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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257071, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364496

ABSTRACT

Abstract In advanced biotechnology, the utilization of enzymes to achieve new or modified compounds with antibacterial, fungicidal, and anti-cancer specifications is crucial. Mushroom lactases are a hopeful biocatalyst for the synthesis and modification of different compounds. They are an accessible and inexpensive enzyme for the preparation of reaction objects and have recently received attention. Laccase purification was performed from basidiomycete Lentinus strigosus (LS) in several stages: Stage 1. On ion-exchange chromatography on TEAE Servacell 23 (400 ml), two distinctly separated laccase activity peaks were observed, eluted from the carrier at 0.21 and 0.27 M NaCl. In order to reduce the loss of enzymes, all fractions with laccase activity were collected, concentrated, and desalted using an ultrafiltration cell (Amicon, United States) with a UM-10 membrane. Stage 2. The resulting preparation with laccase activity was applied to a Q-Sepharose column (60 ml). Two well-separated peaks with laccase activity were obtained during the elution: laccase I (0.12 M NaCl) and laccase II (0.2 M NaCl). Stage 3. In the course of further purification of both enzymes, carried out on anion-exchange carrier Resource Q (6 ml), a broken gradient was used: 0 - 10%, 10 - 20%, and 20 - 100% with 1M NaCl. Stage 4. Both laccase I and laccase II, obtained after Resource Q, were desalted, concentrated to 1 ml each, and applied to a Superdex 75 gel filtration column. As a result, two laccases were obtained in a homogeneous form.


Resumo Na biotecnologia moderna, o uso de enzimas para obter compostos novos ou modificados com propriedades antibacterianas, antifúngicas e anticancerígenas é crucial. Lactases de cogumelos são biocatalisadores promissores para síntese e modificação de diferentes compostos, por serem enzimas baratas e disponíveis para a preparação de componentes de reação, e vem recebendo a devida atenção recentemente. A purificação da lacase foi realizada a partir do basidiomiceto Lentinus strigosus em vários estágios: Etapa 1 - na cromatografia de troca iônica em TEAE Servacell 23 (400 ml), foram observados dois picos de atividade da lacase distintamente separados, com eluição do transportador a 0,21 e 0,27 M de NaCl. Para reduzir a perda de enzimas, todas as frações com atividade de lacase foram coletadas, concentradas e dessalinizadas em uma célula de ultrafiltração (Amicon, Estados Unidos) com membrana UM-10; Etapa 2 - a preparação resultante com atividade de lacase foi aplicada a uma coluna Q-Sepharose (60 ml). Durante a eluição, foram obtidos dois picos bem separados com atividade de lacase: lacase I (NaCl 0,12 M) e lacase II (NaCl 0,2 M); Etapa 3 - no decurso da purificação adicional de ambas as enzimas, realizada no Recurso Q de transportador de troca aniônica (6 ml), um gradiente quebrado foi usado: 0-10%, 10-20% e 20-100% com NaCl 1M; Etapa 4 - tanto a lacase I como a lacase II, obtidas após o Recurso Q, foram dessalinizadas e concentradas para 1 ml cada e aplicadas a uma coluna de filtração em gel Superdex 75. Como resultado, duas lacases foram obtidas de forma homogênea.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245585, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339413

ABSTRACT

Abstract Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Resumo Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados ​​para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S rRNA. Finalmente, os isolados foram identificados como B. cereus número de acesso LC538271 e K. pneumoniae número de acesso MT078679. A análise do extrato bacteriano S20 por meio de GC-MS indicou a presença de oito compostos de natureza e estrutura diversas. O presente estudo sugere que resíduos da indústria farmacêutica e de ração para aves podem conter bactérias produtoras de antibióticos. Essas bactérias podem ser utilizadas para a produção de antibióticos B. cereus e K. pneumoniae isolados de resíduos de rações de aves e indústrias farmacêuticas têm potencial para produzir antibióticos e podem ser usados ​​para controlar o crescimento microbiano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus aureus , Industrial Waste , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Plant Extracts , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e227703, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285590

ABSTRACT

Abstract A research was conducted to evaluate the impact of various nitrogen and phosphorus levels along with beneficial microbes to enhance canola productivity. The research was carried out at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar in winter 2016-2017. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block factorial design. The study was comprised of three factors including nitrogen (60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1), phosphorous (70, 100 and 130 kg ha-1) and beneficial microbes (with and without BM). A control treatment with no N, P and BM was also kept for comparison. Application of beneficial microbes significantly increased pods plant, seed pod, seed filling duration, 1000 seed weight, biological yield and seed yield as compared to control plots. Nitrogen applied at the rate of 180 kg ha-1 increased pods plant-1, seed pod, seed filling duration, seed weight, biological yield and seed yield. Maximum pods plant-1, seed pod, early seed filling, heavier seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, and harvest index were observed in plots treated with 130 kg.ha-1 phosphorous. As comparison, the combine treated plots have more pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed filling duration, heaviest seeds, biological yield, seed yield and harvest index as compared to control plots. It is concluded that application of beneficial microbes with N and P at the rate of 180 kg ha-1 and 130 kg ha-1, respectively, increased yield and its attributes for canola.


Resumo Uma pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar o impacto de vários níveis de nitrogênio e fósforo, juntamente com micróbios benéficos, para aumentar a produtividade da canola. A pesquisa foi realizada no inverno de 2016-17 no Agronomy Research Farm, Universidade de Agricultura do Peshawar. O experimento foi conduzido por planejamento fatorial aleatorizado em blocos. O estudo focou-se em três fatores, incluindo o teor de nitrogênio, N, (60, 120 e 180 kg.ha-1), o teor de fósforo, P, (70, 100 e 130 kg ha-1) e a presença de micróbios benéficos (com BM e sem BM). Para fins de comparação, um tratamento controle sem N, P e BM também foi incluído no estudo. A aplicação de micróbios benéficos aumentou significativamente as vagens das plantas e de sementes, a duração do enchimento das sementes, o peso de 1000 sementes, o rendimento biológico e o rendimento de sementes em comparação com os resultados do controle. O nitrogênio aplicado na taxa de 180 kg ha-1 aumentou as vagens por planta, vagem, duração do enchimento, peso da semente, rendimento biológico e rendimento de sementes. Vagens máximas por planta, vagem, enchimento precoce de sementes, peso maior de semente, rendimento biológico, rendimento de sementes e índice de colheita foram observados em parcelas tratadas com 130 kg.ha-1 de fósforo. Em comparação aos blocos cultivados de controle, os blocos cultivados tratados combinados têm mais vagens por planta e sementes por vagem, maior duração do enchimento das sementes, maior número de sementes mais pesadas e maior rendimento biológico, rendimento de sementes e índice de colheita. Conclui-se que a aplicação de micróbios benéficos junto com N e P nas doses de 180 kg ha-1 e 130 kg ha-1, respectivamente, aumentou a produtividade e atributos de produtividade para a canola.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus , Nitrogen , Seasons , Seeds , Agriculture
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1085-1093, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345255

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed at isolating and characterizing Salmonella spp. from chicken cuts marketed in Francisco Beltrão, PR, and verify the resistance profile of the isolates against antimicrobials used in human therapy. Samples of chicken cuts (n=40) were purchased from supermarkets and submitted to microbiological analysis for the detection of Salmonella spp. The suspected colonies underwent biochemical testing for the identification of enterobacteria. Four colonies were selected from each sample positive for Salmonella spp., totaling 28 isolates that were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity. Colonies that showed resistance to ceftriaxone were subjected to extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). Among the analyzed chicken samples, seven (17.5%) showed biochemical behavior characteristic of Salmonella spp. Among the 28 isolates, seventeen different resistance profiles were found, of which 46.42% (n=13) had a multi-resistance profile, and 21.4% (n=6) of the isolates had a phenotype for ESBL production. The strains of Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken cuts found in this study showed a high level of resistance to antimicrobials of different classes and of last generations, these data serve as a warning, as they put the human treatment of salmonellosis at risk.(AU)


A pesquisa objetivou isolar e caracterizar Salmonella spp., a partir de cortes de frangos comercializados na cidade de Francisco Beltrão - PR, bem como verificar o perfil de resistência dos isolados em relação aos antimicrobianos utilizados na terapêutica humana. Amostras de cortes de frango (n=40) foram adquiridas em supermercados e submetidas à análise microbiológica para detecção de Salmonella spp. As colônias suspeitas foram submetidas a provas bioquímicas para identificação de enterobactérias. Quatro colônias foram selecionadas de cada amostra positiva para Salmonella spp., totalizando 28 isolados, que foram testadas quanto à sensibilidade a antimicrobianos. As colônias que apresentaram resistência à ceftriaxona foram submetidas à pesquisa de betalactamases de espectro estendido (ESBL). Das amostras de frango analisadas, sete (17,5%) apresentaram comportamento bioquímico característico de Salmonella spp. Entre os 28 isolados, foram encontrados 17 perfis diferentes de resistência, tendo 46,42% (n=13) apresentado perfil de multirresistência e 21,4% (n=6) apresentado fenótipo para produção de ESBL. As cepas de Salmonella spp. isoladas de cortes de frango, encontradas neste estudo, apresentaram alto índice de resistência a antimicrobianos de diferentes classes e de últimas gerações. Esses dados servem de alerta, uma vez que coloca em risco o tratamento da salmonelose humana.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Products/microbiology , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Salmonella Infections, Animal , Chickens/microbiology
5.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(2): e1079, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280375

ABSTRACT

Una manera para lograr más efectividad en la decisión terapéutica en recién nacidos que cursan con infecciones, es tener conocimiento del microorganismo causal más común, según el tipo de infección por la cual cursa el paciente. Por ello el médico debe estar familiarizado con el mapa microbiológico de la institución donde trabaja y estar actualizado en el espectro de microorganismos habituales que informa la literatura, así como aquellos emergentes y reemergentes. Se revisa el estado actual de reportes de frecuencia de los microorganismos causales en recién nacidos con infecciones, tomados de la literatura médica nacional e internacional con el propósito de orientar al médico de asistencia del posible microorganismo causal más probable en base a la clínica del paciente y además, a tomar la clasificación de las infecciones como herramienta que aporta una guía de los agentes que afectan con más frecuencia al paciente recién nacido, y los factores de riesgo asociados. Se concluye que es factible y beneficioso este enfoque que le permite al médico asistencial ser más efectivo en la decisión del tratamiento a seguir. Es su deber estar familiarizado con el mapa microbiológico de la institución donde trabaja y estar actualizado en el espectro de microorganismos habituales que informa la literatura, así como aquellos emergentes y reemergentes(AU)


One way to achieve more effectiveness in therapeutic decisions related to newborns with infections is to be aware of the most common causal microorganism, depending on the type of infection the patient is suffering. Therefore, the physician should be familiar with the microbiological map of the institution where he/she works and be updated in the spectrum of common microorganisms reported by the literature, as well as those emerging and re-emerging. The current status of frequency reports of causal microorganisms in newborns with infections, taken from national and international literature, is reviewed to guide the assistance physician on the most likely possible causal microorganism based on the patient's clinic and also to use the classification of infections as a tool that provides guidance on the agents that most often affect the newborn patients, and associated risk factors. It is concluded that this approach that allows the assistance physician to be more effective in the decision of treatment to follow is feasible and beneficial. It is the physician's duty to be familiar with the microbiological map of the institution where he/she works and be updated on the spectrum of common microorganisms reported by the literature, as well as those emerging and re-emerging(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Therapeutics , Effectiveness , Risk Factors , Knowledge
6.
Rev. lasallista investig ; 18(1): 192-202, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365837

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: el agua apta para el consumo humano es aquella que no representa un riesgo para la salud del consumidor teniendo en cuenta sus características organolépticas, físicas, químicas y bacteriológicas, pero dicha calidad es afectada por vertimientos de actividades domésticos, industriales y económicas (Gamboa et al., 2015). Objetivo: este estudio se hizo con el fin de determinar la calidad microbiológica del río Toca, sector Tuaneca abajo y el Centro, Departamento de Boyacá, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: en la cuenca, se establecieron cuatro puntos de muestreo, M1, M2, M3 y M4, en cada punto se colectaron muestras de 50 mL de agua con 20 réplicas, en frascos de vidrio estériles, las cuales fueron refrigeradas a 4°C en neveras de icopor y procesadas en el menor tiempo posible en el laboratorio de Microbiología de la UPTC; en donde se realizó cuantificación de mesófilos aerobios, mohos y levaduras mediante recuento en placa; coliformes totales y fecales se evaluaron mediante la técnica de Número más Probable (NMP). Resultados: el punto de muestreo M1 presentó los mayores valores de coliformes totales con un valor de 1100 NMP/100mL, coliformes fecales: 43 NMP/100mL; así como de mohos y levaduras 61X103 UFC/mL; y el punto con mayor valor de mesófilos aerobios fue 13X104 UFC/ mL que corresponde al M2. Los puntos M3 y M4 presentaron ausencia de coliformes totales. Conclusiones: en contraste con el Decreto 1594 de 1984, sobre usos del agua y residuos líquidos, el río Toca presenta mala calidad de agua en los puntos de muestreo M1 y M2, los cuales presentan actividad ganadera y vertimientos de aguas residuales domésticas.


Abstract Introduction: water suitable for human consumption is the one that does not represent a risk to the health for the consumer, considering its organoleptic, physical, chemical and bacteriological characteristics, but this quality is affected by dumping of domestic, industrial and economic activities (Gamboa et al., 2015). Objective: this study was done in order to determine the microbiological quality of the Toca river, Tuaneca Abajo and the Center, department of Boyacá, Colombia. Materials and methods: in the basin, four sampling points were established, M1, M2, M3 and M4, at each point 50 ml samples of water were collected with 20 replicas, in sterile glass jars, refrigerated at 4 ° C in icopor coolers and processed in the shortest possible time in UPTC microbiology laboratory; where aerobic mesophiles, molds and yeasts were quantified by aerobic plate count; Total and fecal coliforms were evaluated using the Most Probable Number Technique (MPN). Results: the point sampling M1 had the highest of total coliforms values, equivalent to 1100 NMP/100mL, fecal coliforms: 43NMP/100mL. Likewise, of molds and yeasts 61X 103 CFU/mL; and the point with the highest value of mesophiles aerobic 13X104 CFU/mL corresponds to M2. Points M3 and M4 presented the absence of total coliforms. Conclusions: in contrast to Decree 1594 of 1984, on the use of water and liquid waste, the Toca River has poor water quality at sampling points M1 and M2, which present livestock activity and discharge of domestic wastewater.


Resumo Introdução: a água apta para o consumo humano é aquela que não representa um risco para a saúde do consumidor levando em conta suas características organolépticas, físicas, químicas e bacteriológicas, mas tal qualidade é afetada por vertimentos de atividades domésticas, industriais e econômicas (Spiro & Stigliani, 2003). Objetivo: determinar a qualidade microbiológica do rio Toca, setor Tuaneca Abajo e Centro, departamento de Boyacá, Colômbia. Materiais e métodos: na bacia, estabeleceram- se quatro pontos de amostragem, M1, M2, M3 e M4, em cada ponto coletaram-se amostras de 50 mL de água com 20 réplicas, em frascos de vidro estéreis, as quais foram refrigeradas a 4°C em caixas de isopor e processadas no menor tempo possível no laboratório de Microbiologia da UPTC; onde realizou-se a quantificação de mesófilos aeróbios, mofos e leveduras mediante contagem em placa; os coliformes totais e fecais avaliaram-se mediante a técnica de Número mais Provável (NMP). Resultados: os resultados obtidos indicam que o ponto de amostragem M1 apresentou os maiores valores de coliformes totais, equivalentes a 1100 NMP/100mL, coliformes fecais: 43 NMP/100mL Igualmente, de mofos e leveduras 61X 103UFC/ mL; e o ponto com maior valor de mesófilos aeróbios foi 13X104UFC/mL que corresponde ao ponto M2. Conclusão: ao contrário do Decreto 1.594 de 1984, sobre o uso de água e esgoto líquido, O rio Toca apresenta má qualidade de água nos pontos de amostragem M1 e M2. Os pontos M3 e M4 apresentaram ausência de coliformes totais.

7.
rev. udca actual. divulg. cient ; 24(1): e1677, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290427

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT During the first weeks of lactation, the energy balance of dairy cows is generally negative, allowing for decompensation in a variety of tissues and systems, especially the immune system. The energy levels of a cow's diet during the first third of lactation, in specialized dairying, will modulate the immune system functionality of the mammary glands. The aim of this study was to assess the sanitary quality of milk through the somatic cell score (SCS), the colony-forming units (CFU), and the isolated bacteria of Holstein cows with different energy levels in the diet. Thus, 24 Holstein cows were studied during their first third of lactation, after the lactation peak (50 to 100 lactation days). They were assigned into 4 treatments, taking into account the energy requirements of each animal: Isoenergetic (ISO), Hypoenergetic (HYPO), Hyper energetic (HYPER), and Isoenergetic plus sunflower oil supplementation (OIL). Milk samples were taken for the somatic cell count (SCC) and CFUs, and isolated pathogens in milk were identified by microbiological culture. The diet had a significant effect on SCS with a value p of 0.0331, but not on the CFUs (p< 0.5141). 11 pathogens were identified and in 33.9% of samples, microorganisms were not isolated. The Isoenergetic diet favors the presence of some microorganisms and the increase of SCS.


RESUMEN En las primeras semanas de lactancia, generalmente, el balance energético de la vaca lechera es negativo, determinando una descompensación en diferentes tejidos y sistemas, en especial, el inmunológico. Los niveles de energía en la dieta de vacas, en primer tercio de lactancia en lechería especializada, modularán la funcionalidad del sistema inmune en glándula mamaria. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la calidad sanitaria de la leche, a través de la medición de células somáticas (SCS), las unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC) y las bacterias aisladas de vacas Holstein, con diferentes niveles de energía en la dieta. Se usaron 24 vacas Holstein en el primer tercio de gestación, posterior al pico de lactancia (entre 50 y 100 días de lactancia), dispuestas en 4 tratamientos, de acuerdo con el cubrimiento de los requerimientos energéticos del animal: isoenergético (ISO), hipoenergético (HIPO), hiperenergetico (HIPER) e isoenergético más suplementación con aceite de girasol (ACEITE). Se tomaron muestras de leche para el recuento de células somáticas (RCS) y UFC y se identificaron patógenos en leche, por cultivos microbiológicos. La dieta tuvo un efecto significativo sobre el SCS, con un valor p de 0.0331 y no sobre las UFC (p<0.5141). Se identificaron 11 patógenos y en 33,96% de las muestras no se aislaron microorganismos. La dieta isoenergética favorece la presencia de algunos microorganismos y el aumento del SCS.

8.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 34-41, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This work studied how the exposure to an unusual substrate forced a change in microbial populations during anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production, with freshwater sediment used as an inoculum. RESULTS: The microbial associations almost completely (99.9%) utilized the glycerol contained in crude glycerol 6 g L 1 within four days, releasing gases, organic acids (acetic, butyric) and alcohols (ethanol, n-butanol) under anaerobic conditions. In comparison with control medium without glycerol, adding crude glycerol to the medium increased the amount of ethanol and n-butanol production and it was not significantly affected by incubation temperature (28 C or 37 C), nor incubation time (4 or 8 d), but it resulted in reduced amount of butyric acid. Higher volume of gas was produced at 37 C despite the fact that the overall bacterial count was smaller than the one measured at 20 C. Main microbial phyla of the inoculum were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. During fermentation, significant changes were observed and Firmicutes, especially Clostridium spp., began to dominate, and the number of Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria decreased accordingly. Concentration of Archaea decreased, especially in medium with crude glycerol. These changes were confirmed both by culturing and culture-independent (concentration of 16S rDNA) methods. CONCLUSIONS: Crude glycerol led to the adaptation of freshwater sediment microbial populations to this substrate. Changes of microbial community were a result of a community adaptation to a new source of carbon.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Geologic Sediments/microbiology , Fresh Water/microbiology , Glycerol/metabolism , Bacteria/metabolism , Adaptation, Biological , Biofuels , Fermentation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Anaerobiosis
9.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 51(9): e20190642, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153927

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Plant growth analysis can be used for soybean plants evaluation to identify morphologic changes caused by soil microbes after seed inoculation. The objective was to measure changes of inoculated soybean plants grown under regular field Brazilian production conditions. The experiment was carried out to compare 5 inoculation treatments: T1 (Bradyrhizobium japonicum and B. diazoefficiens), T2 (T1 and Azospirillum brasilense), T3 (T1 and Trichoderma asperellum), T4 (T1 and T. virens, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) and T5 (T1 and Penicillum bilaiae). Leaf area, shoot and root dry matter were measured at vegetative and reproductive growth stages. Results of this study validate the contribution of plant growth analysis of soybeans plants for identifying their responses promoted by the combined inoculation of their seeds with selected microbes. Also, the microbial effects on plant growth vary not only between microbes but also between parts of the plants and through the plant development stages. The introduction of different microbes in soybean rhizosphere combined with Bradyrhizobium sp. strains can contribute to increase crop dry matter productivity during its growing cycle.


RESUMO: Análise de crescimento de plantas pode ser utilizada para avaliação de plantas e identificação de mudanças causadas por microrganismos de solo, depois de serem inoculados nas sementes. O objetivo deste estudo foi medir as mudanças no crescimento de plantas de soja inoculadas em condição de cultivos extensivos de campo no Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido para comparar cinco tratamentos inoculados: T1 (Bradyrhizobium japonicum e B. diazoefficiens), T2 (T1 e Azospirillum brasilense), T3 (T1 e Trichoderma asperellum), T4 (T1 and T. virens, e Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) e T5 (T1 e Penicillum bilaiae). A área foliar e a massa seca da parte aérea e de raízes foram medidas nos estádios vegetativos e reprodutivos. Os resultados validam a contribuição da análise de crescimento de plantas de soja para identificar as respostas causadas pela inoculação de sementes com combinação de microrganismos selecionados. Os efeitos dos microrganismos no crescimento das plantas não variam apenas entre os microrganismos, mas também entre as partes das plantas e ao longo do seu desenvolvimento. A introdução de diferentes micróbios na rizosfera de soja, combinados com cepas de Bradyrhizobium sp. pode aumentar a produtividade de massa seca das culturas durante o seu ciclo de crescimento.

10.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 17-26, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1145877

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: verificar a demanda de hemoculturas, aspirados traqueais e uroculturas realizadas no HU-UNIVASF/ EBSERH e a prevalência dos microrganismos identificados no período de janeiro a junho de 2016. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo documental com abordagem quantitativa. Resultados: o setor de microbiologia realizou 488 hemoculturas, 427 uroculturas e 197 aspirados traqueais. A positividade de hemoculturas mostrou-se entre 10,9 à 25,7%, e o percentual de contaminações variou de 6,8 à 14,0%. Os microrganismos mais prevalência nas hemoculturas foram Staphylococcus epidermidis (23,7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19,3%) e Klebisiella pneumoniae (9,6%). Nas uroculturas foram Klebisiella pneumoniae (23,1%), Candida sp. (13,5%) e Escherichia coli (12,5%). Nos aspirados traqueais foram Acinetobacter baumannii (29,2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26,6%) e Staphylococcus aureus (16,2%). Conclusão: a cultura mais solicitada foi hemocultura. A bactéria mais prevalente nas hemoculturas foi Staphylococcus epidermidis, nos aspirados traqueais Acinetobacter baumannii e nas uroculturas Klebisiella pneumoniae


Objective: the study's purpose has been to verify the demand for blood cultures, tracheal aspirates and urine cultures performed at a University Hospital from the Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco (HU-UNIVASF/EBSERH), as well as the predominance of microorganisms identified over the period from January to June 2016. Methods: it is a retrospective documentary study with a quantitative approach. Results: the microbiology sector carried out 488 blood cultures, 427 urine cultures and 197 tracheal aspirates. The positivity of blood cultures was between 10.9 and 25.7%, and the percentage of contaminations ranged from 6.8 to 14.0%. The most prevalent microorganisms in blood cultures were Staphylococcus epidermidis (23.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.6%). In urine cultures were Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.1%), Candida sp. (13.5%) and Escherichia coli (12.5%). In tracheal aspirates were Acinetobacter baumannii (29.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (16.2%). Conclusion: the most requested culture was blood culture. The most prevalent bacterium in blood cultures was Staphylococcus epidermidis, in tracheal aspirates was Acinetobacter baumannii, and in urine cultures was Klebsiella pneumoniae


Objetivo: el propósito del trabajo es verificar la demanda de hemocultivos, aspirados traqueales y urocultivos realizados en el Hospital Universitário de la Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco (HU-UNIVASF/ EBSERH) y la prevalencia de los microorganismos identificados en el período de enero a junio de 2016. Métodos: este trabajo es un estudio retrospectivo documental con abordaje cuantitativo. Resultados: el sector de microbiología realizó 488 hemocultivos, 427 urocultivos y 197 aspirados traqueales. La positividad de hemocultivos se mostró entre el 10,9 al 25,7%, y el porcentaje de contaminaciones varía de 6,8 a 14,0%. Los microorganismos más prevalentes en los hemocultivos fueron Staphylococcus epidermidis (23,7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19,3%) y Klebsiella pneumoniae (9,6%). En los urocultivos fueron Klebisiella pneumoniae (23,1%), Candida sp. (13,5%) y Escherichia coli (12,5%). En los aspirados traqueales fueron Acinetobacter baumannii (29,2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26,6%) y Staphylococcus aureus (16,2%). Conclusión: la cultura más solicitada fue hemocultivo. La bacteria más prevalente en los hemocultivos fue Staphylococcus epidermidis, en los aspirados traqueales, Acinetobacter baumannii y en los urocultivos, Klebisiella pneumoniae


Subject(s)
Urine/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Blood Culture , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Prevalence , Acinetobacter baumannii , Escherichia coli , Hospitals, University , Klebsiella pneumoniae
12.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 797-800, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911121

ABSTRACT

Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common disease in men. In recent years, it has become younger, which seriously affects the patients'quality of life. A deep understanding of the pathogenesis of CP/CPPS will help the choice of treatment. Its pathogenesis is not only related to immune factors, but also related to local microcirculation disorders of the prostate, endocrine hormone imbalance, adjacent gut microbes and compression of lumbar intervertebral disc, but it has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, this article aims to review the pathogenesis of CP/CPPS and provide directions for its diagnosis and treatment.

13.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 141-145, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909845

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of wound pathogenic microorganisms in outpatients of wound healing center so as to provide a basis for the standardized construction of wound healing centers.Methods:A retrospective case series study was used to analyzed the data of 365 outpatients treated at Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from December 2017 to October 2019. There were 220 males and 145 females, aged (58.8±18.9)years (range, 18-98 years). The patients included 92 first-visit patients and 273 re-visit patients. The culture results (positive rate of pathogenic microorganisms, bacterial species, bacterial distribution) and drug sensitivity results of the wound secretions were compared and analyzed.Results:(1) Among 365 samples of wound secretions, 198 patients were positive for pathogenic microorganisms with a positive rate of 54.3%. A total of 107 strains (51.0%) of Gram-positive bacteria were detected, mainly Staphylococcus aureus (70 strains, 33.3%); 95 strains (45.2%) of Gram-negative bacteria were detected, mainly Escherichia coli (20 strains, 9.5%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17 strains, 8.1%); 8 strains (3.8%) of fungi were detected. (2) A total of 26 (28.3%) first-visit patients were positive for pathogenic microorganisms, and 172 (63.0%) re-visit patients were positive for pathogenic microorganisms. The rate of positive microorganism detection had significant differences between first-visit and re-visit patients ( P<0.05). (3) A total of 29 strains were detected in first-visit patients, including 16 strains (55.2%) of Gram-positive bacteria, 11 strains (37.9%) of Gram-negative bacteria and 2 strains (6.9%) of fungi. A total of 181 strains were detected in re-visit patients, including 91 strains (50.3%) of Gram-positive bacteria, 84 strains (46.4%) of Gram-negative bacteria and 6 strains (3.3%) of fungi. The microbial distribution was significantly different between first-visit and re-visit patients ( P<0.05). (4) Compared with first-visit patients, the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the re-visit patients to spenicillin, oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, and levofloxacin were increased variably. No vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected, indicating that the staphylococcus aureus presented in the wound was highly sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusions:Staphylococcus aureus is the most common microorganism in wound secretions in outpatients of wound healing center. The rate of positive pathogenic microorganisms in wound secretions of re-visit patients is significantly higher than that of first-visit patients, and the distribution of pathogenic microorganisms of first-visited and revisited patients differs significantly. The Staphylococcus aureus detected in re-visit patients has a higher resistance to common antibiotics compared with first-visit patients. It is suggested that timely detection of pathogenic microorganisms in outpatients and effective control and supervision of outpatient infections are important contents that cannot be ignored in the construction of wound healing center.

14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2050-2076, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887781

ABSTRACT

Plant polyphenols are phenylpropanoid derivatives including phenolic acids, stilbenes, curcumins and flavonoids. These compounds display a variety of biological and pharmacological activities such as antioxidation, vasorelaxation, anti-coagulation, anti-inflammation, anti-tumor and anti-virus, conferring a huge application potential in the sectors of drugs, foods, cosmetics, and chemicals. Microorganisms have become important hosts for heterologous synthesis of natural products due to the advantages of fast growth, easiness of culture and industrial operation. In recent years, the development of synthetic biology has boosted the microbial synthesis of plant natural products, achieving substantial progress. In this review, we summarize the synthesis of plant polyphenols in engineered Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other microorganisms equipped with the designed biosynthetic pathways of polyphenols. We also discuss the optimization strategies such as precursor engineering, dynamic regulation, and co-cultivation to improve the production of polyphenols and propose future prospects for polyphenol pathway engineering.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways , Metabolic Engineering , Plants , Polyphenols , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics
15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1100-1108, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886980

ABSTRACT

The structure and diversity of the intestinal flora in rats exposed to high altitude hypoxia was investigated. Animal experiments strictly follow the regulations of Medical Laboratory Animal Ethics Committee of Qinghai University, School of Medicine. SD rats were randomly divided into a control group, a moderate altitude hypoxia group, and a high altitude hypoxia group. The pH value of the feces was measured and histopathological changes in the small intestine were determined by HE staining, and the intestinal flora were characterized by 16S rDNA high throughput sequencing technology on the 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 30th day of hypoxia exposure. Compared with the control group, the fecal pH value of rats in the moderate altitude hypoxia group and the high altitude hypoxia group was decreased significantly. The lamina propria and submucosa capillaries were slightly dilated and congested on the 3rd day in the moderate altitude hypoxia group. In the high altitude hypoxia group the submembrane capillaries were dilated and congested, the lamina propria of the mucosa showed mild edema, and the lymphatic vessels were dilated on the 7th day. The composition and diversity of intestinal flora in these rats changed significantly with prolonged exposure to the high altitude hypoxic environment. A total of 35 phyla, 87 classes, 205 orders, 337 families, 638 genera, and 256 species were annotated in the three groups of rats, including Firmicutes, Clostridia, Clostridiales, Ruminococcaceae, Akkermansia, and Lactobacillus_murinus. Compared with the control group, the intestinal flora of the hypoxic groups showed the most significant changes by the 15th day. There were 9 microbiota of gut microorganisms with relative abundance in the moderate altitude hypoxia group, of which Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group bacteria was the most common, there were 19 different microbiota of gut microorganisms with higher relative abundance in the high altitude hypoxia group, of which Ruminococcaceae bacteria was the most common. The results of this study indicate significant changes in the intestinal flora with high altitude hypoxia, and establish a foundation for further research on the initiation and development of diseases and drug metabolism in high altitude hypoxia.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882215

ABSTRACT

Objective:To assess the biosafety risk from a public health perspective and provide scientific evidence for centers for disease control and prevention to formulate diversified strategies and well-organized resource allocation. Methods:Based on the global summary of pathogenic microorganism which might be used against human beings intentionally, we performed a multi-round consultation to the expert team with a scientific background and professional qualification, using a Delphi method. According to the consultation and reliability test, a consistent evaluation was conducted from seven dimensions, including fatality rate, implementation of biosafety-related events, short-term probability, long-term probability, difficulty of rescue, early detection, and response capacity of the public health system. Results:The overall opinions of the experts tended to be consistent. Bacillus anthracis had been scored the highest in the comprehensive biosafety risk, which was much higher than the second (botulinum toxin) and third places (Yersinia pestis), raising a significant public health concern. In addition, multiple hemorrhagic fever viruses had a higher biosafety risk. Conclusions:Based on the perspective of public health, the biosafety risk can be evaluated reasonably. Pathogenic microorganisms with zoonotic characteristics and long incubation periods are more difficult to detect in advance in the environment, posing a higher risk. The formulation of disease control and prevention strategies in public health resource-limited areas warrants particular attention to high-risk biosafety events.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881257

ABSTRACT

@#Nanomaterials usually refer to tiny particles with a diameter of 1-100 nm, which often have unique physicochemical properties and are one of the main areas of research interest for development of dental biomaterials. Nano-calcium phosphate modified dental materials have been widely used in pit and fissure sealing, dental resin restoration, tooth adhesion, and root canal sealing. The current research shows that the dental material modified by nano-calcium phosphate has stronger mechanical properties and shows long-term calcium and phosphorus ion release and excellent ion recharging ability, which can promote the remineralization of tooth hard tissue and has good prospects for application. However, it is difficult to accurately simulate the complex environment of the oral cavity. Therefore, the biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and effect of clinical application of nano-calcium phosphate modified dental materials still needs further study. This review summarizes and discusses the recent research progress regarding nano-calcium phosphate modified dental materials in the prevention and treatment of dental pulp diseases.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873599

ABSTRACT

@#Among many factors affecting dental caries, bacteria are its initiating factor. From the perspective of ecological plaque hypothesis, the application of modern molecular biology methods enable scholars to deeply explore the relationship between the microbial population distribution, biodiversity, microbial community changes of dental plaque biofilm and the occurrence of dental caries in children. The decrease in microflora diversity is closely related to the occurrence of dental caries, which can be detected as early as 6 months before the occurrence of dental caries, providing an important basis for caries monitoring and caries risk assessment. Differential bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Veillonella may be used as biomarkers of caries in children to judge the risk of caries in children. However, current studies have shown that the dominant bacteria in the microbial community structure vary in different processes of caries occurrence and development, that the interaction between different flora is still not clear, and that the specific cariogenic mechanism of the oral plaque microbial community in the process of caries occurrence and development has not been clarified. Further research is still needed to explore the changes in plaque microbial diversity and composition during the development of dental caries and to screen specific dental caries biomarkers. This paper also summarizes the related research findings.

19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3622-3635, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921452

ABSTRACT

Bioremediation is considered as a cost-effective, efficient and free-of-secondary-pollution technology for petroleum pollution remediation. Due to the limitation of soil environmental conditions and the nature of petroleum pollutants, the insufficient number and the low growth rate of indigenous petroleum-degrading microorganisms in soil lead to long remediation cycle and poor remediation efficiency. Bioaugmentation can effectively improve the biodegradation efficiency. By supplying functional microbes or microbial consortia, immobilized microbes, surfactants and growth substrates, the remediation effect of indigenous microorganisms on petroleum pollutants in soil can be boosted. This article summarizes the reported petroleum-degrading microbes and the main factors influencing microbial remediation of petroleum contaminated soil. Moreover, this article discusses a variety of effective strategies to enhance the bioremediation efficiency, as well as future directions of bioaugmentation strategies.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Petroleum , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3487-3504, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921443

ABSTRACT

Antibiotics are widely used and prevalently distributed in the environment. The issue of antibiotic resistance genes has posed a huge threat to the global public health. Soil is an important sink of antibiotics in the environment. Antibiotic exposure may introduce adverse effects on soil organisms, and bring indirect but potential risks to human health. Therefore, it is urgent to take actions to remediate antibiotics-contaminated soil. This review summarized effects of antibiotics on phenotype growth of plants, physiological characteristics and community structure of animals, composition and structure of microbial communities, and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes among organisms in soil. Additionally, the potential and prospects of employing antibiotic-resistant soil plants, animals, microorganisms, and their combinations to treat antibiotics-contaminated soil were illustrated. Last but not least, the unaddressed issues in this area were proposed, which may provide insights into relevant research directions in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Humans , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants
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