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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e245592, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355866


Abstract In recent years, the development of high-throughput technologies for obtaining sequence data leveraged the possibility of analysis of protein data in silico. However, when it comes to viral polyprotein interaction studies, there is a gap in the representation of those proteins, given their size and length. The prepare for studies using state-of-the-art techniques such as Machine Learning, a good representation of such proteins is a must. We present an alternative to this problem, implementing a fragmentation and modeling protocol to prepare those polyproteins in the form of peptide fragments. Such procedure is made by several scripts, implemented together on the workflow we call PolyPRep, a tool written in Python script and available in GitHub. This software is freely available only for noncommercial users.

Resumo Nos últimos anos, o desenvolvimento de tecnologias de alto rendimento para obtenção de dados sequenciais potencializou a possibilidade de análise de dados proteicos in silico. No entanto, quando se trata de estudos de interação de poliproteínas virais, existe uma lacuna na representação dessas proteínas, devido ao seu tamanho e comprimento. Para estudos utilizando técnicas de ponta como o Aprendizado de Máquina, uma boa representação dessas proteínas é imprescindível. Apresentamos uma alternativa para este problema, implementando um protocolo de fragmentação e modelagem para preparar essas poliproteínas na forma de fragmentos de peptídeos. Tal procedimento é feito por diversos scripts, implementados em conjunto no workflow que chamamos de PolyPRep, uma ferramenta escrita em script Python e disponível no GitHub. Este software está disponível gratuitamente apenas para usuários não comerciais.

HIV Protease , Polyproteins , Software , Molecular Docking Simulation
Eng. sanit. ambient ; 27(1): 169-173, jan.-fev. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364814


ABSTRACT This work presented the development and testing of a large-scale rainfall simulator (LSRS) to be used as a research tool on rainfall-runoff and associated transport processes in urban areas. The rainfall simulator consists of a pressurized water supply system which supplies a set of 16 full-cone nozzles. Artificial rainfall with different rainfall intensities can be produced over an area of 100 m2 in a V shape. The assembly is housed in a tailor-made acrylic structure to eliminate the influence of wind and natural rainfall. Runoff is measured and collected at the outlet of the drainage basin, from where it is pumped to a storage tank that enables the reuse of water. Runoff hydrographs and pollutographs are presented as examples of possible outcomes from this facility. The LSRS is showed to be able to reproduce the rainfall-runoff and pollutant transport processes under simulated rainfall events with intensity and spatial uniformity similar to other experiments described in the literature.

RESUMO Este trabalho apresentou o desenvolvimento e teste de um simulador de chuva em larga escala (large-scale rainfall simulator — LSRS) para utilização em pesquisa sobre o processo de chuva-vazão e processos associados em áreas urbanas. O simulador é composto por um sistema pressurizado de abastecimento de água que abastece um conjunto de 16 bicos aspersores. Chuvas artificiais com diferentes intensidades de precipitação podem ser produzida sobre uma bacia de drenagem com área de 100.0 m2 em forma de V. O simulador é protegido por uma estrutura em acrílico que elimina a influência do vento e da chuva natural. A vazão é medida e coletada no exutório da bacia de drenagem, de onde é bombeada para um reservatório de armazenamento que permite a reutilização da água. Hidrogramas de vazão e polutogramas são apresentados como exemplos de possíveis resultados de ensaios a serem realizados com este equipamento. O LSRS demonstrou ser possível reproduzir o processo de chuva-vazão e processos associados sob eventos de chuva simulada com intensidade e distribuição espacial semelhantes a outros experimentos descritos na literatura.

Eng. sanit. ambient ; 27(1): 55-65, jan.-fev. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364818


RESUMO A impermeabilização de áreas em centros urbanos, resultante do processo de ocupação desordenada do solo, contribui para o aumento e a aceleração do escoamento superficial e, consequentemente, para a ocorrência de enchentes e inundações em bacias urbanas. Nesse contexto, atualmente, modelos hidrológicos vêm sendo empregados no desenvolvimento de políticas públicas de gestão das águas urbanas, com vistas à drenagem urbana sustentável. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo usar um modelo hidrológico para a bacia do ribeirão Vai e Volta, localizada no município de Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, para simular o hidrograma de cheia em um canal urbano. Utilizou-se o software Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) calibrando o modelo a dados de chuva e vazão medidos. Realizou-se a calibração manual do modelo para dois eventos de precipitação com a obtenção do coeficiente de eficiência de Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE) médio de 0,73 e erros da vazão de pico e do volume escoado inferiores a 15%. O modelo foi validado para outros três eventos distintos e obteve-se ajuste NSE médio de 0,79 e erros da vazão de pico e do volume escoado inferiores a 5%.

ABSTRACT The waterproofing of areas in urban centers, resulting from the disorderly occupation of the soil, contributes to increase and accelerate the runoff and, consequently, to the occurrence of floods and inundation in urban watersheds. In this context, hydrological models are currently being used in the development of public policies for urban water management, related to sustainable urban drainage. The present work aimed to use a hydrological model for the watershed of the Vai e Volta stream, located in the city of Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, to simulate the flood hydrograph in an urban open channel. The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) software was used, calibrating the model to measured rainfall and flow data. The model was manually calibrated for two rainfall events with an average Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) of 0.73 and errors in peak flow and runoff volume below 15%. The model was validated for three other distinct events and an average NSE adjustment of 0.79 was obtained and errors in peak flow and runoff volume below 5%.

Health SA Gesondheid (Print) ; 27(NA): 1-10, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380122


Background: The proliferation of information through social media and on other communication networks during the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era altered information transfer in many countries. The content of the messages from government officials, media coverage and alternative narratives, affected the level of compliance in adhering to the various health protocols amongst the public. Aim: This article aimed to determine the relationship between the message used, media coverage, alternative narratives, the public's attitude towards staying at home and their commitment to stay at home during the COVID-19 pandemic campaign period in Ghana. Setting: A total of 352 respondents was sampled from the Kumasi metropolis. Methods: A survey sample strategy and a convenience sampling technique were used while structural equation modelling with Partial least square (PLS) version 3.0 was used for the analysis. Results: The study revealed that the nature of media coverage employed and the alternative narratives had a significant positive effect on the attitude of the respondents, whilst the content of the message had insignificant effects on the attitude of the public. Finally, the attitude of the people had a significant positive influence on their respective commitment to stay home. Conclusion: Developing countries in Africa need to fight pandemics using purely subsidised health officials or directorates rather than have government-appointed health experts and officials spearheading activities during a pandemic.

Surveys and Questionnaires , Coronavirus , Communication , Social Media , COVID-19 , Public Health
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E096-E101, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904371


Objective To establish the three-dimensional (3D) statistical shape model (SSM) of the foot, so as to reveal the 3D foot shape variations. Methods Foot data from 50 normal Chinese young males were used for 3D statistical shape modelling. Steps, including mesh registration of foot surface, axis alignment and principal component (PC) analysis (dimension reduction), were performed to obtain the parameterized foot shape (mean shape and standard deviation of PC). Results Through the principal component analysis (PCA), the 3D foot shape varied in the length and width (PC1, 48.01%), arch and dorsal height (PC2, 11.38%), and hallux abduction-adduction position (PC3, 7.48%). Conclusions Based on the parameterised 3D foot SSM, these datasets can be applied into the population-based shoe last manufacture, orthotics customization and quick diagnosis of foot disorders in clinic.

Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21210130, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278436


Abstract This research aims to compare the classical thin-layer models, stepwise fit regression method (SRG) and artificial neural networks (ANN) in the modelling of drying kinetics of shrimp shell and crab exoskeleton. Thus, drying curves were obtained using a convective dryer (3.0 m/s) at temperatures of 30.45 and 60oC. The results showed a decreasing tendency for the drying time as the temperature increased for both materials. Drying curves modelling of both materials showed fitted results with R 2 adj >0.998 and MRE<13.128% for some thin-layer models. On the other hand, by SRG a simple model could be obtained as a function of time and temperature, with the greatest accuracy being found in the modelling of experimental data of crab exoskeleton, with MRE<10.149%. Finally, the ANNs were employed successfully in the modelling of drying kinetics, showing high prediction quality with the trained recurrent ANN models.

Crustacea , Animal Shells , Kinetics , Neural Networks, Computer , Models, Anatomic
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e05532020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155536


Abstract INTRODUCTION Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has been transmitted to more than 200 countries, with 92.5 million cases and 1,981,678 deaths. METHODS This study applied a mathematical model to estimate the increase in the number of cases in São Paulo state, Brazil during four epidemic periods and the subsequent 300 days. We used different types of dynamic transmission models to measure the effects of social distancing interventions, based on local contact patterns. Specifically, we used a model that incorporated multiple transmission pathways and an environmental class that represented the pathogen concentration in the environmental reservoir and also considered the time that an individual may sustain a latent infection before becoming actively infectious. Thus, this model allowed us to show how the individual quarantine and active monitoring of contacts can influence the model parameters and change the rate of exposure of susceptible individuals to those who are infected. RESULTS The estimated basic reproductive number, R o , was 3.59 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.48 - 3.72). The mathematical model data prediction coincided with the real data mainly when the social distancing measures were respected. However, a lack of social distancing measures caused a significant increase in the number of infected individuals. Thus, if social distancing measures are not respected, we estimated a difference of at least 100,000 cases over the next 300 days. CONCLUSIONS: Although the predictive capacity of this model was limited by the accuracy of the available data, our results showed that social distancing is currently the best non-pharmacological measure.

Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Epidemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Quarantine , Betacoronavirus
Biota Neotrop. (Online, Ed. ingl.) ; 22(1): e20211305, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364390


Abstract: We analyzed the overlap of the range of Pygochelidon melanoleuca in Brazil with active and planned hydropower plants in the country (current and future scenarios). We used the Random Forest, Maxent and Support Vector Machine algorithms to model the potential range of the species, which we then overlapped with the locations of active and planned hydropower plants in order to calculate how much the potential area of this species is and will be affected by them. Approximately 35% of active hydropower plants currently overlap with the potential distribution area of P. melanoleuca, and 44% of planned hydropower plants also coincide with this area. If the implementation of the planned hydropower plants occurs, the suitable habitat necessary for nesting and foraging of P. melanoleuca will be severely compromised.

Resumo: Analisamos a sobreposição da distribuição de Pygochelidon melanoleuca no Brasil com hidrelétricas ativas e planejadas no país (cenário atual e futuro). Utilizamos os algoritmos Random Forest, Maxent e Support Vector Machine para modelar a distribuição potencial da espécie, então sobrepomos com os locais das usinas hidrelétricas ativas e planejadas para calcular o quanto a área potencial desta espécie é e será afetada por elas. Aproximadamente 35% das hidrelétricas ativas estão sobrepostas com a área de distribuição potencial de P. melanoleuca e 44% das hidrelétricas planejadas coincidem com sua área. Se a implementação das hidrelétricas planejadas ocorrer, o habitat necessário para nidificação e forrageamento de P. melanoleuca estarão severamente comprometidos.

Braz. dent. sci ; 24(1): 1-6, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1145564


Objective: To investigate if video modelling is an effective technique in behaviour modelling of a child in a dental set up. Material and Methods: Fifty children aged 4-6 years indicated for pulpectomy were enrolled in this study. They were selected based on their behaviour using Frankl behaviour rating scale. Children with Frankl behaviour rating 1 and 2 were selected for this study. The video of a child who was cooperative while undergoing pulpectomy was shown to these children. The behaviour was assessed using Frankl behaviour rating scale after the video was shown to the children included in the study. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the behaviour rating score of the children before after the video of the cooperative child was shown to them. Conclusion: It was observed that video modelling is an effective technique in managing the behaviour of an uncooperative child in a dental set up. (AU)

Objetivo: Investigar se a modelagem em vídeo é uma técnica eficaz no manejo do comportamento de crianças no consultório odontológico. Material e Métodos: Cinquenta crianças, de 4 a 6 anos, indicadas para pulpectomia foram incluídas neste estudo. Elas foram selecionadas com base em seu comportamento utilizando a Escala de Classificação de Comportamento de Frankl. Crianças com classificação de comportamento Frankl 1 e 2 foram selecionadas para este estudo. O vídeo de uma criança que cooperou durante o procedimento de pulpectomia foi mostrado a essas crianças. Posteriormente, o comportamento das mesmas foi avaliado usando a Escala de Classificação de Comportamento de Frankl. Resultados: Houve uma diferença estatisticamente significativa na pontuação da classificação do comportamento das crianças antes e depois do vídeo da criança cooperativa ter sido mostrado a elas. Conclusão: Observou-se que a modelagem em vídeo é uma técnica eficaz no manejo do comportamento de uma criança não cooperativa em um ambiente odontológico (AU)

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Anxiety , Pulpectomy , Child , Pediatric Dentistry , Fear
South. Afr. j. HIV med. (Online) ; 22(1): 1-11, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1338036


Background: As the relentless coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread across Africa, Botswana could face challenges maintaining the pathway towards control of its HIV epidemic.Objective: Utilising the Spectrum GOALS module (GOALS-2021), the 5-year outcomes from the implementation of the Treat All strategy were analysed and compared with the original 2016 Investment Case (2016-IC) projections. Future impact of adopting the new Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Global AIDS Strategy (2021­2026) targets and macroeconomic analysis estimating how the financial constraints from the COVID-19 pandemic could impact the available resources for Botswana's National HIV Response through 2030 were also considered.Method: Programmatic costs, population demographics, prevention and treatment outputs were determined. Previous 2016-IC data were uploaded for comparison, and inputs for the GOALS, AIM, DemProj, Resource Needs and Family Planning modules were derived from published reports, strategic plans, programmatic data and expert opinion. The economic projections were recalibrated with consideration of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.Results: Decreases in HIV infections, incidence and mortality rates were achieved. Increases in laboratory costs were offset by estimated decreases in the population of people living with HIV (PLWH). Moving forward, young women and others at high risk must be targeted in HIV prevention efforts, as Botswana transitions from a generalised to a more concentrated epidemic.Conclusion: The Treat All strategy contributed positively to decreases in new HIV infections, mortality and costs. If significant improvements in differentiated service delivery, increases in human resources and HIV prevention can be realised, Botswana could become one of the first countries with a previously high-burdened generalised HIV epidemic to gain epidemic control, despite the demands of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Therapeutics , HIV Infections , COVID-19 , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210209


The ability of stem cells to differentiate into any desired cell type can make them an indispensable tool in COVID-19modelling studies.Stem cells derived from patients with preexisting conditions or derived from vulnerable populations such as children, can also assist scientists in understanding the unique contributions of these diverse factors to variations in COVID-19 infection responses. Innovative approaches are urgently needed to adequately address the global impact of COVID-19. Stem cell based strategies offer such an approach.Keywords: Stem cell; modelling;COVID-19.1. INTRODUCTIONThe discovery of stem cells changed the face of biomedical research. The ease with which stem cells can be isolatedand the unique abilityof stem cells to form any desired cell type renders them extremely important for understanding human physiology undernormal as well as pathological conditions [1,2,3]. With the advent of 3D organoid systems, research has taken a safer Opinion Article.

Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 37(2): 195-202, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127146


RESUMEN Objetivos: Determinar la probabilidad de control del brote de la COVID-19 en el Perú, en un escenario pre y poscuarentena en modelos de simulaciones matemáticas. Materiales y métodos: Se realizan simu laciones de brotes para la pandemia de COVID-19, usando ecuaciones estocásticas bajo los siguientes supuestos: un R0 poblacional precuarentena de 2,7 o 3,5, y un R0 poscuarentena de 1,5, 2 o 2,7, positivos asintomáticos del 18% o 40%, y una capacidad resolutiva máxima de 50 o 150 pacientes en las unidades de cuidados intensivos. Se evalúa el éxito del aislamiento y rastreo de contactos, no se incluyen otras medidas de mitigación. Resultados: En la etapa precuarentena, el éxito en el control de más del 80% de las simulaciones se daba solo si el aislamiento de casos positivos se implantaba desde el primer caso, luego se tenía menos de un 40% de probabilidad de éxito. En la poscuarentena, con 60 casos positivos es necesario aislarlos precozmente, rastrear al 100% sus contactos y disminuir el R0 a 1,5 para que el control del brote tenga éxito en más del 80% de los casos. Otros escenarios tienen baja probabilidad de éxito. Conclusiones: El control del brote en el Perú en la etapa precuarentena demandaba requisitos de difícil cumplimiento, por ello la cuarentena era necesaria; para suspenderla con éxito se requeriría una impor tante reducción de la dinámica de propagación de la enfermedad, el aislamiento precoz de los positivos y el seguimiento de todos los contactos.

ABSTRACT Objectives: To determine the probability of controlling the outbreak of COVID-19 in Peru, in a pre- and post-quarantine scenario using mathematical simulation models. Materials and methods: Outbreak si mulations for the COVID-19 pandemic are performed, using stochastic equations under the following assumptions: a pre-quarantine population R0 of 2.7 or 3.5, a post-quarantine R0 of 1.5, 2 or 2.7, 18% or 40%, of asymptomatic positives and a maximum response capacity of 50 or 150 patients in the intensive care units. The success of isolation and contact tracing is evaluated, no other mitigation measures are included. Results: In the pre-quarantine stage, success in controlling more than 80% of the simulations occurred only if the isolation of positive cases was implemented from the first case, after which there was less than 40% probability of success. In post-quarantine, with 60 positive cases it is necessary to isolate them early, track all of their contacts and decrease the R0 to 1.5 for outbreak control to be successful in more than 80% of cases. Other scenarios have a low probability of success. Conclusions: The control of the outbreak in Peru during pre-quarantine stage demanded requirements that were difficult to comply with, therefore quarantine was necessary; to successfully suspend it would require a significant reduction in the spread of the disease, early isolation of positives and follow-up of all contacts of positive patients.

An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(1): 17-30, 20200401.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095632


Actualmente, la gestión de datos en el departamento de oncología es compleja y requiere sistemas de información avanzados para procesar datos donde la información "ómica" debe integrarse junto con los datos clínicos del paciente para mejorar el análisis de datos y el proceso de toma de decisiones. Este trabajo de investigación presenta una experiencia práctica en este contexto. Se ha diseñado un Modelo Conceptual (MC) para desarrollar un Sistema de Información (SI) con el fin de gestionar datos clínicos, patológicos y moleculares de manera integral en el departamento de oncología de dos hospitales principales en Paraguay. Además, se han propuesto arquetipos basados en modelos para especificar la estrategia de interacción del usuario. El MC y los arquetipos asociados son la base para desarrollar un SI clínico con el fin de cargar -primero- y gestionar -segundo- todos los datos clínicos que requiere el dominio, mostrando cuán factible es el enfoque en la práctica y cuánto se mejora la gestión de datos. En este trabajo, queremos reforzar con esta experiencia real, cómo el uso correcto de un MC junto con los arquetipos ayuda a diseñar, desarrollar y administrar mejores sistemas de información, enfatizando la relevancia del dominio clínico seleccionado.

Currently, data management in oncology department is complex and requires advanced Information Systems (ISs) to process data where "omic" information should be integrated together with patient's clinical data to improve data analysis and decision-making process. This research paper reports a practical experience in this context. A Conceptual Model (CM) has been designed to develop an Information System (IS) in order to manage clinical, pathological, and molecular data in a holistic way at the oncology department of two main Hospitals in Paraguay. Additionally, model-based archetypes have been proposed to specify the selected user interaction strategy. The CM and its associated archetypes are the basis to develop a clinical IS in order to load -firstly- and manage -secondly- all the clinical data that the domain requires, showing how feasible the approach is in practice, and how much the corresponding clinical data management is improved. In this work, we want to reinforce with this real experience how using a CM along with archetypes correctly helps to design, develop and manage better information systems, emphasizing the relevance of the selected clinical domain

Electronic Health Records
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865650


The recent pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has raised global health concerns. The viral 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) enzyme controls coronavirus replication and is essential for its life cycle. 3CLpro is a proven drug discovery target in the case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Recent studies revealed that the genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2 is very similar to that of SARS-CoV. Therefore, herein, we analysed the 3CLpro sequence, constructed its 3D homology model, and screened it against a medicinal plant library containing 32,297 potential anti-viral phytochemicals/traditional Chinese medicinal compounds. Our analyses revealed that the top nine hits might serve as potential anti- SARS-CoV-2 lead molecules for further optimisation and drug development process to combat COVID-19.

Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1578-1589, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826819


As self-subunit swapping chaperones or metallochaperones, the activators assist nitrile hydratases to take up metal ions and they are essential for active expression of nitrile hydratases. Compared with nitrile hydratases, the activators have a low sequence identity. Study of the activation characteristics and the relationships between structures and functions of the activators is of great significance for understanding the maturation mechanism of nitrile hydratase. We co-expressed low-molecular-mass nitrile hydratase (L-NHase) from Rhodococcus rhodochrous J1 with four heterologous activators respectively and determined their activation abilities. Then we made sequence analysis and structure modelling, and studied the functions of the important domains of the activators. Results showed that all four heterologous activators could activate L-NHase, however, the specific activities of L-NHases were different after activation. L-NHase showed the highest specific activity after being activated by activator A, which was 97.79% of that of the original enzyme, but the specific activity of L-NHase after being activated by activator G was only 23.94% of that of the original enzyme. Activator E and activator G had conserved domains (TIGR03889), and deletion of their partial sequences resulted in a substantial loss of activation abilities for both activators. Replacing the N-terminal sequence of activator G with the N-terminal sequence of activator E, and adding the C-terminal sequence of activator E to the C-terminus of activator G could increase the specific activity of L-NHase by 178.40%. The activation by nitrile hydratase activators was universal and specific, and the conserved domains of activators were critical for activation, while the N-terminal domain and C-terminal domain also had important effects on activation.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190377, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092223


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Snakebites represent a serious global public health problem, especially in tropical countries. In Brazil, the incidence of snakebites ranges from 19 to 22 thousand cases per 100000 persons annually. The state of Rondônia, in particular, has had an increasing incidence of snakebites. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study on snakebites was conducted from January 2007 to December 2018. Brazil's Information System for Notifiable Diseases was queried for all snakebites reported in Porto Velho, Ariquemes, Cacoal, and Vilhena. Data on land surface temperatures during the day and night, precipitation, and humidity were obtained using the Google Earth Engine. A Bayesian time series model was constructed to describe the pattern of snakebites and their relationship with climate data. RESULTS: In total, 6326 snakebites were reported in Rondônia. Accidents were commonly caused by Bothrops sp. (n=2171, 81.80%). Snakebites most frequently occurred in rural areas (n=2271, 85.5%). Men, with a median age of 34 years (n=2101, 79.1%), were the most frequent bitten. Moderate clinical manifestation was the most common outcome of an accident (n=1101, 41.50%). There were clear seasonal patterns with respect to rainfall, humidity, and temperature. Rainfall and land surface temperature during the day or night did not increase the risk of snakebites in any city; however, changes in humidity increased the risk of snakebites in all cities. CONCLUSION: This study identified the population exposed to snakes and the influence of anthropic and climatic factors on the incidence of snakebites. According to climate data, changes in humidity increased the risk of snakebites.

Humans , Animals , Adult , Snake Bites/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Humidity
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877227


@#Introduction: Eating behaviour pattern is among the key behavioural factors that contribute to eating disorders. Hence, to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the Eating Behaviour Pattern Questionnaire (EBPQ) that is used in epidemiological studies to measure the relationship between health outcomes and eating behaviour patterns, this study aimed to validate the adopted version of the EBPQ and to check the validity and reliability of this tool in University of Malaya, Malaysia. Methods: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to determine the most appropriate factor structure of EBPQ. Moreover, structural equation modelling (SEM) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of EBPQ. As for the participants of the study, multi-stage random sampling was used and 200 students (109 females and 91 males) from University of Malaya were chosen. Results: The EFA yielded nine components of EBPQ including emotional eating, eating outside, cultural habit, low-fat eating, meal skipping, snacking, healthy eating, planning for food and sweets, which explained 67.7% of the total variance. Furthermore, the Cronbach’s α was about 0.8 for all components, which exhibited a high internal consistency among the obtained components. The results showed that the questionnaire had sufficient convergent and discriminant validity. Conclusion: The EBPQ was proven to be a reliable tool to measure the eating behaviour patterns in Malaysian university students. The presence of adequate validity and reliability supports this instrument’s psychometric properties for future studies.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875801


@#Introduction: Detecting breast cancer at earlier stage is crucial to increase the survival rate. Mammography as the golden screening tool has shown to be less effective for younger women due to denser breast tissue. Infrared Thermography has been touted as an adjunct modality to mammography. Further investigation of thermal distribution in breast cancer patient is important prior to its clinical interpretation. Therefore, thermal profiling using 3D computational simulation was carried out to understand the effect of changes in size and location of tumour embedded in breast to the surface temperature distribution at different breast densities. Methods: Extremely dense (ED) and predominantly fatty dense (PF) breast models were developed and simulated using finite element analysis (FEA). Pennes’ bioheat equation was adapted to show the heat transfer mechanism by providing appropriate thermophysical properties in each tissue layer. 20 case studies with various tumour size embedded at two asymmetrical positions in the breast models were analysed. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed by recording the temperature values along the arc of breast, calculating of temperature difference at the peaks and comparing multiple thermal images. Results: Bigger size of tumour demands a larger increase in breast surface temperatures. As tumour is located far from the centre of the breast or near to the edge, there was a greater shift of temperature peak. Conclusion: Size and location of tumour in various levels of breast density should be considered as a notable factor to thermal profile on breast when using thermography for early breast cancer detection.

Rev. med. vet. (Bogota) ; (39): 55-62, jul,-dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139273


Resumen La displasia del codo (DC), es un término general, usado para designar una enfermedad hereditaria poligénica del codo de los perros. Los huesos de las articulaciones involucradas son tres: húmero, ulna y radio, que dan lugar a tres articulaciones: humeroradial, humeroulnar y radioulnar. Cuatro procesos configuran dicha enfermedad, en forma independiente o en combinación: I) Fractura del proceso coronoides medial, II) Osteocondritis disecante del cóndilo del húmero, III) No unión del proceso ancóneo y IV) Incongruencia entre radio y ulna. Con el objetivo de contribuir al mejor conocimiento de esta enfermedad, se investigó si existía alguna asociación entre la mecánica del funcionamiento de las articulaciones del codo y la DC. Para ello, y empleando los programas informáticos I-DEAS 9.0 y ABAQUS 6.3, usados en ingeniería para el cálculo de reparto y distribución de esfuerzos en estructuras malladas, se construyó un modelo tridimensional de la articulación, a partir de su tomografía computarizada. Así, se ha conseguido información precisa de la distribución de las fuerzas que actúan en la superficie articular del codo, tanto cuando soporta las cargas del peso del animal como tras la acción muscular selectiva. Mediante este modelo biomecánico se han podido encontrar varias asociaciones entre las zonas lesionadas en la DC y las regiones articulares que hacen más esfuerzos mecánicos, así mismo, permite focalizar la exploración radiológica de animales con posible DC y diseñar unos hábitos terapéuticos en su tratamiento traumatológico. Todo lo anterior podría constituir el inicio de otros posibles estudios epidemiológicos y biomecánicos más complejos.

Abstract Elbow dysplasia (ED) is a general term used to name a polygenic hereditary disease in dogs. Three bones are involved -humerus, ulna and radius- creating three articulations: humeroradial, humeroulnar, and radioulnar. Four processes characterize the disease, either independently or combined: I) fracture in the medial coronoid process; II) osteochondritis dissecans of the humerus condyle; III) ununited anconeal process; and IV) radius-ulna incongruence. To contribute to a better understanding of the disease, this work enquires whether the elbow joint functional mechanics is associated with the ED. To do so -and using the I-DEAS 9.0 and ABAQUS 6.3 software that engineers use for calculating the effort distribution and delivery in grid structures- a joint 3D model was designed based on computer-aided tomography. This way accurate information has been obtained about the distribution of the forces acting in the elbow articular surface, both when holding the animal weight loads and after a selective muscle action. This biomechanic model has enabled to find different associations between the ED injured areas and the articular regions making the greater mechanic efforts. Likewise, it allows focusing the radiological exploration of animals with potential DE and designing therapeutic habits for the trauma treatment. All this may be the starting point for studying other more complex epidemiological and biomechanic conditions.

Resumo A displasia de cotovelo (DC) é um termo geral, usado para designar uma doença hereditária poligênica do cotovelo de cães. Os ossos das articulações envolvidas são três: úmero, ulna e rádio, que dão lugar a três articulações: humerorradial, humeroulnar e radioulnar. Quatro processos configuram esta doença, independentemente ou em combinação: I) Fratura do processo coronóide medial, II) Osteocondrite dissecante do côndilo do úmero, III) Não união do processo anconeal e IV) Incongruência entre o radio e a ulna. Para contribuir para o melhor conhecimento desta doença, pesquisou-se si havia associação entre a mecânica do funcionamento das articulações do cotovelo e a DC. Para isso, e empregando os programas informáticos I-DEAS 9.0 e ABAQUS 6.3 usados na engenharia para o cálculo de reparto e distribuição de esforços em estruturas de malha, construiu-se um modelo tridimensional da articulação a partir da sua tomografia computadorizada. Assim, conseguiu-se informação exata da distribuição das forcas que atuam na superfície articular do cotovelo, tanto quando suporta as cargas do peso do animal quanto após a ação muscular seletiva. Mediante esse modelo biomecânico varias associações foram encontradas entre as zonas lesionadas na DC e as regiões articulares que fazem mais esforços mecânicos, além de permitir focar a exploração radiológica de animais com possível DC e desenhar hábitos terapêuticos no seu tratamento do trauma. Todo isso poderia constituir o começo de outros possíveis estudos epidemiológicos e biomecânicos mais complexos.

J Genet ; 2019 Nov; 98: 1-10
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215381


Cancer is one of the deadliest complex diseases having multigene nature where the role of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been well explored in multiple genes. TOX high mobility group box family member 3 (TOX3) is one such gene, in which SNPs have been found to be associated with breast cancer. In this study, we have examined the potentially damaging nonsynonymous SNPs(nsSNPs) in TOX3 gene using in silico tools, namely PolyPhen2, SNP&GO, PhD-SNP and PROVEAN, which were further confirmed by I-Mutant, MutPred1.2 and ConSurf for their stability, functional and structural effects. nsSNPs rs368713418 (A266D), rs751141352 (P273S, P273T), rs200878352 (A275T) have been found to be the most deleterious that may have a vital role in breast cancer. Premature stop codon producing SNPs (Q527STOP), rs1259790811 (G495STOP), rs1294465822 (S395STOP) and rs1335372738 (G8STOP) were also found having prime importance in truncated and malfunctional protein formation. We also characterized regulatory SNPs for its potential effect on TOX3 gene regulation and found nine SNPs that may affect the gene regulation. Further, we have also designed 3D models using I-TASSER for the wild type and four mutant TOX3 proteins. Our study concludes that these SNPs can be of prime importance while studying breast cancer and other associated diseases as well. They are required to be studied in model organisms and cell cultures, and may have potential importance in personalized medicines and gene therapy.