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Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1301-1313, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887067


In recent years, the phenomenon of glass transition has been gradually applied to the field of pharmaceutics. And it exhibits important influences on multiple operating units of pharmaceutical preparations, and the properties and storage of pharmaceutical intermediates and products. At present, it has been widely used in the process of preparations such as drying, granulation, coating, tableting, holt-melt extrusion, cryogenic comminution, and so on. Meanwhile, it showed guiding significance for the process of preparation intermediates and their products, such as solid dispersion, microcapsule, liposome, particle, tablet, and other preparation intermediates and their products. Therefore, this article conducts a detailed analysis and systematic summary of the application guidance of the phenomenon of glass transition in the preparation process, and its influence on the preparation intermediates and products, so as to provide theoretical guidance for preparation production and product storage.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879066


For the field detection problems of critical quality attribute(CQA) of moisture content in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) manufacturing process, big brand TCM Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills were used as the carrier, to establish a moisture content NIR field detection model with or without cellophane in real world production with use of near infrared(NIR) spectroscopy combined with stoichiometry. With the moisture content determined by drying method as reference value, the partial least square method(PLS) was used to analyze the correlation between the spectrum and the moisture reference value. Then the spectral pretreatment methods were screened and optimized to further improve the accuracy and stability of the model. The results showed that the best quantitative model was developed by the spectral data pretreatment of standard normal variate(SNV) with the latent variable factor number of 2 and 7 of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills with or without cellophane samples. The prediction coefficient of determination(R_(pre)~2) and standard deviation of prediction(RMSEP) of the model with cellophane samples were 0.765 7 and 0.157 2%; R_(pre)~2 and RMSEP of the model without cellophane samples were 0.772 2 and 0.207 8%. The NIR quantitative models of moisture content of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills with and without cellophane both showed good predictive performance to realize the rapid, accurate and non-destructive quantitative analysis of moisture content in such pills, and provide a method for the field quality control of the critical chemical attributes of moisture in the manufacturing of big brand TCM.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Least-Squares Analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(4): 1283-1291, 01-06-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147241


The evaluation of the physiological potential of sweet corn seeds is fundamental in the production process, because the germination and vigor reflect the potential for storage, commercialization and use of these seeds. The choice of vigor tests with an adequate and efficient analysis methodology is fundamental to obtaining reliable results. In this sense, the objective of this study was to assess the physiological potential of sweet corn seeds after hydration using different moistening methods to increase water content to 20%. First, the lot of seeds was characterized as to its moisture content and initial physiological potential. Subsequently, two experiments were conducted, both under a completely randomized design. In the first experiment, different volumes of water on the filter paper sheets were assessed for seed hydration a method that uses a wet substrate. In the second, four hydration methods were evaluated: wet substrate (WS), humid atmosphere (HU), immersion in water (IW) and addition of the required amount of water (WR). A constant temperature of 25ºC was used in both experiments and then the moisture content and physiological potential of seeds were determined. The humid atmosphere method reduces the physiological quality of sweet corn seeds because it favors the deterioration and hence is unsuitable for the hydration of seeds of this species. The wet substrate method, in an amount equivalent to 2.5 times the paper mass, increased the water content of sweet corn seeds to 20%, achieving the desired degree of moisture without altering their physiological potential.

A avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de milho doce é fundamental no processo de produção, pois a germinação e o vigor refletem o potencial de armazenamento, comercialização e utilização dessas sementes. A escolha de testes de vigor com uma metodologia de análise adequada e eficiente é fundamental para a obtenção de resultados confiáveis. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial fisiológico de sementes de milho doce após hidratação sob diferentes métodos de umedecimento, visando elevar o teor de água para 20%. O lote de sementes foi caracterizado quanto a umidade e o potencial fisiológico inicial. Posteriormente, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, ambos sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado. No primeiro, foram avaliadas diferentes quantidades de água no papel para hidratação das sementes pelo método do substrato úmido. No segundo, foram avaliados quatro métodos de umedecimento: substrato úmido (WS), atmosfera úmida (HU), imersão em água (IW) e adição da quantidade de água requerida (WR). Em ambos experimentos foi utilizada temperatura constante de 25ºC e, posteriormente, foram determinados a umidade e o potencial fisiológico das sementes. O método da atmosfera úmida reduz a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de milho doce pois favorece a deterioração, sendo inadequado para a hidratação de sementes desta espécie. O método do substrato úmido, na proporção de 2,5 vezes a massa do papel em água, mostrou-se adequado para a elevação do teor de água de sementes de milho doce para 20%, por permitir a obtenção do grau de umidade desejado sem alterar o potencial fisiológico.

Germination , Zea mays
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 449-457, 01-03-2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146271


Forest Red Gum eucalypt provides a versatile wood and is converted into different purposes. However, such wood is somewhat limited in structural ends, which highlights the need to exploit this gap through diffusion of mechanical properties of suchtimber. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of moisture content reduction, from 30 to 12%, in physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus tereticornis, using Brazilian and American documents, to reinforce the structural potential wood and assisting engineers and architects in decision-making for its best building application. We evaluated two physical and fourteen mechanical properties of Eucalyptus tereticornis at two different moisture contents, following the prescriptions of Brazilian (ABNT NBR 7190: 1997) and North American (ASTM D-143-14: 2014) standards. Thus, 1091 repeats were carried out for all properties. By a moisture reduction, the bulk density and eleven strength properties statistically showed changes such as modulus of rupture (static bending, parallel and perpendicular compressions), modulus of elasticity (perpendicular compression and static bending), shear stress, tangential cleavage, and parallel and perpendicular hardnesses. Then, the Eucalyptus tereticornis timber could be better usable if is further applied for structural construction uses.

Eucalipto de goma vermelha prove uma madeira versátil e é convertido para diferentes propósitos. Porém, essa madeira é um pouco limitada para fins estruturais, o que destaca a necessidade de explorar essa lacuna mediante à difusão das propriedades mecânicas de tal madeira. Os resultados obtidos deverão auxiliar os engenheiros e arquitetos na tomada de decisão para a sua melhor aplicação construtiva. Esse artigo estudou a avaliação de duas propriedades físicas e catorze propriedades mecânicas do Eucalyptus tereticornis em dois teores de umidade, seguindo as prescrições dos documentos normativos brasileiro (ABNT NBR 7190: 1997) e norte-americano (ASTM D-143-14: 2014). Assim, 1091 repetições foram conduzidas para todas essas propriedades. Pela redução de umidade de 30% para 12%, a densidade aparente e onze propriedades de resistência demonstraram estatisticamente mudanças, tais como módulos de ruptura (flexão estática ecompressões paralela e perpendicular), módulos de elasticidade (compressão perpendicular e flexão estática), cisalhamento, fendilhamento e as durezas perpendicular e paralela. Então, a madeira de Eucalyptus tereticornispoderia ser melhor utilizável se for também aplicada para usos construtivos estruturais.

Wood , Eucalyptus , Humidity
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190538, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132222


Abstract Sweet orange juice is an important part of diet since it is nutritious beverage offering good taste and play significant part in a healthy diet. High hygroscopicity, thermo-plasticity and presence of low molecular weight components in sweet orange juice offer low glass transition temperature (Tg), likely to form soft particle with sticky surface leading to sticky powder during drying. Maltodextrins are amorphous drying aids that tend to inhibit sugar crystallization and form a high Tg product after drying. In this study, the effect of the different spray drying parameters on the quality of powder derived from control and concentrated juice at three inlet air temperatures 120, 130 and 140 °C and at three levels of juice total soluble solids (TSS): maltodextrin levels at 1:0.5; 1:1 and 1:1.5 were studied. The impact of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration has significantly affected various properties of sweet orange powder. For control juice, process yields increased with increase in inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration. However, for reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate, process yield increased with increase in maltodextrin concentration and decreased with increase in inlet air temperature. For control juice, process yields obtained were in the range of 12.59-41.16% and in case of concentrated juice, the process yield obtained was in the range of 21.35-56.95% at different combinations of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentrations. Spray-dried powder was considered as "possible" and "fair" in terms of flowability and cohesiveness. Vitamin C retention was high at lower inlet air temperature with lower concentration of maltodextrin.

Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Temperature , Food Production , Citrus sinensis , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/analysis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846353


Objective: The moisture absorption of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (RRR) with different initial moisture content was studied under the conditions of relative humidity of 20%-85% and temperature of 5, 15, 25 and 35 ℃, respectively, so as to provide reference for the control of safe storage moisture and reasonable storage of RRR. Methods: RRR was stored at temperature of 5, 15, 25 and 35 ℃ and humidity of 45%, 60% and 75%, respectively. The samples were taken at different time points to determine its safe water activity with powder color and mildew as indicators. The isotherm adsorption data of RRR at 5, 15, 25 and 35 ℃ and water activity of 0.2-0.8 were obtained by static weighing method and six isotherm adsorption models, GAB, Oswin, Smith, Halsey, Henderso and Peleg, were used for fitting and evaluation. Results: The absolute safe water activity and relative safe water activity of RRR were 0.5 and 0.6, respectively. The adsorption isotherms of RRR at 5, 15, 25 and 35 ℃ were "S" type, which belonged to type II isotherm. Oswin model was the best fitting model and the model expression was: Meq=A[Aw/(1-Aw)B. According to the model, the absolute safe water content of RRR with different initial moisture content at 5 ℃ was 9.00%, 9.59%, 8.00%, 6.71% and relative safe water content was 10.17%, 10.89%, 9.20% and 8.07%, respectively; The absolute safe water content of RRR with different initial moisture content at 15 ℃ was 8.24%, 8.83%, 7.24%, 5.86% and relative safe water content was 9.57%, 10.17%, 8.59% and 7.20%, respectively; The absolute safe water content of that at 25 ℃ was 7.17%, 7.75%, 5.73%, 4.70% and the relative safe water content was 8.72%, 9.26%, 7.26% and 6.25%, respectively; The absolute safe water content of that at 35 ℃ was 8.00%, 8.45%, 6.53%, 5.21% and the relative safe water content was 9.74%, 9.85%, 8.40%, 7.27%, respectively. Conclusion: Oswin model can be used to predict the equilibrium moisture content of RRR in storage, which can provide reference for the control of safe moisture and scientific maintenance of RRR.

European J Med Plants ; 2019 Mar; 26(4): 1-8
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-189446


Aim: The current study explores the proximate and elemental contents of three different medicinal plants, namely Cuscuta reflexa (whole plant), Cassia tora (stem) and Cassia fistula (seed pot) that have been grown in Bangladesh. Methodology: Macro (Na, K, Ca, Mg), micro (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cr) and heavy metal (Pb, Cd, As) elements, present in C. reflexa (Whole plant), C. tora (stem), and C. fistula (seed pod) were analyzed quantitatively by flame photometer and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Results: The minerals of the plants were found in substantial amounts (Na: 13763.75-16419.42 ppm, K: 6053.49-25864.92 ppm, Ca: 18912.16-2298.77 ppm, Mg: 1570.25-4602.23 ppm, Fe: 58.99-222.43 ppm, Cu: 3.16-11.61 ppm, Mn: 15.89-54.53 pm, Zn: 0.0367-50.2665 ppm, Ni: 0.9878-4.7186 ppm, Cr: 0.3279-0.8281 ppm, Pb: 0.3590-1.5030 ppm, Cd: 0.0016-0.0068 ppm and As: 0.0148-0.0675 ppm). Conclusion: It is evident that the investigated medicinal plants are enriched in some macro and micro nutrient, such as Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe etc which are important for biological metabolism and human health. On the other hand the heavy metals are present in trace amount which indicate the plants are safe for medicinal uses.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850975


Objective: To study the changes rule of active ingredients content and moisture status during the process of dry (drying/steaming) and rehydration (decoction), which could provide technical support for optimizing the dry/rehydration conditions of Chinese medicine and scientifically determine the end point of the process, and it also provides a new scientific perspective for exploring the differences in fresh/dry/processing of traditional Chinese medicine. Methods: Low-field NMR and imaging techniques (LF-NMR, MRI) were used to determine the change of water with time; The content changes of main composition of ginsenosides in different samples were determined by HPLC. Results: The results of determination of moisture and chemical composition showed that: The fresh ginseng was steamed for 180 min. At this time, the water was saturated, the ginsenosides tended to be stable, and the content of total ginsenosides was high. When fresh ginseng and red ginseng were dried at different temperatures for 12.5 h, they were not completely dried at 40 ℃ hot-air drying; The sun-dried ginseng still contained 3.02% water at 50 ℃ hot-air drying, and the red ginseng has been dried; Both of them have been dried at 60 ℃, but the content of total ginsenosides in ginseng and red ginseng was the highest at 50 ℃. The comprehensive results showed that ginseng and red ginseng were better at 50 ℃ hot-air drying. During rehydration (decocting), the moisture content of the decoction for 60 min was fully saturated and the content of total ginsenosides was higher, better than 30 min and 120 min, which was a better decocting condition. The moisture content and total ginsenosides content of fresh ginseng were higher than those of steaming/drying/decocting ginseng, suggesting that fresh ginseng is great significance for preserving and exerting the basic state of the initial pharmacodynamics of traditional Chinese medicine. Conclusion: In this study, ginseng was used as an example. LF-NMR/MRI and HPLC techniques were used to focus on the changes of moisture and chemical contents during the drying (drying, processing) and rehydration (decocting) of traditional Chinese medicines. It provides a new technical method for the determination of the dry/rehydration end point and the optimization of process conditions for traditional Chinese medicine, and also provides a new scientific basis for the interpretation and exploration of the theory of fresh/drying/processing of traditional Chinese medicine.

Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(6 Supplement 1): 141-150, nov./dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-968879


The development and improvement of fruit processing technologies in powder form is a alternative to add value to the product and increase the income of the producers, being required the knowledge of physicalchemical properties of the product. The aim of this study was to determine the physical-chemical properties of soursop powder obtained by foam-mat drying. To the foam formation, albumin was added to the pulp at concentration of 7.43% in mass and subjected in mixer for 15 min; then, it was spread onto trays forming a thin layer about 5.0 mm thick, and the drying conditions were: 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C, 5.6 m s-1 and 60%. Moisture content, water activity, titratable total acidity and hydrogenic potential of soursop powder indicate good stability of the product obtained by foam-mat drying, without the need of addition of preservatives for its conservation. Reducing sugars increased with increasing drying temperature due to the concentration of the compounds caused by moisture content reduction. In addition, the color was the physical-chemical property that presented greater sensitivity to drying, mainly by darkening index. Temperatures lower than 60 °C indicate higher preservation of initial characteristics for soursop powder. Besides that, bulk density, true density, porosity and repose angle increased subtly with drying temperature.

O desenvolvimento e aperfeiçoamento de tecnologias de processamentos de frutos na forma de pó é uma alternativa para agregar valor ao produto e aumentar a renda dos produtores, sendo necessário para isso o conhecimento das propriedades físico-químicas do produto. Assim objetivou-se determinar as propriedades físicoquímicas do pó de graviola obtido pelo método de secagem em leito de espuma. Para a formação da espuma foi adicionada, à polpa, albumina, na concentração de 7,43% em massa e submetida à agitação em batedeira doméstica, durante 15 min; em seguida, esta foi espalhada sobre bandejas formando uma camada fina de cerca de 5,0 mm de espessura cujas condições de secagem foram: de 40, 50, 60, 70 e 80 °C, 5,6 m s-1 e 60%. O teor de água, atividade de água, acidez total titulável e o potencial hidrogeniônico do pó de graviola indicam boa estabilidade do produto obtido pelo método de secagem em leito de espuma, não necessitando portanto, da adição de conservantes para sua conservação. Os açúcares aumentaram com o incremento da temperatura de secagem devido a concentração dos compostos provocada pela redução do teor de água. Adicionalmente, a cor foi a propriedade físico-química que apresentou maior sensibilidade à secagem, principalmente pelo índice de escurecimento. Temperaturas menores que 60 °C indicam maior preservação das características iniciais para o pó de graviola. Além disso, a massa específica aparente e unitária, a porosidade e o ângulo de repouso aumentaram sutilmente com a temperatura de secagem.

Drying Beds , Chemical Phenomena , Annona , Albumins , Food Preservation
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 48(7): e20170883, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045165


ABSTRACT: Dairy products are a common staple in the human diet. Moisture content is an important factor in the composition of foods, and it is a parameter used to measure product quality due to its direct influence on food storage. In this study, the moisture contents of three different products (mozzarella cheese, a creamy cheese spread, and yogurt drinks) were measured using oven drying, infrared drying, and microwave drying in order to compare the results of these three methods. Three brands of each product were used, all of which were purchased at the local supermarket in the city of Goiatuba, Goiás, Brazil. The different methods used to measure the dry extract of most of the brands analyzed did not differ significantly between each other based on a significance level of 5% on Tukey's test. There was a significant difference between the methodologies used in the case of only one brand of each analyzed product. Microwave drying method wasreported to be a safe and reliable technique for analyzing dry extract from dairy products; it produces precise results, thus guaranteeing the quality of the analysis, and it reduces procedure time, thus optimizing the routine analytical processes performed in quality control laboratories within food processing plants.

RESUMO: Os produtos lácteos fazem parte da alimentação humana e o teor de umidade é uma informação importante da composição de alimentos e está entre os parâmetros da qualidade dos produtos, pois apresenta influência direta no armazenamento dos mesmos. Foram realizadas análises de umidade pela metodologia de secagem em estufa, infravermelho e micro-ondas em três produtos diferentes, sendo estes a mussarela, o queijo cremoso e a bebida láctea, com a utilização de três marcas distintas para cada produto, todas adquiridas no comércio local da cidade de Goiatuba, Goiás. Os diferentes métodos de determinação de extrato seco utilizados não diferiram significativamente entre si a um nível de significância de 5% pelo teste de Tukey, para a maioria das marcas comerciais analisadas. Houve diferença significativa, entre as metodologias utilizadas apenas para uma marca, para cada produto analisado. A metodologia de secagem em micro-ondas é um método seguro e confiável em análises de extrato seco em derivados lácteos, com resultados precisos garantindo a qualidade nos processos analíticos, como também a redução do tempo de análise garantindo a otimização desse processo nas análises de rotina em laboratórios de controle de qualidade das indústrias alimentícias.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851972


Objective To study the influence of different drying technology on the micromeritic properties of Salvia miltiorrhiza extract powder. Methods Taking S. miltiorrhiza extract as model drug, three kinds of extract powders were obtained by vacuum drying, vacuum microwave drying, and spray drying. The properties of powder were evaluated comprehensively with 13 physical indicators, including particle size, span, width, bulk density, tap density, Hausner ratio, angle of repose, compressibility, viscosity, specific surface area, pore volume, moisture content and hygroscopicity. Furthermore, the physical properties of the powder were summarized as homogeneity, stackability, fluidity, compressibility and stability of five aspects, then established the corresponding physical fingerprint spectrum. The powder properties were evaluated by the physical property values. The similarity of the three powders was compared by similarity evaluation method. And the indexes of parameter, parametric profile, and good compression were constructed to analyze the compressibility of the powder. Results The powders obtained by the three kinds of drying methods have poor fluidity and stability. The vacuum drying and vacuum microwave drying powders have good stackability, and the spray-dried powders have excellent homogeneity and compressibility. From the similarity, it can be seen that the similarity of powdery property of spray drying and vacuum drying extract is 79%, and 81.3% with vacuum microwave drying. Conclusion The physical fingerprint of TCM can be used to evaluate the influence of different drying methods on the powder science properties of Chinese medicine extract powder and the influence of physical properties on the formability of the preparation, which provides a new evaluation method for the Chinese medicine extract powder.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851548


Objective To mitigate Lycii Fructus surface crust and save drying time during drying process, vacuum pulsed drying technology was applied to dry Lycii Fructus so as to investigate moisture diffusion regulation and build the drying model. Methods The effect of different drying temperature (50, 55, 60, and 65 ℃), vacuum pressure holding time (5, 10, 20, and 30 min), and atmosphere pressure holding time (2, 4, and 8 min) on drying characteristics, moisture diffusion coefficients and drying activation energy was explored in vacuum pulsed drying process. Weibull model distribution was used to simulate and analyze Lycii Fructus drying curves. Results All the drying temperature, atmosphere pressure holding time, and vacuum pressure time holding time had significant influence on drying time. When drying temperature, atmosphere pressure holding time, and vacuum pressure time holding time was 60 ℃, 4 min, and 10 min, respectively, the minimum drying time was achieved to be 284 min. Weibull distribution model can be well described the vacuum pulsed drying process of Lycii Fructus. The scale parameter was related to drying time and decreased as drying temperature increased. The drying temperature, atmosphere pressure holding time, and vacuum pressure time holding time had little influence on the shape parameter. The shape parameter was associated with drying method. The moisture diffusion coefficient and activation energy were calculated to be 2.02 × 10-8-3.56 × 10-8 m2/s and 36.27 kJ/mol, respectively. Conclusion Weibull distribution model can well describe the moisture diffusion regulation of vacuum pulsed drying process of Lycii Fructus. The drying result had a great significance for predicting, controlling and optimizing drying process. On the other hand, the research could provide technical basis for industrial drying of Lycii Fructus by vacuum pulsed drying technology.

China Pharmacy ; (12): 1392-1395, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-515336


OBJECTIVE:To preliminarily explore the feasibility of achieving the optimal granulation interval of TCM prepara-tions. METHODS:Using molding technology of Zhongjiefeng granule as model,factorial design was adopted for test,using com-prehensive score which was weighted with grain yield and particle formation rate as investigation index,Origin 8.0 software was used to draw relationship effect diagram about comprehensive score of mixture with different moisture contents (extract powder-soluble starch)and wetting agent concentration,solid-liquid ratio;coordinate extraction was conducted by Screen Reader in Origin 8.0 software,and the optimal granulation interval of Zhongjiefeng granule under specific conditions was obtained. In the granula-tion interval,different batches of extract powder were selected for laboratory scale and prescription amplification test,and verifica-tion test was conducted. RESULTS:When extract powder-soluble starch was equal to 1:2,there was an optimal granulation inter-val for Zhongjiefeng granule,which meant when material moisture content ranged in [2.0%,6.0%],wetting agent concentration ranged in [50%,80%],and liquid-solid ratio ranged in [15.3 mL/g,18.6 mL/g],the prepared Zhongjiefeng granule met the re-quirements. Comprehensive score of verification test were higher than 85%,which proved the prepared granule was qualified. CON-CLUSIONS:The established method for exploring optimal granulation interval for TCM extract under specific conditions has cer-tain reference function to solve the problems in industrial production of TCM granulation,such as large difference between batches and poor reproducibility.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-852612


Objective: To study the change rule of water content in the drying process of hot air drying of thin layer drying characteristic and model research, and to provide reference for improving the quality of Erzhi Pills (EP). Methods: The moisture ratio, drying rate of dry basis, and drying rate curves along with the change of drying time and relationship between dry basis moisture content and drying rate of EP were studied using a hot air dryer at five levels of drying air temperature in the range of 50-90 ℃. The model was fitted and verified by the empirical model Henderson & Pabis model, Newton model, Page model, Logarithmic model, two term exponential model, Wang & Singh model, Midilli et al. model, etc. Meanwhile, based on Fick's diffusion law, the effective diffusion coefficients of water (Deff) and activation energy value in EP were calculated. Results: The drying curves of EP show that the moisture ratio and drying rate of EP were closely related to the temperature of drying medium, and the moisture of the material decreases with the prolonged drying time. It could be seen from the drying rate curve that the drying rate increased with the increase of hot air temperature, and the migration of moisture was accelerated. By comparing the correlation coefficient (R2), chi-square (χ2) and standard error (RMSE), we could see that the mean value of R2 of model number 7 was the maximum, the χ2 and RMSE mean were the smallest (0.996 86, 2.43 × 10−4, and 1.93 × 10−4), respectively. The results showed that the model number 7 could describe and predict the drying process of the pills. The experimental data had the effective diffusion coefficient (Deff) value of 8.6 × 10−11—3.13 × 10−10 m2/s, and the activation energy (Ea) was 30.97 kJ/mol. Conclusion: The hot air drying process of EP can be modeled and verified. The research provides a new way to explore the drying characteristics and quality of pills.

China Pharmacy ; (12): 3106-3109, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-618163


OBJECTIVE:To optimize the drying technology of Zingiber officinale peel and establish its quality standard. METHODS:Moisture content was determined in samples after being dried for different time(0.5-10.0 h)under 50,60,70,80, 90 ℃. Optimal drying time under each temperature was screened by using moisture content of 7%-13% as dryness for controlling standard. Then contents of 6-gingerol,8-gingerol,6-shogaol,10-gingerol in samples dried for optimal drying time under different temperatures were measured,using the 4 gingerol contents as indexes to optimize the drying temperature and time. And verification test was conducted. The moisture,total ash,water soluble extract,volatile oil,6-gingerol,8-gingerol and 10-gingerol of Z. offici-nale peel from 10 different producing areas were detected to establish quality standard after being dried with the optimal technology. RESULTS:The drying time of Z. officinale peel under 50,60,70,80,90 ℃ was determined as 10.0,4.2,2.6,1.5,1.1 h,re-spectively. The optimal drying technology was 50 ℃ drying for 10.0 h. Verification test showed RSDs of 6-gingerol,8-gingerol, 6-shogaol,10-gingerol contents were 1.46%,1.09%,1.35%,1.12%(n=3),respectively. The quality standard of Z. officinale peel was suggested that total ash was no more than 18.0%;water soluble extract,volatile oil,6-gingerol,8-gingerol,10-gingerol were respectively no less than 18.0%,1.30%,0.730%,0.060%,0.100%. CONCLUSIONS:The optimized drying technology of Z. officinale peel is reasonable,reliable,stable and simple,which provides a scientific basis for standardizing the drying technolo-gy and quality standard of Z. officinale peel. The established quality standard is feasible.

Biosci. j. (Online) ; 32(4): 952-959, july/aug. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-965610


For proper handling of a product knowledge regarding its water content is essential. To provide fast, inexpensive and reliable results, the direct evaporation method of water in oil bath (EDABO) has been proven to be a viable alternative, at all stages of production of the Brazil nut. Therefore, adaptation and validation of the EDABO method for the almonds was developed using ten lots, five for each stage, maintaining the water content range between 3.73 and 29.13% w.b, which is the typical water content range for the product from the collection phase until its final marketing. The oil bath temperatures tested were 150° C to 200° C, from 10 to 10° C for the adaptation step. The results thus obtained were compared with the water content recorded for the same batch employing the vacuum oven method as the standard. In the adaptation step the most suitable temperature range was set. Next, the method was validated to test for the precision, accuracy and linearity of the pre-set temperature range. During this step, temperature of 150° C were observed to ensured water content results consistent with those determined by the standard method. In the validation step the temperature of 150° C revealed precision, accuracy and linearity and were comparable to the standard method. Therefore, considering the technical aspects for implementation of this method, it was concluded that 150° C temperature was validated.

Para o manuseio adequado de um produto, conhecimento do seu teor de água é essencial. Por fornecer resultados rápidos, baratos e confiáveis, o método de evaporação direta da água no banho de óleo (EDABO) é comprovadamente uma alternativa viável para se conhecer o teor de água do produto, em todas as fases de produção da castanha-do-brasil. Para isso o método EDABO para as amêndoas foi desenvolvido utilizando-se dez lotes, cinco para a fase de adaptação e os outros cinco para a fase de validação, mantendo a faixa de teor de água entre 3,73 e 29,13% b.u.. Esta é a faixa de teor de água típica para o produto a partir da fase de extração até sua comercialização final. As temperaturas do banho de óleo testadas foram 150 a 200 °C, a cada 10 °C durante a adaptação. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com o teor de água registrado para o mesmo lote empregando o método da estufa a vácuo como o referência. Na etapa de adaptação foi definida a faixa de temperatura mais adequada. Em seguida, o método foi validado para testar a precisão, exatidão e linearidade da faixa de temperatura pré-definida. Durante a adaptação, somente a temperatura de 150 °C apresentou resultados de teor de água consistentes com aqueles determinados pelo método de referência. Na etapa de validação, a temperatura de 150 °C revelou precisão, exatidão e linearidade e foram equivalentes àqueles determinados pelo método da estufa a vácuo. Portanto, considerando os aspectos técnicos para a implementação deste método, concluiu-se que 150 °C de temperatura foi validado.

Seeds , Water , Bertholletia , Humidity
Ciênc. rural ; 46(7): 1178-1184, July 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-780866


ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the quality of forest biomass energy, coming from the Caatinga, for different storage times in the field. The study was conducted in southern Piauí, between January and February (rainy season). Samples were collected containing branches and trunks of various species, and samples of branches and trunks separately in 5 sample units of 20x20m. Samples were evaluated in the general state freshly harvested and samples of branches and logs after 15 and 30 days of storage in piles in the field. The analyzes carried out were: moisture content on wet basis, ash content and calorific value. Moisture content of freshly harvested biomass ranged from 39% with two days after cutting to 79% in biomass cut and left distributed in the field for 10 days. After storage in piles for 15 days, branches showed moisture content of 18% and the logs 21%, and net calorific value of 3432kcal kg-1 and 3274kcal kg-1, respectively. After 30 days, moisture content for branches was 13% and the logs 21%, and net calorific value of 3672kcal kg-1 and 3240kcal kg-1, respectively. Ash content of the biomass was low. Cutting trees in the rainy season, with maintenance of biomass in the field for 10 days, resulted in an increment of moisture content. Branches had the best behaviour during the storage. Fifteen days of storage are sufficient for the caatinga biomass to achieve high-quality energy.

RESUMO: Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade energética da biomassa florestal, oriunda da caatinga, em função de diferentes tempos de estocagem no campo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na região sul do Piauí, entre janeiro e fevereiro (época de chuvas). Foram coletadas amostras gerais, contendo galhos e troncos de várias espécies, e amostras de galhos e troncos separadamente, em 5 parcelas de 20x20m. As amostras gerais foram avaliadas no estado recém colhido e as amostras de galhos e toras após 15 e 30 dias de estocagem em pilhas. As análises realizadas foram: teor de umidade na base úmida; teor de cinzas e poder calorífico. O teor de umidade da biomassa recém colhida variou de 39% com dois dias após o corte a 79% em biomassa cortada e deixada distribuída no campo por 10 dias. Após estocagem em pilhas por 15 dias, os galhos ficaram com teor de umidade de 18% e as toras com 21%, e poder calorífico líquido de 3432kcal kg-1 e 3274kcal kg-1, respectivamente. Após 30 dias, os galhos ficaram com 13% e as toras com 21% de umidade, e poder calorífico líquido de 3672kcal kg-1 e 3240kcal kg-1, respectivamente. O teor de cinzas da biomassa foi baixo. O corte das árvores na época de chuva, com manutenção da biomassa em campo por 10 dias, proporcionou aumento do teor de umidade. Os galhos tiveram melhor comportamento durante a estocagem. Quinze dias de estocagem são suficientes para a biomassa da caatinga atingir alta qualidade energética.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320874


Effects of nine different moisture contents on vigor of Cyathula officinalis seeds and its anti-aging mechanism were studied by artificial accelerated aging through high temperature and wet. The research results showedthat seed vigor were generally decreased after artificial aging; in general, seed vigor and its anti-aging ability are relatively stronger within the scope of 6.55%-4.78% moisture content, the increase range of seed conductivity, peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde content,and reduce amplitude of activityof dehydrogenase , superoxide dismutaseare alllower as well. And when the moisture content reduced to 5.77%, all of the germination tests index of the non-aged seeds are the highest, and the activity of peroxidase the lowest,conductivity of leaching solution relatively low, activity of dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase the highest,and catalase activityrelatively high.Therefore, in the low temperature germplasm preservation of C. officinalis seeds, the seed moisture content should be controlled close to the range of (5.70±1)% to keep higher vigor and anti-aging ability.

Rev. cuba. farm ; 49(1)ene.-mar. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-770993


Introduction: calcium is an essential nutrient required in substantial amounts, but many diets are deficient in calcium making supplementation necessary or desirable. On the other hand, spray drying is an important technology used in the pharmaceutical industry. In this process the end-product must comply with precise quality standards. Objective: To evaluate the spray drying of calcium and magnesium citrate and to make comparison with the traditional method of drying. Methods: calcium and magnesium citrate salt was obtained at bench scale from dolomite and suspended in water in a proportion 1:10 (w/v) and spray-dried. The final batches were evaluated by chemical and technological analysis methods Results: the results showed that calcium, magnesium, citric acid and total ash content have similar concentrations regardless of the used drying method. Residual moisture content of the dried product by spray drying method was higher than that of the dried sample by traditional method. Nevertheless, all the results were below the maximum allowable limit. The physical properties of the samples for each drying method were similar except for density because the spray-dried samples showed values lower than those of traditionally dried samples(AU)

Introducción: el calcio es un nutriente esencial que se requiere en cantidades sustanciales, pero muchas dietas son deficientes de calcio, lo que hace necesario suplementar el mismo. Por otro lado, el secado por aspersión es una tecnología importante usada en la industria farmacéutica. Con este proceso de secado se obtiene un producto final que obedece a los estándares de calidad necesarios. Objetivo: este estudio se realizó para evaluar el secado por aspersión del citrato de calcio y magnesio y su comparación con el método tradicional de secado. Métodos: se obtuvieron lotes de citrato de calcio y magnesio a escala de banco a partir de dolomita y se suspendieron en agua en una proporción 1:10 (masa/volumen). Posteriormente fueron secados mediante secado por aspersión. Se evaluaron los lotes obtenidos mediante métodos de análisis químicos y tecnológicos. Resultados: los resultados mostraron que el contenido de calcio, magnesio, ácido cítrico y cenizas totales eran similares independiente del método de secado empleado. El contenido de humedad residual en las muestras secadas por aspersión fue superior al de las muestras secadas por el método tradicional. No obstante, los resultados obtenidos en ambos casos estaban por debajo del límite máximo permisible. Las propiedades físicas de las muestras para cada método de secado estudiado fueron similares, excepto para la densidad, dónde se observó que las muestras secadas por aspersión tienen valores de densidad menores que las muestras secadas por el método tradicional. Conclusiones: los resultados demuestran que las condiciones de secado por aspersión estudiadas son adecuadas para el secado del citrato de calcio y magnesio obtenido a partir de dolomita(AU)

Magnesium Calcium Carbonate , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods , Sprinkle Irrigation/methods
Herald of Medicine ; (12): 1332-1335, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-478706


Objective To optimize spray drying process of Anshen bumian granules. Methods By using orthogonal design method, moisture content, powder rate and berberine hydrochloride content were indexes, and optimum technological conditions were determined. Results Proportion of microcrystalline cellulose, lactose and maltodextrin was 2??1??2. The extract was fed in at 6%. Optimum feeding in/out temperature for spray drying is 145 ℃ /85 ℃, liquid velocity was 30 mL??min-1 , and relative density of extract was 1. 15. Conclusion The process is reasonable and practical, has strong stability and good controllability, and it provides a basis for industrialized production.