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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904740

ABSTRACT

@#Periodontitis is a common oral disease that represents one of the main causes of tooth loss in adults. In recent years, the application of nanotechnology has provided a new drug delivery system and innovative therapy for the treatment of periodontitis and opens up new prospects for the regeneration of periodontal tissue. The nanoparticle drug delivery system is composed of degradable carrier materials and drugs. Compared with the traditional film, namely, the fragment and strip-shaped periodontal local drug delivery system, the nanoparticle drug delivery system has the characteristics of biopharmaceuticals and pharmacokinetics. Moreover, it has special advantages, including controlled release of drugs, long-term maintenance of drug concentration, biodegradability and biocompatibility, etc. Antibiotics, protein drugs, such as growth factors, and nucleic acids used for gene delivery or mRNA knockout can be absorbed or dissolved in nanoparticles. Liposomes and polymer nanoparticle delivery systems can target bacteria and specific host cells. Inorganic nanoparticles and nanocrystals have good antibacterial activity that can promote periodontal tissue regeneration and play an important role in bone regeneration and bone repair. Dendrimers have internal hydrophobic and external hydrophilic structures and are good drug carriers for periodontitis.

2.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 253-257, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920762

ABSTRACT

Abstract@#As the largest human microecosystem, intestinal microorganisms participate in human material and energy metabolisms and pose a significant impact on human health. Diabetes mellitus is likely to cause imbalance of abundance and component alterations in intestinal microorganisms, and reduce the diversity and balance, leading to intestinal microflora dysregulation. It has been shown that intestinal microflora dysregulation may promote diabetes development and progression through the reduction of intestinal microbial metabolites, inflammatory reaction and insulin resistance. This review summarizes the involvement of intestinal microorganisms in the pathogenesis of diabetes through metabolites including short-chain fatty acid, bile acid and lipopolysaccharide, and describes the current status of intestinal microorganisms-mediated treatments for diabetes, so as to provide the theoretical basis for the researches on diabetes and intestinal microorganisms.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942333

ABSTRACT

Continuous cropping obstacle is the bottleneck of medicinal plant cultivation, which seriously affects the quality and yield of medicinal materials. The research on the mechanism of continuous cropping obstacle has evolved from soil physical and chemical properties and allelopathy in the 1970s to the changes of rhizosphere microenvironment and plant response mechanism at present. According to the available studies in this field and our previous research work, we systematically analyzed the mechanism of rhizosphere exudate-mediated microbial community reconstruction in the soil of the medicinal plants in continuous cropping. Specifically, rhizosphere exudates, providing the carbon source and energy for microbial growth, act as inducers or repellents to induce microbial growth or transfer, thereby changing the physicochemical properties (such as acidity) of rhizosphere soil and further altering the structure of rhizosphere microbial community. Further, we comprehensively discussed the ways of synergism between rhizosphere exudates and soil microorganisms in causing harm to the medicinal plants in continuous cropping. That is, rhizosphere exudates mediate the infection of the rhizosphere by pathogenic microorganisms, increase the susceptibility of the nearby plants, inhibit the defense of the host plants, and protect the pathogens to occupy the dominant niche. The synergistic interaction results in the release of more pathogenic factors such as mycotoxins by rhizosphere pathogens, enhanced toxicity of rhizosphere allelochemicals, and deterioration of soil physical and chemical properties. This paper summarizes the role of interaction between rhizosphere exudates and soil microorganisms in the formation of continuous cropping obstacles, aiming to provide a new research idea for revealing the formation mechanism as well as the theoretical support for overcoming continuous cropping obstacles of medicinal plants.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940394

ABSTRACT

The theoretical origin of the combined therapy of lung and intestine can be traced back to the Inner Canon of Huangdi (《黄帝内经》), which explains the physiological and pathological interaction between the lung and the large intestine. In recent years, researchers have investigated the scientific essence of the "lung-intestine axis" theory from many aspects, which enriches the relevant theoretical basis, and applied it to the treatment of COVID-19, acute lung injury, and other lung diseases. The close relation between lung and intestine in many aspects embodies the holistic conception of traditional Chinese medicine and explains the holistic theory of interrelation between organs, which correlate to each other physiologically and pathologically. Intestinal microecological disorders can affect lung immune function and cause respiratory diseases, and respiratory diseases are usually accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms. Lung diseases can be prevented and treated by regulating intestinal flora. According to histoembryology, the epithelial tissue of the lung and intestine comes from primitive foregut. In immunology, both lung and intestine contain mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, and the pathological changes of the respiratory tract are also closely related to intestinal microorganisms. The tissue origin of lung and large intestine, the correlation of mucosal immunity, and the synchronization of ecological changes provide a scientific basis for the combined therapy of lung and intestine. Therefore, this paper summarizes the theoretical origin, modern research mechanism, and clinical application of combined therapy of lung and intestine, in order to provide a new direction for its application in clinical and scientific research.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930238

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the etiological diagnostic value of metagenomic sequencing in central nervous system (CNS) infectious diseases.Methods:A total of 170 patients with central nervous system infection admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2018 to June 2020 were selected as the study subjects according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. General clinical data and pathogen test results were collected. All included patients underwent routine examination and mNGS test, and were divided into the conventional method test group and mNGS test group according to the test results. The measurement data conforming to normal distribution were represented by ± s; The measurement data that did not conform to normal distribution were represented by median and interquartile range. The classification data were expressed by the number of cases and percentage( n,%), and were compared by χ2 test or Fisher's exact test. Consistency test was represented by Kappa value. The detection of pathogenic microorganisms by the two methods and the rule of pathogen spectrum were compared and analyzed. Results:The overall positive rate of mNGS in CNS infectious diseases was higher than that of conventional methods (58.23% vs. 18.82%), and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.01). Among the 20 samples which were both positive by the two methods, 10 cases were completely pathogenic, 5 cases were partially consistent and 5 cases were completely inconsistent. In the detection of tuberculous nervous system infection, the positive rates were 66.7%, 53.8%, 44.0%, 40.0%, 4.0% in blood T-SPOT, cerebrospinal fluid mNGS, ADA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA and tuberculous specific antibody, respectively. The positive rate of acid-fast staining was 0. The positive rate of mNGS combined with conventional method was 80.8%. Conclusions:The detection rate of mNGS in CNS infection is better than that of conventional methods. However, it does not show obvious superiority in the detection rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis associated nervous system infection. In general, mNGS detection of pathogenic bacteria is more extensive, which is conducive to a thorough and comprehensive understanding of the bacterial characteristics of central nervous system infection. The combination of the two methods can make up for the deficiency of clinical routine detection to a certain extent, and can maximize the detection rate.

6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1874-1888, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927824

ABSTRACT

Landfill is one of the important sources of carbon tetrachloride (CT) pollution, and it is important to understand the degradation mechanism of CT in landfill cover for better control. In this study, a simulated landfill cover system was set up, and the biotransformation mechanism of CT and the associated micro-ecology were investigated. The results showed that three stable functional zones along the depth, i.e., aerobic zone (0-15 cm), anoxic zone (15-45 cm) and anaerobic zone (> 45 cm), were generated because of long-term biological oxidation in landfill cover. There were significant differences in redox condition and microbial community structure in each zone, which provided microbial resources and favorable conditions for CT degradation. The results of biodegradation indicated that dechlorination of CT produced chloroform (CF), dichloromethane (DCM) and Cl- in anaerobic and anoxic zones. The highest concentration of dechlorination products occurred at 30 cm, which were degraded rapidly in aerobic zone. In addition, CT degradation rate was 13.2-103.6 μg/(m2·d), which decreased with the increase of landfill gas flux. The analysis of diversity sequencing revealed that Mesorhizobium, Thiobacillus and Intrasporangium were potential CT-degraders in aerobic, anaerobic and anoxic zone, respectively. Moreover, six species of dechlorination bacteria and eighteen species of methanotrophs were also responsible for anaerobic transformation of CT and aerobic degradation of CF and DCM, respectively. Interestingly, anaerobic dechlorination and aerobic transformation occurred simultaneously in the anoxic zone in landfill cover. Furthermore, analysis of degradation mechanism suggested that generation of stable anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic zone by regulation was very important for the harmless removal of full halogenated hydrocarbon in vadose zone, and the increase of anoxic zone scale enhanced their removal. These results provide theoretical guidance for the removal of chlorinated pollutants in landfills.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Carbon Tetrachloride/metabolism , Methane/metabolism , Waste Disposal Facilities
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 427-442, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927720

ABSTRACT

Monoterpenoids that belong to the terpenoids family are usually volatile and have strong aroma. Some monoterpenoids also have antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities, which make them important raw materials for medicine, food and cosmetics industry. In recent years, the heterologous synthesis of monoterpenoids by microorganisms has attracted extensive attention. However, its large-scale application is greatly hampered by the low yield and high production cost. Nowadays, the rapid development of synthetic biology provides new approaches for enhancing the production of monoterpenoids by microorganisms. Different kinds of recombinant strains can be obtained via engineering of microbial cells to produce a variety of monoterpenoids with different properties. This paper summarized the latest strategies and progress in the application of synthetic biology to produce monoterpenoids by microorganisms, including the design and modification of biosynthetic pathway, as well as the design and optimization of high-yield monoterpenoids producing chassis cells.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways , Metabolic Engineering , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Synthetic Biology , Terpenes
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929037

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is an intracellular degradation process that maintains cellular homeostasis. It is essential for protecting organisms from environmental stress. Autophagy can help the host to eliminate invading pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. However, pathogens have evolved multiple strategies to interfere with autophagic signaling pathways or inhibit the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes to form autolysosomes. Moreover, host cell matrix degradation by different types of autophagy can be used for the proliferation and reproduction of pathogens. Thus, determining the roles and mechanisms of autophagy during pathogen infections will promote understanding of the mechanisms of pathogen‍‒‍host interactions and provide new strategies for the treatment of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Bacteria , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Lysosomes , Signal Transduction
9.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367803

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Estimar la contaminación microbiológica e identificar sus factores asociados en leche materna dentro del BLH de un Hospital en Perú. El estudio. Diseño transversal, donde se realizó evaluación física, química y microbiológica a muestras de leche materna. Hallazgos. Evaluamos 187 muestras de leche donadas por madres La acidez Dornic y crematocrito promedio fue de 5,2±1,6 y 2,7±0,9%, y la contaminación microbiológica representó el 3,7% del total de muestras evaluadas, aislándose Acynetobacter iwoffi, Moraxela lacunata, Pseudomona aeruginosa y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa. Se evidenció que el pH de la leche fue la única variable asociada a contaminación microbiológica (OR: 3.7 IC95: 1.5-8.8). Conclusión. El incremento de pH es un factor asociado a contaminación microbiológica en muestras de leche donadas en el BLH de un Hospital en Perú, por lo que es recomendable reevaluar los criterios de aceptabilidad del rango de pH de la leche materna donada.


Objetive: Estimate microbiological contamination and identify its associated factors in breast milk within the BLH of a Hospital in Peru. The study. Cross-sectional design, where a physical, chemical and microbiological evaluation was carried out on samples of breast milk. Findings. We evaluated 187 milk samples donated by mothers. The average Dornic acidity and crematocrit were 5.2 ± 1.6 and 2.7 ± 0.9%, and the microbiological contamination represented 3.7% of the total samples evaluated, isolating Acynetobacter iwoffi, Moraxela lacunata, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Staphylococcus negative coagulase. It was evidenced that the pH of the milk was the only variable associated with microbiological contamination (OR: 3.7 IC95: 1.5-8.8). Conclusion. The increase in pH is a factor associated with microbiological contamination in donated milk samples at the BLH of a Hospital in Peru, so it is advisable to re-evaluate the acceptability criteria of the pH range of donated breast milk.

10.
Medisan ; 25(2)mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1250341

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La neumonía asociada a la ventilación mecánica es una infección, que se relaciona con los cuidados sanitarios. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente a niños y adolescentes con neumonía asociada a la ventilación mecánica, según variables seleccionadas. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 36 pacientes con neumonía asociada a la ventilación mecánica, ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital Infantil Norte Dr. Juan de la Cruz Martínez Maceira de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero del 2017 hasta diciembre del 2018. Resultados: Se halló un predominio de los pacientes menores de 5 años de edad (80,6 %), del sexo masculino (66,7 %), la ventilación mecánica prolongada (69,4 %) y las neumonías asociadas a la ventilación de aparición tardía relacionadas con la mortalidad. Los microorganismos más frecuentes resultaron ser los gramnegativos. La combinación de cefalosporinas y vancomicina fue la más utilizada. Conclusiones: La evolución de los pacientes dependió del tiempo de inicio, el microorganismo predominante y el tratamiento antimicrobiano empleado.


Introduction: The pneumonia associated with the mechanical ventilation is an infection that is related to the sanitary cares. Objective: To characterize clinical and epidemiologically children and adolescents with pneumonia associated with the mechanical ventilation, according to selected variables. Method: A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 36 patients with pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation admitted in the Intensive Cares Unit of Dr. Juan de la Cruz Martínez Maceira Northern Children Hospital; was carried out in Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2017 to December, 2018. Results: There was a prevalence of the patients under 5 years (80.6 %), the male sex (66.7 %), the long lasting mechanical ventilation (69.4 %) and pneumonias associated with the ventilation of late appearance related to mortality. The most frequent microorganisms were the Gram negative. The combination of cephalosporins and vancomycin were the most used. Conclusions: The clinical course of the patients depended on the time of beginning, the predominant microorganism and the antimicrobial treatment used.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/therapy , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Child, Preschool , Adolescent
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912494

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EV) are lipid bilayer vesicles with a diameter of 30-1000 nm secreted by cells or microorganisms, which are abundant in proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and other biological information molecules. Therefore, EV can be used as a carrier, transferring materials between cells. At present, in infectious diseases, EV derived from pathogenic microorganisms could be considered as a double-edged sword, which means it can not only play a negative role in the host′s infection immunity, bacteria′s pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance transmission, but also manifest the advantages in clinical diagnosis and treatment.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877085

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of food poisoning in Shenzhen from 2009 to 2018, and to provide a scientific basis for formulating control strategies of food poisoning. Methods The data of food poisoning events in Shenzhen from 2009 to 2018 was analyzed with descriptive epidemiological methods. Results There were 182 reported food poisoning events, resulting in 1786 cases and 3 death. The incidence of food poisoning events had a seasonal peak during May to September, and a total of 119 reported food poisoning events (65.39%, 119/182) occurred in that period of time with 1156 cases (64.73%, 1156/1786). There were 77 food poisoning events (42.31%) occurring in collective canteens with 927 cases (51.91%), making them the most frequent locations for food poisoning. The main pathogenic factors were bacteria, poisonous plants and chemicals. Incidents of bacterial food poisoning were mainly caused by Vibro parahemolyticus (51.73%, 60/116), Salmonella (26.73%, 30/116), and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin (11.21%, 13/116), etc. Hyacinth bean toxin and mushroom were responsible for 33.33% of the incidents caused by poisonous plants. Incidents of chemical food poisoning were mainly caused by nitrite (8.33%). Conclusion The prevention and control of food poisoning in Shenzhen should be focused on reducing bacterial food poisoning such as Salmonella and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and supervision of food safety of catering units and collective canteens should be strengthened. Additionally, health education on prevention and control of food poisoning should be targeted at the high-risk population to reduce the risk of food poisoning.

13.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 314-319, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872683

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To study the improvement effect of Shenling baizhu p owder on irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea(IBS-D)model mice with anxiety ,and to elucidate its mechanism from the point of view of intestinal microecology. METHODS:C57 BL/6 mice were randomly divided into blank control group ,model group ,Shenling baizhu powder group (3.6 g/kg),with 8 mice in each group. Except for blank control group ,IBS-D model with anxiety was established in model group and Shenling baizhu powder group by giving corticosterone subcutaneously combined with intragastric administration of Folium Sennae decoction and chronic restraint treatment. After modeling , blank control group and model group were given intragastric administration of normal saline ,and Shenling baizhu powder group was given relevant medicine intragastrically ,for consecutive 4 weeks. After last medication ,loose stools rate ,diarrhea index ,body weight ,sugar water preference percentage ,the times of crosssing open field center area and minimum pain threshold as well as the levels of BDNF in hippocampal tissue and 5-HT in serum were detected in each group. The cecal contents of mice in each group were extracted for microbial DNA extraction and sequencing; the abundance and diversity of intestinal microorganisms were analyzed by Alpha and Beta diversity analysis. RESULTS : Compared with blank control group ,body weight ,sugar water preference percentage ,the times of crossing open field center area and minimum pain threshold as well as the levels of BDNF in hippocampal tissue ,relative abundance of Firmicutes phylum microorganism in intestine , relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group genus microorganism were decreased significantly (P<0.05);loose stools rate,diarrhea index ,serum level of 5-HT,relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia phylum microorganism and relative abundance of Ackermann phylum microorganism were increased significantly (P<0.05),and there were great differences in the types of intestinal microorganisms. Compared with model group ,body weight ,sugar water preference percentage ,the times of crossing open field center area ,minimum pain threshold ,BDNF level of hippocampus ,relative abundance of Firmicutes phylum microorganism,relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group genus microorganism were increased significantly (P< 0.05 or P<0.01);loose stools rate ,diarrhea index ,serum level of 5-HT,relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia phylum microorganism and relative abundance of Ackermann phylum microorganism were decreased significantly (P<0.05),and and there were great differences in the types of intestinal microorganisms. CONCLUSION :Shenling baizhu powder can improve the diarrhea and anxiety behavior of IBS-D model mice with anxiety ,increase the level of BDNF in hippocampus and decrease serum level of 5-HT. Its mechanism may be related to decreasing relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia phylum microorganism and Ackermann phylum microorganism ,increasing the relative abundance of Firmicutes phylum and Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group genus microorganism.

14.
International Eye Science ; (12): 2090-2095, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904680

ABSTRACT

@#In recent years, metagenomics(MGS)is the fastest growing fields in microbiology, and has been broadly applied in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms. Comparing with the traditional poly merase chain reaction(PCR)-based detecting technology which relies on microbial culture, MGS can directly detect the sequences of the total microbial DNA from uncultured samples with the high-throughput sequencing platform. It can help the doctors identify the involved pathogens more quickly and provide better medication guidance. Among the known ophthalmic diseases, a lot of them are caused by the infection of pathogens and have many difficulties in clinical diagnosis and treatment. The development of metagenomics provides us a more effective and reliable way for detecting the pathogens of ophthalmic diseases. This article was aimed to review the development of MGS, applications and in the field of ophthalmology, as well as its current deficiencies and the possible development directions in the future.

15.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 692-2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904552

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of liver transplantation on intestinal microflora in children with biliary atresia. Methods The fecal samples and liver function indexes of 16 children with biliary atresia before and 6 months after liver transplantation were collected, and 10 healthy children were selected as the healthy controls. DNA extraction and metagenome sequencing were carried out in the fecal samples. Statistical analysis was performed by software packages, such as R language. The changes of species structure and functional composition of intestinal microflora after liver transplantation were analyzed. The recovery of intestinal microflora in children with biliary atresia after liver transplantation was assessed. The relationship between intestinal microflora and liver function indexes was investigated. Results Following liver transplantation, the number of species of intestinal microflora in children with biliary atresia was increased. The opportunistic pathogens were the dominant species of intestinal microflora in children with biliary atresia before liver transplantation. The abundance of opportunistic pathogens was decreased and the abundance of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria was increased after liver transplantation (all P < 0.05). Following liver transplantation, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins were enhanced, whereas infectious diseases of bacterial, immune diseases and drug resistance were weakened. Compared with the healthy control group, there were no statistically significant differences in the diversity and structure of intestinal microflora in the post-liver transplant group, but different species were observed between two groups. The liver function indexes of children with biliary atresia after liver transplantation tended to decline (all P < 0.000 1). The abundance of beneficial intestinal microflora was negatively correlated with liver function indexes, whereas the abundance of opportunistic pathogens was positively correlated with liver function indexes (all P < 0.05). Conclusions Liver transplantation may significantly improve the structure and functional composition of intestinal microflora in children with biliary atresia.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887762

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to compare and analyze the consistency and difference between metageno-mic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and conventional bacterial culture in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms in maxillofacial space infection, as well as to provide a new detection method for the early clinical identification of pathogenic bacteria in maxillofacial space infection.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 16 patients with oral and maxillofacial space infections in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from March 2020 to June 2020 were collected. mNGS and conventional bacterial culture methods were used to detect pus. We then analyzed and compared the test results of the two methods, including the test cycle, positive detection rate, anaerobic bacteria, facultative anaerobes and aerobic bacteria detection rates, distribution of pathogenic bacteria, relative species abundance, and resistance genes.@*RESULTS@#The average inspection period of mNGS was (18.81±3.73) h, and the average inspection period of bacterial culture was (83.25±11.64) h, the former was shorter than the latter (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with conventional bacterial culture, mNGS has the characteristics of short test time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy. Thus, it is a new detection method for the early identification of pathogenic bacteria in maxillofacial space infection and is beneficial to the early clinical diagnosis and treatment of the disease.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Metagenomics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Technology
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1032-1041, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878612

ABSTRACT

The development of high-efficiency, low-toxicity, and low-residue green pesticides is the main trend of pesticide research, and the microbial-derived antibiotics are one of the essential parts of green pesticides and play a significant role in agriculture. With the development of microbial genomics technology, metabolic engineering, high-throughput screening and other technologies, the research on new microbial-derived antibiotics has entered a new stage in agriculture. Here we briefly summarize the types of new microbial-derived antibiotics developed in agriculture over the past decade. We also introduce the research strategies for high-yield breeding and fermentation of antibiotic-producing strains in agriculture. This review may provide references for the future development of agricultural antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pesticides
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 874-910, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878602

ABSTRACT

The development and implement of microbial chassis cells can provide excellent cell factories for diverse industrial applications, which help achieve the goal of environmental protection and sustainable bioeconomy. The synthetic biology strategy of Design-Build-Test-Learn (DBTL) plays a crucial role on rational and/or semi-rational construction or modification of chassis cells to achieve the goals of "Building to Understand" and "Building for Applications". In this review, we briefly comment on the technical development of the DBTL cycle and the research progress of a few model microorganisms. We mainly focuse on non-model bacterial cell factories with potential industrial applications, which possess unique physiological and biochemical characteristics, capabilities of utilizing one-carbon compounds or of producing platform compounds efficiently. We also propose strategies for the efficient and effective construction and application of synthetic microbial cell factories securely in the synthetic biology era, which are to discover and integrate the advantages of model and non-model industrial microorganisms, to develop and deploy intelligent automated equipment for cost-effective high-throughput screening and characterization of chassis cells as well as big-data platforms for storing, retrieving, analyzing, simulating, integrating, and visualizing omics datasets at both molecular and phenotypic levels, so that we can build both high-quality digital cell models and optimized chassis cells to guide the rational design and construction of microbial cell factories for diverse industrial applications.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , Metabolic Engineering , Synthetic Biology
19.
Med. lab ; 25(2): 513-524, 2021. tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1337586

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud son un efecto adverso frecuente. Los neonatos son un grupo poblacional afectado debido a su inmadurez inmunitaria. La Organización Mundial de la Salud estima que estas infecciones varían entre 5% a 25% en función del nivel de ingresos de cada país. En Colombia se evidencia un subregistro para estas infecciones, particularmente en los neonatos. Este estudio buscó identificar los factores de riesgo, microorganismos más comunes, y las vías de transmisión y colonización relacionadas a las infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud en neonatos, según lo reportado en la literatura mundial. Metodología. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática por duplicado, que incluyó pesquisa de artículos, primera lectura y exclusión de duplicados, conciliación entre autores y evaluación de la calidad, en la base de datos PubMed, con artículos publicados entre los años 2014 a 2019. Resultados. El nivel de evidencia y el grado de recomendación fue bueno en general (niveles 1 y 2, recomendación A y B). Los factores de riesgo más comunes fueron la prematuridad y el bajo peso al nacer, el uso de catéter venoso central, ventilación mecánica, estancia hospitalaria prolongada y el uso de antibióticos por largo tiempo. Se reportaron microorganismos de importancia como Staphylococcus coagulasa negativos y Serratia marcenscens, y vías de transmisión y colonización comunes como el torrente sanguíneo, la vía respiratoria, la gastrointestinal y la piel. Conclusión. Las infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud son más frecuentes de lo estimado y se pueden prevenir con la adopción de políticas sanitarias, como son un correcto lavado de manos, la desinfección del ambiente y equipos médicos, un adecuado cuidado de la piel del neonato y protocolos de aislamiento para pacientes con estas infecciones


Introduction. Health care-associated infections are a frequent adverse effect. Neonates are an affected population group due to their immune immaturity. The World Health Organization estimates that these infections vary between 5% to 25% depending on the income level of each country. In Colombia these infections are underreported, particularly in neonates. The aim of this review was to identify the risk factors, the most common microorganisms, and the routes of transmission for these type of infections in neonates, as reported in the world literature. Methodology. A systematic duplicate search was carried out in PubMed, with articles published between 2014 to 2019, which included a search for articles, reading and exclusion of duplicates, reconciliation between authors, and quality assessment. Results. The level of evidence and the grade of recommendation was optimal in general (levels 1 and 2, recommendation A and B). The most common risk factors were prematurity and low birth weight, the use of central venous catheter, mechanical ventilation, prolonged hospital stay, and long-term use of antibiotics. Microorganisms such as coagulase negative Staphylococcus and Serratia marcenscens were reported, and common routes of transmission such as the bloodstream, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and skin were described. Conclusion. Health care-associated infections are more frequent than estimated, and can be prevented with the adoption of health policies, such as proper hand washing, disinfection of environmental surfaces and medical equipment, an adequate skin care of the neonate, and isolation protocols for patients with these infections


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Infant, Newborn , Risk Factors , Disease Transmission, Infectious
20.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 22(2): 18-23, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156284

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La planta Lippia origanoides ha sido ampliamente estudiada debido al efecto antimicrobiano y antifúngico que poseen sus extractos y aceites esenciales, los cuales han sido probados contra un gran número de microorganismos patógenos. Sin embargo, es escasa la literatura que registra la diversidad de bacterias endófitas asociadas a esta especie de plantas. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar in vitro la capacidad de promoción de crecimiento vegetal de bacterias endófitas de Lippia origanoides en el municipio de Sincelejo -Sucre, Colombia. En este estudio se aislaron bacterias endófitas en medio de cultivo agar R2A a partir de diferentes tejidos, se evaluó la densidad poblacional (UFC/g de tejido) por conteo en superficie y la promoción de crecimiento vegetal de forma cualitativa en medios selectivos específicos. Se observaron diferencias significativas para la densidad poblacional de bacterias endófitas respecto al tipo de tejido, con mayores valores en la raíz (2,0 x 1010/g raíz), seguido del tallo (1,3 x 1010/g tallo) y hojas (9,2 x 109/g hoja). Se obtuvieron un total de 20 bacterias endófitas, los cuales dos mostraron capacidad solubilizadora de fosfato, fijación biológica de nitrógeno, producción de sideróforos y ACC desaminasa. Los morfotipos TLO5 y RLO4 fueron identificados molecularmente como Bacillus cereus, mostrando buenos resultados de promoción de crecimiento vegetal.


ABSTRACT The Lippia origanoides plant has been widely studied due to the antimicrobial and antifungal effect of its extracts and essential oils, which have been tested against a large number of pathogenic microorganisms. However, there is little literature that records the diversity of endophytic bacteria associated with this plant species. The objective of the work was to evaluate in vitro the plant growth promotion capacity of endophytic Lippia origanoides bacteria in the municipality of Sincelejo-Sucre, Colombia. In this study, endophytic bacteria were isolated in R2A agar culture medium from different tissues, population density (CFU / g of tissue) was evaluated by surface counting and the promotion of plant growth qualitatively in specific selective media. Significant differences were observed for the population density of endophytic bacteria regarding tissue type, with higher values in the root (2.0 x 1010 / g root), followed by the stem (1.3 x 1010 / g stem) and leaves (9.2 x 109 / g sheet). A total of 20 endophytic bacteria were obtained, which two showed phosphate solubilizing capacity, biological nitrogen fixation, production of siderophores and ACC deaminase. The TLO5 and RLO4 morphotypes were molecularly identified as Bacillus cereus, showing good results in promoting plant growth.

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