatic mouse model and HE staining. Secondly, immunohistochemistry was used to study the regulatory effects of Sophorae Flavescentis Radix and Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae combination on the pivotal pathological mechanism of psoriasis-the positive feedback loop between the abnormal proliferation of keratinocytes and skin immune microenvironment. Finally, metabolomics technology was used to explore whether Sophorae Flavescentis Radix and Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae combination topically treat psoriasis by regulating inflammation-related metabolism and lipid metabolism pathways. Results The combination of Sophorae Flavescentis Radix and Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae alleviated psoriasis-like lesions in mice. It effectively relieved the recurrence after the cure of psoriatic lesions in mice, and the efficacy is comparable to that of benweimod. The combination of Sophorae Flavescentis Radix and Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae inhibited the proliferation of mouse epidermal keratinocytes and reduced the number of T cells in the skin. The potential molecular mechanism was that the combination of Sophorae Flavescentis Radix and Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae regulated arachidonic acid metabolism, sphin- golipid metabolism, tryptophan metabolism and phenylalanine metabolism. Conclusions The combination of Sophora Flavescens Radix and Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae can relieve psoriasis-like lesions in mice by inhibiting the proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes and reducing the number of T cells in the skin and regulating metabolism to intervene psoriasis recurrence. This study provides a potential topical drug of psoriasis for relieving psoriasis recurrence.

16.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 659-664, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013098

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To investigate the potential mechanism of the effect of ginkgo flavone aglycone (GA) against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. METHODS The male ICR mice were randomized into control group (CON group), model group (DOX group) and GA+DOX group (GDOX group), with 12 mice in each group. The DOX group was injected with DOX solution at a dose of 3 mg/kg via tail vein every other day, and the GDOX group was given GA suspension intragastrically at a dose of 100 mg/kg every day+DOX solution at a dose of 3 mg/kg via tail vein every other day, for 15 consecutive days. After the end of administration, the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase(AST), creatine kinase(CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme(CK- MB) and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) in mice were detected in each group. Based on the metabolomics method, UHPLC-Q- Exactive Orbitrap HRMS method was used; based on principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares- discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), the differentially expressed metabolites (DEMs) were screened using the criteria of variable importance in the projection≥1, fold change of peak area>1 and P<0.05; biological analysis was conducted based on databases such as HMDB and PubChem. RESULTS Compared with CON group, serum levels of AST, CK, CK-MB and LDH were increased significantly in DOX group (P<0.05); compared with DOX group, the serum levels of the above indicators (except for CK-MB) were decreased significantly in GDOX group (P<0.05). PCA and OPLS-DA showed that myocardial tissue samples of CON group, DOX group and GDOX group were isolated completely. After database matching, 37 common DEMs were identified, among which 17 DEMs were significantly up-regulated in the DOX group and significantly down- regulated in the GDOX group, and 8 DEMs were significantly down-regulated in the DOX group and significantly up-regulated in the GDOX group; pathway enrichment involved the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism; the key metabolites in the above pathways included docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, phosphatidylcholine (16∶0/18∶3) and taurine. CONCLUSIONS GA may regulate the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid metabolism and other metabolic pathways by acting on the core metabolites such as docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, thus alleviating the cardiotoxic effects of DOX.

17.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 157-166, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012705

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of Aconiti Coreani Radix and Typhonii Rhizoma on the urinary metabolites of gerbils with stroke by non-targeted metabolomics technique, and then to clarify the mechanism of the two, as well as their similarities and differences. MethodTwenty-four gerbils were randomly divided into control group(CG), model group(MG), Aconiti Coreani Radix group(RA) and Typhonii Rhizoma group(RT). Except for the CG, ischemic stroke model was constructed using right unilateral ligation of gerbil carotid artery in the remaining groups. Except for the CG and MG, rats in the other groups received whole powder suspension(0.586 mg·g-1) was administered for 14 days. The neurological deficit in each group was scored by Longa scoring on days 0, 3, 7 and 14. After the end of administration, the serum, brain tissue and urine of gerbils in each group were collected, and the rate of cerebral infarction was detected by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride(TTC), and the levels of interleukin(IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α, malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione(GSH), and nitric oxide(NO) in serum and brain tissue were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The urine metabolomics of gerbils in each group was studied by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS), and the data were processed by multivariate statistical analysis, and differential metabolites were screened based on value of variable importance in the projection(VIP) of the first principal component>1 and t-test P<0.05. Metabolic pathway analysis of the screened differential metabolites was performed using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) database and Metaboanalyst 5.0. ResultCompared with the CG, the neurological deficit score was significantly increased in the MG(P<0.05), compared with the MG, the neurological deficit scores in the RA and RT were significantly reduced after 7 d and 14 d(P<0.05). Compared with the CG, the rate of cerebral infarction was significantly increased in the MG(P<0.05), compared with the MG, the rates of cerebral infarction in the RA and RT were significantly reduced(P<0.05). Compared with the CG, the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and MDA in the serum and brain tissue of gerbils from the MG were significantly increased(P<0.05), and the levels of SOD, GSH and NO were significantly reduced(P<0.05). Compared with the MG, Aconiti Coreani Radix and Typhonii Rhizoma could down-regulate the levels of IL-6, TNF-α and MDA, and up-regulated the levels of SOD, GSH and NO. A total of 112 endogenous differential metabolites were screened by urine metabolomics, of which 16 and 26 metabolites were called back by Aconiti Coreani Radix and Typhonii Rhizoma, and could be used as potential biomarkers for both treatments in stroke gerbils, respectively. The results of the pathway analysis showed that both Aconiti Coreani Radix and Typhonii Rhizoma had regulatory effects on arginine and proline metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. In addition, Aconiti Coreani Radix could also regulate riboflavin metabolism, Typhonii Rhizoma could also regulate purine metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, biosynthesis of pantothenate and coenzyme A, and β-alanine metabolism. ConclusionBoth Aconiti Coreani Radix and Typhonii Rhizoma have better therapeutic effects on stroke, with Aconiti Coreani Radix having stronger effects. From the metabolomics results, the main metabolic pathways regulated by Aconiti Coreani Radix involve amino acid metabolism, oxidative stress and so on, while Typhonii Rhizoma mainly involve amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, etc.

18.
Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; (12): 207-213, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012480

ABSTRACT

Background Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can disrupt the metabolic homeostasis of the liver and accelerate the progression of liver diseases, but there are few studies on the effects of sub-chronic PM2.5 exposure on the liver metabolome. Objectives To investigate the effects of sub-chronic exposure to concentrated PM2.5 on hepatic metabolomics in mice by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and to identify potentially affected metabolites and metabolic pathways. Methods Twelve male C57BL/6J (6 weeks old) mice were randomly divided into two groups: a concentrated PM2.5 exposure group and a clean air exposure group. The mice were exposed to concentrated PM2.5 using the "Shanghai Meteorological and Environmental Animal Exposure System" at Fudan University. The exposure duration was 8 h per day, 6 d per week, for a total of 8 weeks. The mice's liver tissues were collected 24 h after the completion of exposure. LC-MS was performed to assess changes in the hepatic metabolome. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and t-test were employed to identify differentially regulated metabolites between the two groups under the conditions of variable important in projection (VIP)≥1.0 and P<0.05. Metabolic pathway enrichment analysis was performed using MetaboAnalyst 5.0 software and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Results A total of 297 differentially regulated metabolites were identified between the concentrated PM2.5 exposure group and the clean air group. Among these metabolites, 142 were upregulated and 155 were downregulated. A total of 38 metabolic pathways were altered, with 7 pathways showing significant perturbation (P<0.05). These pathways involved amino acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, as well as cofactor and vitamin metabolism. The 7 significant metabolic pathways were pantothenic acid and coenzyme A biosynthesis; purine metabolism; amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism; arginine biosynthesis; alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism; aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis; and fructose and mannose metabolism. Conclusion The results from metabolomics analysis suggest that sub-chronic exposure to PM2.5 may disrupt hepatic energy metabolism and induce oxidative stress damage. Aspartic acid, succinic acid, ornithine, fumaric acid, as well as purine and xanthine derivatives, were identified as potential early biomarkers of hepatic response to sub-chronic PM2.5 exposure.

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Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 179-188, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011457

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo clarify the differences in the efficacy and mechanism of different processed products of Atractylodes chinensis rhizoma by the pharmacodynamics and metabolomics studies of raw, bran-fried and rice water-processed products on rats with spleen deficiency. MethodSixty male SD rats were randomly divided into blank group, model group, raw product group(3.75 g·kg-1), bran-fried product group(3.75 g·kg-1), rice water-processed product group(3.75 g·kg-1) and Shenling Baizhusan group(6.7 g·kg-1), with 10 rats in each group. The method of excessive fatigue+improper diet was used to establish a spleen deficiency model in rats. After the end of modeling, except for the blank and model groups, each dosing group was given the corresponding drug suspension, the immune organ coefficients of each group of rats were examined, the levels of interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), immunoglobulin G(IgG), amylase(AMS), motilin(MTL), gastrin(GAS), Na+-K+-adenosine triphosphatase(ATPase), aquaporin 2(AQP2), AQP3 and AQP8 in rats were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) combined with orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were used to search for biomarkers in the plasma samples of spleen-deficient rats by using two criteria[P<0.05 and variable importance in the projection(VIP) value>1], and to compare the different modulatory effects of the three decoction pieces on the splenic-deficient biomarkers, and metabolic pathway analysis was conducted through the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) database. ResultCompared with the blank group, the thymus index and spleen index of rats in the model group were significantly decreased(P<0.05), the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IgG and AQP2 were significantly increased(P<0.05), the levels of AMS, GAS, MTL, AQP3, AQP8 and Na+-K+-ATPase were significantly decreased(P<0.05). Compared with the model group, raw products, bran-fried products and rice water-processed products all increased thymus index and spleen index(P<0.05), decreased IL-6, TNF-α, IgG and AQP2 levels(P<0.05), and increased AMS, GAS, MTL, AQP3, AQP8 and Na+-K+-ATPase levels to different degrees. A total of 176 differential metabolites were screened in the model group compared with the blank group, of which 75, 72 and 84 biomarkers were called back by the raw products, bran-fried products and rice water-processed products, respectively(P<0.05, P<0.01). Raw products of A. chinensis rhizoma mainly affected glycine, serine and threonine metabolism. Bran-fried products mainly affected alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, D-arginine and D-ornithine metabolism. Rice water-processed products mainly affected glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, citrate cycle, thiamine metabolism, D-arginine and D-ornithine metabolism. ConclusionRaw products, bran-fried products and rice water-processed products of A. chinensis rhizoma all have good spleen strengthening effects, among which the effects of bran-fried products and rice water-processed products were stronger. Meanwhile, raw products has the strongest dryness, followed by bran-fried products, and the weakest dryness of rice water-processed products. The three decoction pieces are able to significantly modulate metabolic abnormalities in spleen-deficient rats, and the mechanism may be related to amino acid metabolism such as glycine, serine and threonine metabolism as well as alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism.

20.
International Eye Science ; (12): 420-426, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011394

ABSTRACT

Ocular diseases pose a significant challenge to global health. The field of metabolomics, which involves the systematic identification and quantification of metabolites within a biological system, has emerged as a promising research approach for unraveling disease mechanisms and discovering novel biomarkers. Through its application, metabolomics has yielded valuable knowledge pertaining to the initiation and advancement of various ocular diseases. This review presents an overview of metabolomics and examines recent research progess in four ocular diseases, specifically diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and dry eye, summarizing potential biomarkers and metabolic pathways associated with these diseases. Additionally, this review offers insights into the future prospects of utilizing metabolomics for the management and treatment of ocular diseases.

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