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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0056, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394863

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT It is part of the omic sciences to search for an understanding of how the cellular system of organisms works as well as studying their biological changes. As part of the omic sciences, we can highlight the genomics whose function is the study of genes, the transcriptomics that studies the changes in the transcripts, the proteomics responsible for understanding the changes that occur in proteins, and the metabolomics that studies all the metabolic changes that occur in a certain system when it is submitted to different types of stimuli. Metabolomics is the science that studies the endogenous and exogenous metabolites in biological systems, which aims to provide comparative quantitative or semi-quantitative information about all metabolites in the system. This review aims to describe the main applications of metabolomics science in ophthalmolog. We searched the literature on main applications of metabolomics science in ophthalmology, using the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, with the keywords "metabolomics" and "ophthalmology", from January 1, 2009, to April 5, 2021. We retrieved 216 references, of which 58 were considered eligible for intensive review and critical analysis. The study of the metabolome allows a better understanding of the metabolism of ocular tissues. The results are important to aid diagnosis and as predictors of the progression of many eye and systemic diseases.


RESUMO Faz parte das ciências ômicas buscar entender como funciona o sistema celular dos organismos e estudar suas alterações biológicas. Como parte das ciências ômicas, destacam-se a genômica, cuja função é o estudo dos genes; a transcriptômica, que estuda as mudanças nos transcritos; a proteômica, responsável por entender as mudanças que ocorrem nas proteínas, e a metabolômica, que estuda todo o metabolismo das alterações que ocorrem em um determinado sistema quando ele é submetido a diferentes tipos de estímulos. A metabolômica é a ciência que estuda os metabólitos endógenos e exógenos em sistemas biológicos, visando fornecer informações comparativas quantitativas ou semiquantitativas sobre todos os metabólitos do sistema. Esta revisão teve como objetivo descrever as principais aplicações da ciência metabolômica na oftalmologia. Trata-se de revisão narrativa desenvolvida por um grupo de pesquisa da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP). Buscaram-se, na literatura, as principais aplicações da ciência metabolômica em oftalmologia, utilizando as bases de dados Medline® e Lilacs, com as palavras-chave "metabolomics" e "oftalmologia", de 1º de janeiro de 2009 a 5 de abril de 2021. Foram recuperadas 216 referências, das quais 58 foram consideradas elegíveis para revisão intensiva e análise crítica. O estudo do metaboloma permite um melhor entendimento do metabolismo dos tecidos oculares. Os resultados são importantes para auxiliar no diagnóstico e como preditores da progressão de muitas doenças oculares e sistêmicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Eye Diseases/metabolism , Metabolome/physiology , Retina/metabolism , Artificial Intelligence , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cornea/metabolism , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Metabolomics/methods , Machine Learning
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929268

ABSTRACT

The dry root and rhizome of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey has garnered much interest owing to its medicinal properties against diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was used to illustrate the therapeutic mechanisms of ginseng extract on the serum and urinary metabolic profiles in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) rats. Pharmacological and renal parameters in response to the administration of ginseng were also evaluated. In total, 16 serum endogenous metabolites and 14 urine endogenous metabolites, including pyruvic acid, indoleacetic acid, and phenylacetylglycine, were identified as potential biomarkers for diabetes. Pathway enrichment and network analysis revealed that the biomarkers modulated by ginseng were primarily involved in phenylalanine and pyruvate metabolism, as well as in arginine biosynthesis. Moreover, the levels of several renal injury-related biomarkers in T1DM rats were significantly restored following treatment with ginseng. The administration of the extract helped maintain tissue structure integrity and ameliorated renal injury. The findings suggest that the regulatory effect of ginseng extract on T1DM involves metabolic management of diabetic rats, which subsequently attenuates T1DM-induced early renal dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Kidney , Metabolomics/methods , Panax/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929267

ABSTRACT

Ma-Mu-Ran Antidiarrheal Capsules (MMRAC) is traditional Chinese medicine that has been used to treat diarrhea caused by acute enteritis (AE) and bacillary dysentery in Xinjiang (China) for many years. However, the potential therapeutic mechanism of MMRAC for AE and its regulatory mechanism on host metabolism is unclear. This study used fecal metabolomics profiling with GC/MS and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis to explore the potential regulatory mechanisms of MMRAC on a dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS)-induced mouse model of AE. Fecal metabolomics-based analyses were performed to detect the differentially expressed metabolites and metabolic pathways. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis was used to assess the altered gut microbes at the genus level and for functional prediction. Moreover, Pearson correlation analysis was used to integrate differentially expressed metabolites and altered bacterial genera. The results revealed that six intestinal bacteria and seven metabolites mediated metabolic disorders (i.e., metabolism of amino acid, carbohydrate, cofactors and vitamins, and lipid) in AE mice. Besides, ten altered microbes mediated the differential expression of eight metabolites and regulated these metabolisms after MMRAC administration. Overall, these findings demonstrate that AE is associated with metabolic disorders and microbial dysbiosis. Further, we present that MMRAC exerts protective effects against AE by improving host metabolism through the intestinal flora.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Capsules , Enteritis/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Genes, rRNA , Metabolomics , Mice , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929242

ABSTRACT

Wantong Jingu Tablet (WJT), a mixture of traditional Chinese medicine, was reported to relieve the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but its pharmacological mechanism was not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic mechanisms of WJT for RA in vivo. The effects of WJT on joint pathology, as well as the levels of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-3, ERK1/2, pERK1/2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured using collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. The intestinal flora composition and the metabolites alteration were analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing and metabolomics method, respectively. We found that WJT ameliorated the severity of the CIA rats which might be mediated by inducing apoptosis, inactivating the MEK/ERK signals and reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. WJT, in part, relieved the gut microbiota dysbiosis, especially bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes, Tenericutes and Deferribacteres, as well as bacterial genus Vibrio, Macrococcus and Vagococcus. 3'-N-debenzoyl-2'-deoxytaxol, tubulysin B, and magnoline were significantly associated with the specific genera. We identified serotonin, glutathione disulfide, N-acetylneuraminic acid, naphthalene and thromboxane B2 as targeted molecules via metabolomics. Our findings contributed to the understanding of RA pathogenesis, and WJT played essential roles in gut microbiota health and metabolite modulation in the CIA rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis, Experimental/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Dysbiosis , Metabolomics , Rats , Tablets
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928926

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the circular pathological changes of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients according to the tongue diagnosis.@*METHODS@#Totally 41 CHB patients with typical white tongue coating (WTC) or yellow tongue coating (YTC) were enrolled and 14 healthy volunteers with normal tongue manifestation served as controls. The mRNA expression of peripheral leukocytes was detected by GeneChips, and 9 genes were randomly selected for expression validation. Circular metabolites were detected by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Biological information was analyzed based on ingenuity pathways analysis or metabolomics database and the integrated networks were constructed by ClueGO.@*RESULTS@#A total of 945 and 716 differentially expressed genes were found in patients with WTC and YTC relative to healthy volunteers respectively. The biological information analysis indicated that CHB patients had obviously increased functions in cell death, apoptosis and necrosis (Z-score ⩾2, P<0.05) and decreased activation in T lymphocytes (Z-score ⩽-2, P<0.05), regardless of the tongue manifestation. Compared to patients with WTC, the YTC patients were predicted to be more active in functions related to virus replication (Z-score ⩾2, P<0.05), and the content of circular fatty acids, such as oleic acid (P=0.098) and lauric acid (P=0.035), and citric acid cycle-related metabolites were higher in the YTC patients (P<0.1). The integrated analysis based on differential genes and metabolites indicated that the most difference in the biological function network between the WTC and YTC patients was tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 mediated-nuclear factor kappa-B activation process.@*CONCLUSIONS@#CHB patients with YTC had more severe inflammation and fatty acids metabolism aberrant than patients with WTC. The results facilitate the modern pathological annotation of Chinese medicine tongue diagnosis theory and provide a reference for the interpretation of pharmacological mechanisms of Chinese medicine treatment.


Subject(s)
Fatty Acids , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Humans , Metabolomics , T-Lymphocytes , Tongue
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928921

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the differences between the serum metabolites in patients with adenomatous polyps of the colon and yang-deficiency constitution and those without colon polyps and with balanced constitution, and look for biomarkers that can be used to distinguish between the two groups.@*METHODS@#General patient information was gathered, and Chinese medicine constitution were collected in 940 patients who underwent electronic colonoscopy. A total of 119 patients with adenomatous polyps of the colon and yang-deficiency constitution were included in the experimental group, and 150 patients without colon polyps and with balanced constitution were included in the control group. Metabolomics analysis was performed on the fasting venous blood obtained from each patient in both groups. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis were performed on the detection results, potential biomarkers were screened, metabolic pathway changes were determined, and the metabolic processes involved were discussed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 59 differential biomarkers between the experimental group and the control group were identified. The differential metabolites were found mainly in the glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway, and the bile acid 3-oxo-4,6-choladienoic acid was the biomarker that distinguished the experimental group from the control group.@*CONCLUSION@#With the help of metabolomics analysis, the differential metabolites in patients with adenomatous polyps of the colon and yang-deficiency constitution and those in patients without colon polyps and with balanced constitution could be identified. The biomarker 3-oxo-4,6-choladienoic acid may have potential diagnostic value in patients with adenomatous polyp of the colon and yang-deficiency constitution. (Trial Registration No. NCT02986308).


Subject(s)
Adenomatous Polyps , Biomarkers , Chromatography, Liquid , Colon , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Yang Deficiency
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928190

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the toxicity mechanism of Rhododendri Mollis Flos(RMF) based on serum metabolomics and network toxicology. The toxic effect of RMF on normal rats was evaluated according to the symptoms, serum biochemical indexes, and histopathology. Serum metabolomics was combined with multivariate statistical analysis to search endogenous differential metabolites and related metabolic pathways. The toxic components, targets, and signaling pathways of RMF were screened by network toxicology technique, and the component-target-metabolite-metabolic pathway network was established with the help of serum metabolomics. The result suggested the neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and cardiotoxicity of RMF. A total of 31 differential metabolites and 10 main metabolic pathways were identified by serum metabolomics, and 11 toxic components, 332 related target genes and 141 main signaling pathways were screened out by network toxicology. Further analysis yielded 7 key toxic components: grayanotoxin Ⅲ,grayanotoxinⅠ, rhodojaponin Ⅱ, rhodojaponin Ⅴ, rhodojaponin Ⅵ, rhodojaponin Ⅶ, and kalmanol, which acted on the following 12 key targets: androgen receptor(AR), albumin(ALB), estrogen receptor β(ESR2), sex-hormone binding globulin(SHBG), type 11 hydroxysteroid(17-beta) dehydrogenase(HSD17 B11), estrogen receptor α(ESR1), retinoic X receptor-gamma(RXRG), lactate dehydrogenase type C(LDHC), Aldo-keto reductase(AKR) 1 C family member 3(AKR1 C3), ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1(ABCB1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2 B7(UGT2 B7), and glutamate-ammonia ligase(GLUL). These targets interfered with the metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid, estriol, testosterone, retinoic acid, 2-oxobutyric acid, and affected 4 key metabolic pathways of alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and retinol metabolism. RMF exerts toxic effect on multiple systems through multiple components, targets, and pathways. Through the analysis of key toxic components, target genes, metabolites, and metabolic pathways, this study unveiled the mechanism of potential neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity of RMF, which is expected to provide a clue for the basic research on toxic Chinese medicinals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cardiotoxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Hormones , Metabolomics , Rats
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928166

ABSTRACT

The present study analyzed the potential biomarkers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) with lung-Qi deficiency syndrome by non-targeted metabolomics and explored the biological basis of this syndrome. Blood samples of 96 COPD patients with lung-Qi deficiency syndrome(COPD with lung-Qi deficiency syndrome group) and 106 healthy people(healthy control group) were collected, and the metabolic profiles of both groups were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Multivariate statistical analysis and differential metabolite screening were carried out by using Progenesis QI and Simca-P. Metabolic pathways were constructed through the MetaboAnalyst. Seven potential biomarkers, such as L-cystathionine, protoporphyrinogen Ⅸ, and citalopram aldehyde, were identified. Compared with the results in the healthy control group, the content of citalopram aldehyde, N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide, and 11β,17β-dihydroxy-4-androsten-3-one was significantly up-regulated, while that of the other four compounds such as L-cystathionine, dihydrotestosterone, protoporphyrinogen Ⅸ, and D-urobilinogen was down-regulated. These potential biomarkers involved six metabolic pathways, including cysteine and methionine metabolism, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, drug metabolism of cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis, glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism, and nicotinate and nicotinamide meta-bolism. This study is expected to provide a certain scientific basis for the research on traditional Chinese medicine syndrome of COPD with lung-Qi deficiency syndrome from the molecular biology level.


Subject(s)
Aldehydes , Biomarkers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Citalopram , Cystathionine , Humans , Lung , Metabolomics/methods , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928084

ABSTRACT

Utilizing metabolomics technology, this study explored the change of fecal endogenous metabolites in Walker-256 rats with malignant ascites after the administration with Kansui Radix(KR) stir-fried with vinegar(VKR), sought the potential biomarkers in feces which were related to the treatment of malignant ascites by VKR and revealed the biological mechanism of water-expelling effect of VKR. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UFLC-Q-TOF-MS) was employed to detect the feces of rats in all groups. Principle component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) were conducted to achieve pattern recognition. Combining t-test and variable importance in the projection(VIP) enabled the screening of potential biomarkers for the malignant ascites. Metabolic pathway analysis was accomplished with MetaboAnalyst. Correlation analysis was finally conducted integrating the sequencing data of gut microbiota to elucidate the mechanism underlying the water-expelling effect of VKR. The results showed that both KR and VKR could restore the abnormal metabolism of model rats to some extent, with VKR being inferior to KR in the regulation. Eleven potential biomarkers were identified to be correlated with the malignant ascites and five metabolic pathways were then enriched. Four kinds of gut microbiota were significantly related to the potential biomarkers. The water-expelling effect of VKR may be associated with the regulation of phenylalanine metabolism, biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan, tryptophan metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. This study can provide a scientific basis for comprehensive understandings of the interaction between gut microbiota and host which has relation to the water-expelling effect of VKR and guide the reasonable clinical application of VKR.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Animals , Ascites/metabolism , Euphorbia , Feces , Metabolomics , Rats
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928019

ABSTRACT

Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was used to investigate the effect of Pterocephalus hookeri on serum metabolism of adjuvant arthritis(AA) model rats induced by complete Freund's adjuvant. After the AA model was properly induced, the serum of rats was collected 30 days after treatment. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS chromatograms were collected and analyzed by principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA). The results revealed that compared with the control group, the model group showed increased content of 12 biomarkers in the serum(P<0.05) and reduced content of the other nine biomarkers(P<0.05). P. hookeri extract could recover the above-mentioned 19 biomarkers to a certain range. Pathway enrichment showed that these markers mainly involved eight metabolic pathways, including valine, leucine, and isoleucine degradation, arachidonic acid metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, glycerol phospholipid metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis, bile acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. The findings of this study demonstrate that P. hookeri extract can regulate metabolic disorders and promote the regression of metabolic phenotype to the normal level to exert the therapeutic effect on AA rats. This study is expected to provide a certain scientific basis for the biological research on the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by P. hookeri.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Metabolomics , Rats
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927926

ABSTRACT

This study aims to study the effective substance and mechanism of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen extract in the treatment of insomnia based on serum metabolomics and network pharmacology. The rat insomnia model induced by p-chlorophenylalanine(PCPA) was established. After oral administration of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen extract, the general morphological observation, pentobarbital sodium-induced sleep test, and histopathological evaluation were carried out. The potential biomarkers of the extract in the treatment of insomnia were screened by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(UHPLC-MS) combined with multivariate analysis, and the related metabolic pathways were further analyzed. The "component-target-pathway" network was constructed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-Exactive mass spectrometry(UHPLC-Q-Exactive-MS/MS) combined with network pharmacology to explore the effective substances and mechanism of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen in the treatment of insomnia. The results of pentobarbital sodium-induced sleep test and histopathological evaluation(hematoxylin and eosin staining) showed that Ziziphi Spinosae Semen extract had good theraputic effect on insomnia. A total of 21 endogenous biomarkers of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen extract in the treatment of insomnia were screened out by serum metabolomics, and the metabolic pathways of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, and nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism were obtained. A total of 34 chemical constituents were identified by UHPLC-Q-Exactive-MS/MS, including 24 flavonoids, 2 triterpenoid saponins, 4 alkaloids, 2 triterpenoid acids, and 2 fatty acids. The network pharmacological analysis showed that Ziziphi Spinosae Semen mainly acted on target proteins such as dopamine D2 receptor(DRD2), 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1 A(HTR1 A), and alpha-2 A adrenergic receptor(ADRA2 A) in the treatment of insomnia. It was closely related to neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, serotonergic synapse, and calcium signaling pathway. Magnoflorine, N-nornuciferine, caaverine, oleic acid, palmitic acid, coclaurine, betulinic acid, and ceanothic acid in Ziziphi Spinosae Semen may be potential effective compounds in the treatment of insomnia. This study revealed that Ziziphi Spinosae Semen extract treated insomnia through multiple metabolic pathways and the overall correction of metabolic disorder profile in a multi-component, multi-target, and multi-channel manner. Briefly, this study lays a foundation for further research on the mechanism of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen in treating insomnia and provides support for the development of innovative Chinese drugs for the treatment of insomnia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Metabolomics , Network Pharmacology , Rats , Seeds/chemistry , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Ziziphus/chemistry
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927881

ABSTRACT

Diabetic neuropathy is a common diabetic complication.The application of metabolomics in the research on diabetic neuropathy is beneficial for us to understand the pathophysiological processes and overall metabolic disturbance of the nervous system under the condition of hyperglycemia,decipher the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy,and mine the potential biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and treatment.Long-term hyperglycemia may lead to disorders in multiple pathways,such as tricarboxylic acid circle,amino acid metabolism,and lipid metabolism.These metabolic changes are closely associated with the injuries of the peripheral and central nervous system.In the paper,we reviewed the metabolomics-based studies about diabetic neuropathy in the last five years.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Metabolomics
13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1420-1428, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924757

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to systematically analyze the antidepressant mechanism of Chaigui granules from the perspective of biological metabolic network by using integrated metabolomics and biological network analysis tools. The model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) depression rat was established, and LC-MS-based plasma metabolomics was used to identify the key metabolites and analyze metabolic pathways underlying the antidepressant effects of Chaigui Granules. The key metabolites regulated by Chaigui granules was integrated with biological network analysis tools to further focus on the key metabolic pathways and explore the potential targets of the antidepressant effect of Chaigui granules. The results showed that there were significant differences in the plasma levels of 20 metabolites in the model group compared with the control group (P < 0.05), Chaigui granules significantly regulated 12 metabolites including docosatrienoic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, chenodeoxycholic acid, cholic acid, L-glutamine, glycocholic acid, linoleyl carnitine, L-tyrosine, N-acetylvaline, palmitoylcarnitine, arachidonic acid. Further network analysis of the key metabolites regulated by Chaigui granules indicated that plasma arachidonic acid metabolism might be the core pathway for the antidepressant effect of Chaigui granules, with 10 proteins were potential targets for the antidepressant effect of Chaigui granules, including CYP2B6, CYP2E1, CYP2C9, CYP2C8, PLA2G6, PTGS2, ALOX15B, PTGS1, ALOX12 and ALOX5. The animal experimental operations involved in this paper was followed the regulations of the Animal Ethics Committee of Shanxi University and passed the animal experimental ethical review (Approval No. SXULL2020028).

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1411-1419, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924756

ABSTRACT

Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) based metabolomics was applied to characterize the fecal metabolic profiles of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-depression (CUMS-D) and CUMS-resilience (CUMS-R) rats. The fecal biomarkers and metabolic pathways involved in CUMS-D and CUMS-R were screened and identified, revealing the underlying mechanisms of two different responses of the body to the same stresses. Firstly, the classic depression model, i.e. CUMS, was constructed. According to the fecal metabolomics profiles, the model rats were divided into two groups, i.e. the CUMS-D group and the CUMS-R group. And then, the depression statuses of CUMS-D rats and CUMS-R rats were verified by their sucrose preference rates. Lastly, multivariate data analysis was applied to clarify the fecal biomarkers and corresponding metabolic pathways involving in CUMS-D and CUMS-R. The results show that compared with the control rats, the sucrose preference rates of CUMS-D rats were significantly reduced. By contrast, the sucrose preference rates of CUMS-R rats had no significant difference. At the same time, CUMS-D and CUMS-R showed both unique and shared biomarkers and pathways. Three pathways are significantly related to CUMS-D, including taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism. Glycerolipid metabolism and tryptophan metabolism are specific pathways related to CUMS-R. This study explores the mechanisms of the emergence of susceptible and resilience of rats under the same stimulus from a metabolomics perspective. The current findings provide not only a new perspective for studying depression, and personalized and precision treatments in clinic, but also the research and development of antidepressants.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1452-1458, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924743

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of isorhyncophylline on hippocampal endogenous metabolites in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) by 1H NMR metabolomics and molecular docking. Twelve SHR were randomly divided into a model group and a treatment group. Six Wistar-Kyoto rats were selected as a control group. The rats in the treatment group were administered isorhyncophylline (0.3 mg·kg-1) while the rats in the other two groups were treated with the same amount of sterilized saline solution. Animal experiment was authorized by the Ethics Committee of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (No. SDUTCM20210721002). Hippocampal tissues were removed after administration for 8 weeks and assayed by 1H NMR based metabolomics technology combined with a pattern recognition method to find characteristic metabolites, and the metabolic targets were retrieved from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. Molecular docking technology was used to evaluate binding of isorhyncophylline to the core targets. The results of a principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed a clear cluster of samples among three groups. There were seven differentially altered metabolites, and glucose metabolism and glutamate metabolism were the principal related pathways. Molecular docking indicated that isorhyncophylline had good binding properties with nine key candidate target proteins. According to the above research results, isorhyncophylline can influence energy metabolism and glutamate metabolism in the hippocampus.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923021

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the reversal effect of Shenfu decoction(SFD)on adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy and explore its mechanism by using serum metabolomic technology. Methods The BALB/c mouse model of cardiomyopathy induced by adriamycin was established. The corresponding intervention was given. The serum lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)and creatine phosphatase isoenzyme MB(CK-MB)were measured. The ejection fraction (EF) and shortening fraction (FS) were measured by echocardiography. Mouse serum was collected for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The data obtained was analyzed by multivariate and univariate statistical analysis to compare the changes of endogenous metabolites in the serum of mice in the normal group, model group and Shenfu decoction treatment group, to find the potential biomarkers of Shenfu decoction to reverse the adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy. Metabolic pathway analysis was used to explore the targeted metabolic pathway of Shenfu decoction. Results The levels of serum LDH and CK-MB in the model group were increased significantly, and the values of EF and FS decreased significantly, indicating that the model was successfully established. The above indicators were significantly improved after treatment with Shenfu decoction. 13 potential biomarkers of adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy were identified by metabonomic analysis, and Shenfu decoction had significant reversal effect on 11 metabolites. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that the synthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan, arachidonic acid metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle and dicarboxylic acid metabolism were the main targeted metabolic pathways of Shenfu decoction. Conclusion Shenfu decoction can reverse adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy by regulating the unbalanced synthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan, as well as the metabolism of arachidonic acid, phenylalanine, dicarboxylic acid and tricarboxylic acid cycle.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 419-427, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922924

ABSTRACT

GC-MS metabolomics was used to investigate the effects of fudosteine on lung cancer A549 cells in an inflammatory microenvironment. Eleven metabolites (malic acid, isoleucine, lactose, galactinol, creatinine, gluconic acid, oleic acid, phosphate, S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, uridine and tagatose) were identified in the metabolomics results and could be used as biomarkers of fudosteine treatment. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the metabolic pathways of amino acids including isoleucine, valine, leucine, glycine, serine and threonine were significantly altered, as were the metabolic pathways of carbohydrates such as galactose and pentose phosphate. Fudosteine significantly reduced the level of inflammatory factors in A549 cells and corrected the inflammatory microenvironment by interfering with the effects of amino acid metabolites and amino acid metabolism pathways. This study reveals that fudosteine may be able to inhibit the continuous inflammatory response and prevent the further progression of lung cancer by suppressing the inflammatory microenvironment.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 793-801, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922901

ABSTRACT

Multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) can simulate the structure and metabolic characteristics of tumors in vivo, which is of great significance to study the metabolic phenotype of tumor cells and the mechanism of drug intervention. In this study, esophageal cancer MCTS were constructed, and MCTS frozen sections were prepared after treated with different formulations of paclitaxel (PTX) including common PTX injection, PTX liposome and albumin bound PTX. MCTS mass spectrometry imaging analysis method was established by using air flow assisted desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AFADESI-MSI). The visualization of the permeation and enrichment process of PTX in MCTs after PTX treatment was realized, and the spatially resolved metabolomics of PTX injection group was studied. The results showed that the permeation and enrichment behavior of PTX in MCTs model were related to the formulations. The changes of endogenous metabolites in MCTs of esophageal cancer after treated with PTX injection had temporal and spatial characteristics. The metabolic changes of MCTS during the initial 0-4 hours were dominated by the down-regulation of middle-high polarity metabolites and some lipids in the central region of MCTS, while the metabolic changes of MCTS during 8-72 hours were mainly up-regulated by lipid metabolites in the peripheral region of MCTS. The combination of in vivo tumor-associated MCTs model with label free, highly sensitive and high coverage mass spectrometry imaging technology provided a new method and strategy for the study of pharmacometabolomics.

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 783-792, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922891

ABSTRACT

Molecular mass distribution of Astragalus polysaccharides is wide. Astragalus polysaccharides prepared by conventional water extraction and alcohol precipitation are mostly mixture of macromolecules. Although studies have shown that Astragalus polysaccharides have two-sided immunomodulation, the relationship between anti-inflammatory components and molecular mass distribution of Astragalus polysaccharides is not clear. Therefore, Astragalus polysaccharides were extracted by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. The relative molecular weight of them was determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). Astragalus polysaccharides with different molecular weights were separated and prepared by membrane separation. RAW 264.7 cells were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to establish an inflammatory cell model in vitro and the anti-inflammatory polysaccharide were screened. The anti-inflammatory regulation mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharides was analyzed by the LC-MS/MS metabonomics technology. The results showed that APS was composed of APS-Ⅰ ( > 2 000 kDa) and APS-Ⅱ (10 kDa). APS-Ⅰ was composed of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, arabinose and the molar ratios of these monosaccharide of APS-I were 0.54∶0.26∶12.24∶17.24∶8.46∶1. APS-II was composed of rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, arabinose and the molar ratios of these monosaccharide of APS-II were 0.26∶0.14∶24.04∶0.62∶1. APS-Ⅰ and APS-Ⅱ had no cell toxicity to RAW 264.7 macrophage in the range of 0-100 μg·mL-1. Compared with the model group, APS-I at a concentration of 0-100 μg·mL-1could significantly inhibit the secretion of NO and TNF-α by RAW 264.7, and can significantly promote the secretion of IL-10. APS-I had better anti-inflammatory activity than APS-II in vitro. The metabolomics results showed that 32 different metabolites were found between the model group and blank group; APS-I group can significantly callback 18 different metabolites; mainly related to arginine biosynthesis, arginine and proline metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, citric acid cycle (TCA cycle), cysteine and methionine acid metabolism, tryptophan metabolism. This study found that APS-I had better anti-inflammatory activity than APS-II in vitro, and its mechanism may be closely related to amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism, which indicated the direction for further clarifying the pharmacodynamic material basis of Astragalus polysaccharides.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Numerous studies have demonstrated the close relationship between chronic stress and blood pressure (BP). Hypertensive subjects exhibit exaggerated reactions to stress, especially higher BP. The mechanisms by which stress affects pre-existing hypertension still need to be explored. Danzhi Xiaoyao Powder (DP), a historical traditional Chinese medicine formula, is a promising treatment for BP control in hypertensive patients under stress. The present study investigated the metabolomic disruption caused by chronic stress and the treatment effect and mechanism of DP.@*METHODS@#Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were subjected to chronic restraint stress (CRS) for 4 weeks. BP was measured via the tail-cuff method, and anxiety-like behavior was quantified using the elevated-plus-maze test. Meanwhile, DP was administered intragastrically, and its effects were observed. Global metabolomic analysis was performed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, followed by multivariate statistical analysis to detect differential metabolites and pathways.@*RESULTS@#DP alleviated the CRS-induced increase in BP and anxiety-like behavior. Systematic metabolic differences were found among the three study groups. A total of 29 differential plasma metabolites were identified in both positive- and negative-ion modes. These metabolites were involved in triglyceride metabolism, amino acid (phenylalanine, tryptophan, and glycine) metabolism, and steroid hormone pathways.@*CONCLUSION@#These findings expose the metabolomic disturbances induced by chronic stress in SHRs and suggest an innovative treatment for this disorder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Powders , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR
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