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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 269-278, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016656

ABSTRACT

Non-infectious chronic diseases in human including diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), atherosclerosis (AS), neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporosis, as well as malignant tumors may have some common pathogenic mechanisms such as non-resolved inflammation (NRI), gut microbiota dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondria dysfunction, and abnormality of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. These pathogenic mechanisms could be the basis for "homotherapy for heteropathy" in clinic. Some commonly used clinical drugs, such as metformin, berberine, aspirin, statins, and rapamycin may execute therapeutic effect on their targeted diseases,and also have the effect of "homotherapy for heteropathy". The mechanisms of the above drugs may include anti-inflammation, modulation of gut microbiota, suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress, improvement of mitochondria function, and inhibition of mTOR. For virus infectious diseases, as some viruses need certain commonly used replicases, the inhibitors of the replicases become examples of "homotherapy for heteropathy" for antiviral therapy in clinic (for example tenofovir for both AIDS and HBV infection). Especially, in case of outbreak of new emerging viruses, these viral enzyme inhibitors such as azvudine and sofibuvir, could be rapidly used in controlling viral epidemic or pandemic, based on the principle of "homotherapy for heteropathy". In this review article, we show the research progress of the biological basis for "homotherapy for heteropathy" and the possible mechanisms of some well-known drugs, in order to provide insights and new references for innovative drug R&D.

2.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 405-409, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013648

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases ( CVDs ) are the leading cause of death worldwide and pose a serious threat to human health. Silent information regulator 5 ( SIRT5 ) , which is widely distributed in cardiac myocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells,as a novel deacylation-modifying enzyme,plays an important role in CVDs through deacetylation, desuccinylation and demalonylation. This review summarizes the pathophysiolog-ical mechanism of SIRT5 from the aspects of energy metabolism, regulation of inflammatory response and oxidative stress, apart from the role of SIRT5 in CVDs such as myocardial infarction, myocardial hypertrophy, arrhythmia, atherosclerosis and heart failure. This review also figures out the current research progress of SIRT5 -related inhibitors and agonists, so as to provide strategies for targeting SIRT5 to prevent and treat CVDs.

3.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 256-262, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013618

ABSTRACT

Aim To study the mechanism of quereetin (Que) inhibiting mitochondrial damage induced by Aβ

4.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 308-316, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013586

ABSTRACT

Aim To explore the effect of berberine (B E) on RSV infected HEp-2 cells and the related mechanism. Methods HEp-2 cells were infected with RSV and treated with BE. Cell viability was assessed using the CCK-8 assay. Protein expression levels of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, PINK1, Parkin, Beclinl, p62, LC3 I,LC3 II,and BNIP3 in HEp-2 cells were detected by Western blot. The secretion level of IL-1 p in HEp-2 cells was measured using ELISA. Apoptosis rate and mitochondrial membrane potential of HEp-2 cells were examined by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) in HEp-2 cells was detected through MitoSOX staining. Colocalization of mitochondria and autophagosomes in HEp-2 cells was investigated using immunofluorescence staining. Cyclosporin A was used for validation experiments. Results BE could significantly improve the activity of RSV-infected HEp-2 cells,reduce the apoptosis rate (P < 0. 05), and decrease the activation level of NLRP3 inflammasomes and IL-lp level (P <0. 05); BE improved mitochondrial function by increasing mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels,and reduced mtROS. BE significantly promoted the colocalization of mitochondria-autophagosome in RSV infected cells, inducing PINK1/ Parkin and BNIP3 to mediate mitochondrial autophagy; cyclosporine A aggravated RSV infection. Conclusions BE has protective effects on HEp-2 cells infected by RSV. The mechanism may be related to the inhibitory effect of BE on the production of mtROS and the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes by inducing PINK1/ Parkin and BNIP3-mediated mitochondrial autophagy.

5.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 197-205, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012709

ABSTRACT

With the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in recent years, cardiomyopathy caused by diabetes mellitus has aroused wide concern and this disease is characterized by high insidiousness and high mortality. The early pathological changes of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) are mitochondrial structural disorders and loss of myocardial metabolic flexibility. The turbulence of mitochondrial quality control (MQC) is a key mechanism leading to the accumulation of damaged mitochondria and loss of myocardial metabolic flexibility, which, together with elevated levels of oxidative stress and inflammation, trigger changes in myocardial structure and function. Qi deficiency and stagnation is caused by the loss of healthy Qi, and the dysfunction of Qi transformation results in the accumulation of pathogenic Qi, which further triggers injuries. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), DCM is rooted in Qi deficiency of the heart, spleen, and kidney. The dysfunction of Qi transformation leads to the generation and lingering of turbidity, stasis, and toxin in the nutrient-blood and vessels, ultimately damaging the heart. Therefore, Qi deficiency and stagnation is the basic pathologic mechanism of DCM. Mitochondria, similar to Qi in substance and function, are one of the microscopic manifestations of Qi. The role of MQC is consistent with the defense function of Qi. In the case of MQC turbulence, mitochondrial structure and function are impaired. As a result, Qi deficiency gradually emerges and triggers pathological changes, which make it difficult to remove the stagnant pathogenic factor and aggravates the MQC turbulence. Ultimately, DCM occurs. Targeting MQC to treat DCM has become the focus of current research, and TCM has the advantages of acting on multiple targets and pathways. According to the pathogenesis of Qi deficiency and stagnation in DCM and the modern medical understanding of MQC, the treatment should follow the principles of invigorating healthy Qi, tonifying deficiency, and regulating Qi movement. This paper aims to provide ideas for formulating prescriptions and clinical references for the TCM treatment of DCM by targeting MQC.

6.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 220-228, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012492

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s) on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury of mouse renal tubular epithelial cells and unravel underlying mechanism. Methods Mouse renal tubular epithelial cells were divided into adenovirus negative control group (Ad-shNC group), targeted silencing XBP1s adenovirus group (Ad-shXBP1s group), Ad-shNC+H/R group and Ad-shXBP1s+H/R group. The apoptosis level, mitochondrial reactive oxygen activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial calcium ion level were detected in each group. Chromatin immunocoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) was employed to analyze the binding sites of XBP1s in regulating the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR) family. The expression levels of XBP1s and ITPR family messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were determined in each group. Results Compared with the Ad-shNC group, the apoptosis level was higher, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species level was increased, mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased and mitochondrial calcium ion level was elevated in the Ad-shNC+H/R group. Compared with the Ad-shNC+H/R group, the apoptosis level was lower, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species level was decreased, mitochondrial membrane potential was elevated, and mitochondrial calcium ion level was decreased in the Ad-shXBP1s+H/R group (all P<0.05). Compared with the Ad-shNC group, relative expression levels of XBP1s, ITPR1, ITPR2 and ITPR3 mRNAs and proteins were down-regulated in the Ad-shXBP1s group (all P<0.05). Compared with the Ad-shNC group, relative expression levels of XBP1s, ITPR1, ITPR2 and ITPR3 proteins were up-regulated in the Ad-shNC+H/R group. Compared with the Ad-shNC+H/R group, relative expression levels of XBP1s, ITPR1, ITPR2 and ITPR3 were down-regulated in the Ad-shXBP1s+H/R group (all P<0.05). ChIP-seq results showed that XBP1s could bind to the promoter and exon of ITPR1, the exon of ITPR2, and the exon of ITPR3. Conclusions XBP1s may affect mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane structure and function by directly regulating ITPR transcription and translation. Down-regulating XBP1s may inhibit ITPR expression and mitigate mitochondrial damage.

7.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 401-406, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011318

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of quercetin on mitochondrial energy metabolism function after myocardial ischemia. METHODS H9c2 cells were divided into blank group, model group, quercetin high-dose, medium-dose and low-dose groups (40, 20, 10 μmol/L), and positive control group (cyclosporine A, 1 μmol/L). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), openness of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), malondialdehyde (MDA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) were observed after cell hypoxia treatment. Rats were randomly assigned into sham operation group, model group, quercetin high-dose, medium-dose and low-dose groups (100, 50, 25 mg/kg), and positive control group (trimetazidine, 6.3 mg/kg), with 8 rats in each group. They were given relevant medicine intragastrically, once a day, for 7 consecutive days. After the last medication, myocardial ischemia model was induced by the ligation of the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery. The contents of LDH, MDA, creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB), superoxide dismutase (SOD), complex Ⅰ, complex Ⅳ and ATP in serum were all determined. RESULTS Compared with the model group, ROS fluorescence intensity, openness of MPTP, the contents of CK, LDH and MDA were significantly decreased in quercetin low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose groups, and positive control group, while the contents of MMP and ATP were all increased significantly (P<0.01); the contents of CK-MB, LDH and MDA in serum were all decreased significantly in quercetin low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose groups, and positive control group, while the contents of SOD, complex Ⅰ, complex Ⅳ and ATP (except for positive control group) were increased significantly (P< 0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Quercetin can effectively reduce myocardial hypoxic injury, promote endogenous energy production and improve mitochondrial function after myocardial ischemia.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 190-206, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011236

ABSTRACT

Macroautophagy (referred to as autophagy hereafter) is a major intracellular lysosomal degradation pathway that is responsible for the degradation of misfolded/damaged proteins and organelles. Previous studies showed that autophagy protects against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced injury (AILI) via selective removal of damaged mitochondria and APAP protein adducts. The lysosome is a critical organelle sitting at the end stage of autophagy for autophagic degradation via fusion with autophagosomes. In the present study, we showed that transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master transcription factor for lysosomal biogenesis, was impaired by APAP resulting in decreased lysosomal biogenesis in mouse livers. Genetic loss-of and gain-of function of hepatic TFEB exacerbated or protected against AILI, respectively. Mechanistically, overexpression of TFEB increased clearance of APAP protein adducts and mitochondria biogenesis as well as SQSTM1/p62-dependent non-canonical nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) activation to protect against AILI. We also performed an unbiased cell-based imaging high-throughput chemical screening on TFEB and identified a group of TFEB agonists. Among these agonists, salinomycin, an anticoccidial and antibacterial agent, activated TFEB and protected against AILI in mice. In conclusion, genetic and pharmacological activating TFEB may be a promising approach for protecting against AILI.

9.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 147-150, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006440

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has gradually become the main reason affecting human liver health, and many factors are involved in the development and progression of NAFLD. Mitochondria, as the “energy factory” of cells, plays an important role in maintaining normal physiological functions. Studies have shown that hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction promotes the development and progression of NAFLD. This article briefly introduces the latest research advances in the basic characteristics and physiological function of liver mitochondria and reviews new research findings in the association of mitochondrial dysfunction with obesity, simple fatty liver disease, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, in order to provide new ideas for the research on targeted mitochondrial therapy for NAFLD.

10.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 234-243, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003428

ABSTRACT

Liver failure (LF), as a clinical syndrome of severe hepatocyte damage and liver dysfunction, has become a major obstacle to human health due to the triple superposition of high mortality, high morbidity, and high medical resource depletion. It is of great significance to further study the core factors of the disease and supplementary treatment methods to improve the survival rate of patients with LF. The pathogenesis of LF is complex, and mitochondrion is one of the sensitive organelles in hepatocytes and the central link of intracellular energy metabolism. A large number of studies have shown that the structure and function of mitochondria in hepatocytes are changed in LF, and the abnormal structure and function of mitochondria play an important role in the process of LF disease. Among them, multiple factors such as mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder, mitochondrial DNA damage, mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, mitochondrial quality control imbalance, and mitochondrial oxidative stress are intertwined, forming a complex and unified whole network, which becomes the key node affecting the progression of LF. In recent years, researchers have begun to study drugs that can regulate the function of liver mitochondria to prevent and treat LF. With the deepening of research, traditional Chinese medicine has made breakthroughs in the prevention and treatment of LF. Many studies have confirmed that traditional Chinese medicine can play a role in the prevention and treatment of LF by protecting mitochondrial function, which can be summarized as reducing liver cell damage, inhibiting liver cell death, and promoting liver cell regeneration, so as to effectively compensate for liver function and promote the recovery of liver parenchyma quality and function. This article summarized the structure and function of mitochondria, the relationship between LF and mitochondria, and the research on the intervention of mitochondrial function in the field of traditional Chinese medicine to prevent and treat LF, so as to provide certain ideas and references for the clinical treatment of LF with traditional Chinese medicine.

11.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 45(7): 393-400, July 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1507874

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Endometriosis causes a decrease in oocyte quality. However, this mechanism is not fully understood. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of endometriosis on cumulus cell adenosine triphosphate ATP level, the number of mitochondria, and the oocyte maturity level. Methods A true experimental study with a post-test only control group design on experimental animals. Thirty-two mice were divided into control and endometriosis groups. Cumulus oocyte complex (COC) was obtained from all groups. Adenosine triphosphate level on cumulus cells was examined using the Elisa technique, the number of mitochondria was evaluated with a confocal laser scanning microscope and the oocyte maturity level was evaluated with an inverted microscope. Results The ATP level of cumulus cells and the number of mitochondria in the endometriosis group increased significantly (p < 0.05; p < 0.05) while the oocyte maturity level was significantly lower (p < 0.05). There was a significant relationship between ATP level of cumulus cells and the number of mitochondrial oocyte (p < 0.01). There was no significant relationship between cumulus cell ATP level and the number of mitochondrial oocytes with oocyte maturity level (p > 0.01; p > 0.01). The ROC curve showed that the number of mitochondrial oocytes (AUC = 0.672) tended to be more accurate than cumulus cell ATP level (AUC = 0.656) in determining the oocyte maturity level. Conclusion In endometriosis model mice, the ATP level of cumulus cells and the number of mitochondrial oocytes increased while the oocyte maturity level decreased. There was a correlation between the increase in ATP level of cumulus cells and an increase in the number of mitochondrial oocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Oocytes , Adenosine Triphosphate , Endometriosis , Cumulus Cells , Reproductive Health , Mitochondria
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 308-318, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430503

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Gastrin plays a vital role in the development and progression of gastric cancer (GC). Its expression is up-regulated in GC tissues and several GC cell lines. Yet, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. Here, we aim to investigate the role and mechanism of gastrin in GC proliferation. Gastrin-overexpressing GC cell model was constructed using SGC7901 cells. Then the differentially expressed proteins were identified by iTRAQ analysis. Next, we use flow cytometry and immunofluorescence to study the effect of gastrin on the mitochondrial potential and mitochondria-derived ROS production. Finally, we studied the underlying mechanism of gastrin regulating mitochondrial function using Co-IP, mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence. Overexpression of gastrin promoted GC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. A total of 173 proteins were expressed differently between the controls and gastrin- overexpression cells and most of these proteins were involved in tumorigenesis and cell proliferation. Among them, Cox17, Cox5B and ATP5J that were all localized to the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated in gastrin-overexpression cells. Furthermore, gastrin overexpression led to mitochondrial potential decrease and mitochondria-derived ROS increase. Additionally, gastrin-induced ROS generation resulted in the inhibition of cell apoptosis via activating NF-kB, inhibiting Bax expression and promoting Bcl-2 expression. Finally, we found gastrin interacted with mitochondrial membrane protein Annexin A2 using Co-IP and mass spectrometry. Overexpr ession of gastrin inhibits GC cell apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction through interacting with mitochondrial protein Annexin A2, then up-regulating ROS production to activate NF-kB and further leading to Bax/Bcl-2 ratio decrease.


La gastrina juega un papel vital en el desarrollo y progresión del cáncer gástrico (CG). Su expresión está regulada al alza en tejidos de CG y en varias líneas celulares de CG. Sin embargo, el mecanismo subyacente aun no se ha investigado. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el papel y el mecanismo de la gastrina en la proliferación de CG. El modelo de células CG que sobre expresan gastrina se construyó usando células SGC7901. Luego, las proteínas expresadas diferencialmente se identificaron mediante análisis iTRAQ. A continuación, utilizamos la citometría de flujo y la inmunofluorescencia para estudiar el efecto de la gastrina en el potencial mitocondrial y la producción de ROS derivada de las mitocondrias. Finalmente, estudiamos el mecanismo subyacente de la gastrina que regula la función mitocondrial utilizando Co-IP, espectrometría de masas e inmunofluorescencia. La sobreexpresión de gastrina promovió la proliferación de células CG in vitro e in vivo. Un total de 173 proteínas se expresaron de manera diferente entre los controles y las células con sobreexpresión de gastrina y la mayoría de estas proteínas estaban implicadas en la tumorigenesis y la proliferación celular. Entre estas, Cox17, Cox5B y ATP5J, todas localizadas en la cadena respiratoria mitocondrial, estaban reguladas a la baja en las células con sobreexpresión de gastrina. Además, la sobreexpresión de gastrina provocó una disminución del potencial mitocondrial y un aumento de las ROS derivadas de las mitocondrias. Por otra parte, la generación de ROS inducida por gastrina resultó en la inhibición de la apoptosis celular mediante la activación de NF-kB, inhibiendo la expresión de Bax y promoviendo la expresión de Bcl-2. Finalmente, encontramos que la gastrina interactuaba con la proteína de membrana mitocondrial Anexina A2 usando Co-IP y espectrometría de masas. La sobreexpresión de gastrina inhibe la apoptosis de las células CG al inducir la disfunción mitocondrial a través de la interacción con la proteína mitocondrial Anexina A2, luego regula el aumento de la producción de ROS para activar NF-kB y conduce aún más a la disminución de la relación Bax/Bcl-2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Gastrins/metabolism , Annexin A2/metabolism , Mitochondria/pathology , Mass Spectrometry , NF-kappa B , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Reactive Oxygen Species , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Immunoprecipitation , Cell Proliferation , Carcinogenesis , Flow Cytometry
13.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 181-187, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960689

ABSTRACT

In addition to its own specific functions, an organelle can also interact with other organelles to complete important physiological functions. The disorders of organelle interactions are closely associated the development and progression of various diseases. In recent years, the role of organelle interactions has attracted more attention in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, especially the interactions between mitochondria, lipid droplets, and other organelles.

14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3224-3234, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981459

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the efficacy and possible mechanism of Liuwei Dihuang Pills in the treatment of diminished ovarian reserve(DOR) by using proteomic techniques. Firstly, cyclophosphamide(60 mg·kg~(-1)) combined with busulfan(6 mg·kg~(-1)) was injected intraperitoneally to establish the mouse model of DOR. After drug injection, the mice were continuously observed and the success of modeling was evaluated by the disturbance of the estrous cycle. After successful modeling, the mice were administrated with the suspension of Liuwei Dihuang Pills by gavage for 28 days. At the end of the gavage, four female mice were selected and caged together with males at a ratio of 2∶1 for the determination of the pregnancy rate. Blood and ovary samples were collected from the remaining mice on the next day after the end of gavage. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) were then employed to observe the morphological and ultrastructural changes in the ovaries. The serum levels of hormones and oxidation indicators were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Quantitative proteomics techniques were used to compare the ovarian protein expression before and after modeling and before and after the intervention with Liuwei Dihuang Pills. The results showed that Liuwei Dihuang Pills regulated the estrous cycle of DOR mice, elevated the serum levels of hormones and anti-oxidation indicators, promoted follicle development, protected the mitochondrial morphology of ovarian granulosa cells, and increased the litter size and survival of DOR mice. Furthermore, Liuwei Dihuang Pills negatively regulated the expression of 12 differentially expressed proteins associated with DOR, which were mainly involved in lipid catabolism, inflammatory response, immune regulation, and coenzyme biosynthesis. These differentially expressed proteins were significantly enriched in sphingolipid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, ribosomes, ferroptosis, and cGMP-PKG signaling pathway. In summary, the occurrence of DOR and the treatment of DOR with Liuwei Dihuang Pills are associated with multiple biological pathways, mainly including oxidative stress response, inflammatory response, and immune regulation. "Mitochondria-oxidative stress-apoptosis" is the key to the treatment of DOR by Liuwei Dihuang Pills. YY1 and CYP4F3 may be the key upstream targets that trigger mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS accumulation, and the metabolism of arachidonic acid is the main signaling pathway of drug action.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Pregnancy , Animals , Mice , Arachidonic Acid , Ovarian Reserve , Proteomics , Ovary , Lipid Metabolism
15.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 9-15, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970439

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the effect of excess oxygen supply for different time periods on the mitochondrial energy metabolism in alveolar epithelial type Ⅱ cells. Methods Rat RLE-6TN cells were assigned into a control group (21% O2 for 4 h) and excess oxygen supply groups (95% O2 for 1,2,3,and 4 h,res-pectively).The content of adenosine triphosphate (ATP),the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex V,and the mitochondrial membrane potential were determined by luciferase assay,micro-assay,and fluorescent probe JC-1,respectively.Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was employed to determine the mRNA levels of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1),cytochrome b (Cytb),cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COXI),and adenosine triphosphatase 6 (ATPase6) in the core subunits of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes Ⅰ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ,and Ⅴ,respectively. Results Compared with the control group,excess oxygen supply for 1,2,3,and 4 h down-regulated the mRNA levels of ND1 (q=24.800,P<0.001;q=13.650,P<0.001;q=9.869,P<0.001;q=20.700,P<0.001),COXI (q=16.750,P<0.001;q=10.120,P<0.001;q=8.476,P<0.001;q=14.060,P<0.001),and ATPase6 (q=22.770,P<0.001;q=15.540,P<0.001;q=12.870,P<0.001;q=18.160,P<0.001).Moreover,excess oxygen supply for 1 h and 4 h decreased the ATPase activity (q=9.435,P<0.001;q=11.230,P<0.001) and ATP content (q=5.615,P=0.007;q=5.029,P=0.005).The excess oxygen supply for 2 h and 3 h did not cause significant changes in ATPase activity (q=0.156,P=0.914;q=3.197,P=0.116) and ATP content (q=0.859,P=0.557;q=1.273,P=0.652).There was no significant difference in mitochondrial membrane potential among the groups (F=0.303,P=0.869). Conclusion Short-term excess oxygen supply down-regulates the expression of the core subunits of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and reduces the activity of ATPase,leading to the energy metabolism disorder of alveolar epithelial type Ⅱ cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Energy Metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate , Adenosine Triphosphatases , RNA, Messenger , Oxygen
16.
Sichuan Mental Health ; (6): 74-79, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986782

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to present a review of the research progress on the roles of mitochondrial dysfunction and microglia-mediated inflammation in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric disorder in which the immuno-inflammatory pathway is considered to be one of the main pathogenic mechanisms of disease, and manifested by microglia activation and elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines in the brain. However, the biological mechanism underlying immune disorder in schizophrenia has not been fully elucidated. In recent years, accumulating evidence has indicated that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a key role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Therefore, this article reviews the research progress on the roles of mitochondrial days function and microglia-mediated inflammation in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, so as to inform the study of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

17.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 649-652, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986186

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important public health concern, as approximately 3.5% of the world's population is currently chronically infected. Chronic HBV infection is the primary cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and deaths related to liver disease globally. Studies have found that in HBV infection, viruses can directly or indirectly regulate mitochondrial energy metabolism, oxidative stress, respiratory chain metabolites, and autophagy, thereby altering macrophage activation status, differentiation types, and related cytokine secretion type and quantity regulations. Therefore, mitochondria have become an important signal source for macrophages to participate in the body's immune system during HBV infection, providing a basis for mitochondria to be considered as a potential therapeutic target for chronic hepatitis B.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/physiology , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Mitochondria , Liver Neoplasms , Macrophages
18.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 202-216, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982531

ABSTRACT

Although the mTOR-4E-BP1 signaling pathway is implicated in aging and aging-related disorders, the role of 4E-BP1 in regulating human stem cell homeostasis remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the expression of 4E-BP1 decreases along with the senescence of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Genetic inactivation of 4E-BP1 in hMSCs compromises mitochondrial respiration, increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and accelerates cellular senescence. Mechanistically, the absence of 4E-BP1 destabilizes proteins in mitochondrial respiration complexes, especially several key subunits of complex III including UQCRC2. Ectopic expression of 4E-BP1 attenuates mitochondrial abnormalities and alleviates cellular senescence in 4E-BP1-deficient hMSCs as well as in physiologically aged hMSCs. These f indings together demonstrate that 4E-BP1 functions as a geroprotector to mitigate human stem cell senescence and maintain mitochondrial homeostasis, particularly for the mitochondrial respiration complex III, thus providing a new potential target to counteract human stem cell senescence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Cellular Senescence , Homeostasis , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Electron Transport Complex III/metabolism , Cells, Cultured
19.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 929-946, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982431

ABSTRACT

A decline in the activities of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes has been consistently reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and animal models of ALS, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we report that receptor expression enhancing protein 1 (REEP1) acts as an important regulator of complex IV assembly, which is pivotal to preserving motor neurons in SOD1G93A mice. We found the expression of REEP1 was greatly reduced in transgenic SOD1G93A mice with ALS. Moreover, forced expression of REEP1 in the spinal cord extended the lifespan, decelerated symptom progression, and improved the motor performance of SOD1G93A mice. The neuromuscular synaptic loss, gliosis, and even motor neuron loss in SOD1G93A mice were alleviated by increased REEP1 through augmentation of mitochondrial function. Mechanistically, REEP1 associates with NDUFA4, and plays an important role in preserving the integrity of mitochondrial complex IV. Our findings offer insights into the pathogenic mechanism of REEP1 deficiency in neurodegenerative diseases and suggest a new therapeutic target for ALS.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase-1/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Mice, Transgenic , Spinal Cord/pathology , Mitochondria/physiology , Disease Models, Animal
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e380423, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1439115

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) confers cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the precise mechanisms involved in RIPC-induced cardioprotection are not fully explored. The present study was aimed to identify the role of melatonin in RIPC-induced late cardioprotective effects in rats and to explore the role of H2 S, TNF-α and mitoKATP in melatoninmediated effects in RIPC. Methods: Wistar rats were subjected to RIPC in which hind limb was subjected to four alternate cycles of ischemia and reperfusion of 5 min duration by using a neonatal blood pressure cuff. After 24 h of RIPC or ramelteon-induced pharmacological preconditioning, hearts were isolated and subjected to IR injury on the Langendorff apparatus. Results: RIPC and ramelteon preconditioning protected the hearts from IR injury and it was assessed by a decrease in LDH-1, cTnT and increase in left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP). RIPC increased the melatonin levels (in plasma), H2 S (in heart) and decreased TNF-α levels. The effects of RIPC were abolished in the presence of melatonin receptor blocker (luzindole), ganglionic blocker (hexamethonium) and mitochondrial KATP blocker (5-hydroxydecanoic acid). Conclusion: RIPC produce delayed cardioprotection against IR injury through the activation of neuronal pathway, which may increase the plasma melatonin levels to activate the cardioprotective signaling pathway involving the opening of mitochondrial KATP channels, decrease in TNF-α production and increase in H2 S levels. Ramelteon-induced pharmacological preconditioning may also activate the cardioprotective signaling pathway involving the opening of mitochondrial KATP channels, decrease in TNF-α production and increase in H2 S levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Troponin/physiology , Cardiotonic Agents , Ischemic Preconditioning , Melatonin/analysis , Myocardial Infarction/veterinary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Rats, Wistar/physiology , Mitochondria
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