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1.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 42-47, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005252

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo establish a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for rapid distinguishing Periplocae Cortex from Acanthopanacis Cortex and Lycii Cortex, so as to avoid the influence of genetic confusion on drug safety. MethodThe DSS-tagged sequences of Periplocae Cortex were obtained from the Chloroplast Genome Information Resource (CGIR) and analyzed to find the enzymatic cleavage sites that were different from those of Acanthopanacis Cortex and Lycii Cortex. The specific enzymatic cleavage site, Cla I, of Periplocae Cortex was selected, on the basis of which the primers for PCR-RFLP were designed. Furthermore, the factors such as annealing temperature, number of cycles, Taq enzyme, PCR instruments, and enzymatic treatment time that may influence PCR-RFLP were studied. The established PCR-RFLP method was applied to the identification of Periplocae Cortex, Acanthopanacis Cortex, and Lycii Cortex samples produced in different regions. ResultThe PCR-RFLP at the annealing temperature of 59 ℃ and with 40 cycles showed clear bands of the samples. When the enzyme digestion time was 30 min. The reaction produced the target bands at about 140 bp and 290 bp for both Periplocae Cortex and its original plant and only a band at about 430 bp for Acanthopanacis Cortex, Lycii Cortex, and their original plants. The method can accurately distinguish Periplocae Cortex from its confounders Acanthopanacis Cortex and Lycii Cortex. ConclusionThe PCR-RFLP method for distinguishing Periplocae Cortex from Acanthopanacis Cortex and Lycii Cortex was established. It has high stability, sensitivity, and applicability, providing a reference for the quality control of Periplocae Cortex, Acanthopanacis Cortex, and Lycii Cortex.

2.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 35-41, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005251

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo identify Lycium chinense and L. barbarum as the original plants of Lycii Cortex simply and efficiently by multiple allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MethodThe chloroplast genome sequences of L. chinense and L. barbarum were downloaded from the Chloroplast Genome Information Resource (CGIR), and then IdenDSS was employed to screen out the specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites between the two plants. Primer 5.0 was used to design the specific primers, including primers GQ-F/R for identifying L. chinense and primers NX-F/R for identifying L. barbarum. Furthermore, the primer concentration ratio, annealing temperature, cycles, and Taq enzyme were optimized to establish the optimal PCR system and conditions for plant identification. Finally, the applicability of the established method was examined with the plant samples collected from different regions. ResultThe PCR with GQ-F/R∶NX-F/R concentration ratio of 2∶1 at the annealing temperature at 59 ℃ and for 30 cycles showed specific bands at 183 bp and 295 bp, respectively, for L. chinense and L. barbarum samples from different regions. ConclusionThe established PCR approach can simply, rapidly, and efficiently identify the original plants of Lycii Cortex, serving as a new method for the discrimination between L. chinense and L. barbarum. Moreover, the method provides technical support for the research and development of classic famous prescriptions containing Lycii Cortex.

3.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 1-11, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005247

ABSTRACT

Seeds are the source for the production of Chinese medicinal materials. The seed authenticity and quality of directly affect the effectiveness and safety of Chinese medicinal materials. The seed quality is faced with the problems such as mixed sources, existence of adulterants and seeds stocked for years, low maturity, and low purity. To ensure the high-quality and sustainable development of the Chinese medicinal material industry, it is urgent to standardize the seed market and identify and evaluate the quality of the seeds circulating in the market. Seed identification methods include visual inspection, microscopic observation, micro-character identification, chemical fingerprinting, molecular identification, electronic nose, X-ray diffraction, electrochemical fingerprinting, spectral imaging, and artificial intelligence. These methods have different application scopes and unique advantages and disadvantages. According to the different species of Chinese herbal medicines and different requirements of testing sites, suitable methods can be selected to achieve rapid and accurate identification with low costs. In the future, the seed identification methods should be developed based on emerging technologies with interdisciplinary knowledge, and intelligent, nondestructive, and single-grain detection methods are needed for the modern Chinese medicinal material industry. This paper introduces the seed identification technologies currently applied in research and production, compares the principles, applicability, advantages, and disadvantages of different technologies, and provides an outlook on the future development of seed identification technologies, aiming to provide a reference for the identification and quality evaluation of seeds of Chinese medicinal material.

4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5162-5171, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008714

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the impact of the invasive pest Corythucha marmorata on the growth and quality of Artemi-sia argyi. The signs of insect damage at the cultivation base of A. argyi in Huanggang, Hubei were observed. The pests were identified based on morphological and molecular evidence. The pest occurrence pattern and damage mechanism were investigated. Electron microscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) were employed to analyze the microstructure, volatile oils, and flavonoid content of the pest-infested leaves. C. marmorata can cause destructive damage to A. argyi. Small decoloring spots appeared on the leaf surface at the initial stage of infestation. As the damage progressed, the spots spread along the leaf veins and aggregated into patches, causing yellowish leaves and even brownish yellow in the severely affected areas. The insect frequently appeared in summer because it thrives in hot dry conditions. After occurrence on the leaves, microscopic examination revealed that the front of the leaves gradually developed decoloring spots, with black oily stains formed by the black excrement attaching to the glandular hairs. The leaf flesh was also severely damaged, and the non-glandular hairs were broken, disor-ganized, and sticky. The content of neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acids A and B, hispidulin, jaceosidin, and eupatilin at the early stage of infestation was significantly higher than that at the middle stage, and the content decreased at the last stage of infestation. The content of eucalyptol, borneol, terpinyl, and caryophyllin decreased in the moderately damaged leaves and increased in the severely damaged leaves. C. marmorata was discovered for the first time on A. argyi leaves in this study, and its prevention and control deserves special attention. The germplasm materials resistant to this pest can be used to breed C. marmorata-resis-tant A. argyi varieties.


Subject(s)
Artemisia/chemistry , Plant Breeding , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Plant Leaves/chemistry
5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3140-3146, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999056

ABSTRACT

In the study, specific primers were designed based on the CO Ⅰ gene sequence of Polyrhachis dives. By optimizing the genomic DNA extraction method and amplification conditions, we established an efficient, specific, and accurate DNA molecular identification method for Polyrhachis dives. In this method, the length of the target fragment was 294-308 bp, and the other counterfeits had no target bands. In this paper, the specific identification method of the origin of Polyrhachis dives established can be used to identify the medicinal materials of Polyrhachis dives accurately.

6.
China Tropical Medicine ; (12): 489-2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979740

ABSTRACT

@#Abstract: Objective To investigate the infection of Anisakis in marine fish sold in Fuxin, and conduct molecular identification and evolutionary tracing of third-stage larvae to determine Anisakis species. Methods From 2018 to 2021, marine fish sold in the market were collected randomly, and the third stage larvae of Anisakis were detected in marine fish sold in the market by direct dissection, and the morphological characteristics were used to preliminarily identify species by microscopy; the total DNA was extracted, the internal transcribed spacer sequence of the ribosomal DNA of Anisakis was amplified, and the sequence alignment and evolution analysis were carried out. Results A total of 289 market-sold sea fish samples of marine fish sold in the market were dissected and 84 samples of Anisakis were detected with a detection rate of 29.1%, of which the infection rates of hairtail and small yellow croaker were higher, at 41.4% and 41.2%, respectively. BLAST comparison of 28 sequences revealed eight species of anisakids, including Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis simplex, Anisakis typical, Raphidascaris trichiurid, Contracaecum muraenesoxi, Hysterothylcaium zhoushanensis, Hysterothylacium amoyense and Hysterothylcaium fabri,belonging to the genera Anisakis and Hysterothylacium. The phylogenetic tree constructed from 28 sequences generally formed two topological branches, with Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis simplex, and Anisakis typical forming three separate clusters as the topology branch of Anisakis genus. However, meanwhile, Hysterothylacium, Contracaecum, and Raphidascaris formed a separate topological branch. Conclusions The marine fish sold in Fuxin City have severe anisakid infection, with a wide variety of anisakid species, the dominant species being Anisakis pegreffii.

7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3730-3735, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981505

ABSTRACT

Artemisia stolonifera is a relative of A. argyi. The two species are difficult to be distinguished due to the similarity in leaf shape and have even less distinctive features after processing. This study aims to establish a method to quickly distinguish between them. At the same time, we examined the reasonability and applicability of the specific polymerase chain reaction(PCR) method. The C/T single nucleotide polymorphism was detected at the position 202 of the sequence, based on which specific primers were designed to identify these two species. The PCR with the specific primer JNC-F and the universal primer ITS3R produced a specific band at 218 bp for A. argyi and no band for A. stolonifera, which can be used to detect at least 3% of A. argyi samples mixed in A. stolonifera samples. The PCR with the specific primer KY-F and the universal primer ITS3R produced a specific band at 218 bp for A. stolonifera and no band for A. argyi, which can be used to detect at least 5% of A. stolonifera samples mixed with A. argyi. The limit of detection of the established method was 5 ng DNA. The established PCR method can accurately distinguish between A. stolonifera and A. argyi, which provides an experimental basis for the quality control of A. stolonifera and determines whether the herbs are adulterated.


Subject(s)
Artemisia/genetics , Trichomes , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Plant Leaves/genetics
8.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 194-201, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-961699

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveIn recent years, with the sharp decline of wild resources in Arisaematis Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma and the immaturity of medicinal cultivation technology, their adulterants have appeared frequently in the market, and the main identifying characteristics have mostly disappeared in the circulation of medicinal materials. Therefore, there is an urgent need to establish a molecular identification method that can quickly and effectively identify the specificity of Arisaematis Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma. MethodAfter comparison of the rbcL sequences of Arisaematis Rhizoma,Pinelliae Rhizoma, and their adulterants, the specific enzyme cleavage sites Hae Ⅲ and Dra Ⅰ of Arisaematis Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma, respectively, were selected and identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism(PCR-RFLP). The main system conditions of PCR-RFLP reaction were established and optimized, and their durability and the ability to detect genuine, adulterants, and mixed counterfeits were investigated. ResultThe PCR-RFLP identification method of Arisaematis Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma was established. After specific primer amplification, Arisaematis Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma could be digested by Hae Ⅲ and Dra Ⅰ-restricted endonucleases respectively, at annealing temperature of 54 ℃, the number of cycles of 35, and the amount of DNA template of 3-30 ng, producing two fragments or small cut fragments with a single band between 100-250 bp, whereas the mixed counterfeits were not cleaved and both showed a band at 250 bp. The method is highly accurate in identifying adulterants and mixed counterfeits of Arisaematis Rhizoma or Pinelliae Rhizoma. ConclusionThe PCR-RFLP method developed in this study allows for the rapid identification of Arisaematis Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma.

9.
Biota Neotrop. (Online, Ed. ingl.) ; 23(4): e20231489, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527947

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the core of the Atlantic Forest biome, the Serra da Bocaina National Park (SBNP) is located in the Atlantic Forest Southeast area of endemism for vertebrates. Filling gaps in knowledge about the spatial distribution and occurrence of species in national parks is of fundamental importance to know how many species are protected and to guide conservation initiatives. Here we updated the non-volant small mammal species list of the SBNP, providing new data on species list and abundance, with species identified mainly by karyotype and/or molecular analysis. Twelve sampling sessions with a capture-mark-recapture approach were carried out in four sites in the SBNP from 2013 to 2016, during the paving works of the state highway RJ-165 (Estrada Parque Paraty-Cunha), municipality of Paraty, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Non-volant small mammals (Rodentia and Didelphimorphia) were sampled using Sherman® and Tomahawk® live traps (18,987 trap-nights) and pitfall traps (4,591 trap-nights). Thirty-two species (11 marsupials and 21 rodents) were recorded from 1,185 captured specimens. Species richness ranged from 18 to 28 between sites. Ten and 11 species were exclusively captured in live traps and pitfall traps, respectively. The observed richness (32 species) represented 91.4% of the estimated species richness for the study area. Sites 2 and 4 were the most similar to each other regarding species composition, and site 3 was the most dissimilar. The species with highest relative abundance were Euryoryzomys russatus (14%) and Delomys dorsalis (14%), while six species had relative abundances lower than 1%. Fourteen and 17 species were identified by karyotype and molecular analysis, respectively. The present study added 22 species to the park's non-volant small mammals list, which now has 37 species with confirmed occurrence. This species richness found in the SBNP is one of the highest ever recorded for the group of non-volant small mammals in protected areas of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil, corroborating the Serra da Bocaina region as a biodiversity hotspot.


Resumen No cerne do bioma Mata Atlântica, o Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina (PNSB) está localizado na área Sudeste de endemismo para vertebrados na Mata Atlântica. Preencher lacunas de conhecimento sobre a distribuição espacial e ocorrência das espécies em parques nacionais é de fundamental importância para saber quantas espécies estão protegidas e orientar iniciativas de conservação. Aqui atualizamos a lista de espécies de pequenos mamíferos não-voadores do PNSB, fornecendo novos dados sobre a lista de espécies e abundância, com espécies identificadas principalmente por análises cariotípicas e/ou molecular. Doze sessões de amostragem com uma abordagem de captura-marcação-recaptura foram realizadas em quatro áreas no PNSB de 2013 a 2016, durante as obras de pavimentação da rodovia estadual RJ-165 (Estrada Parque Paraty-Cunha), município de Paraty, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os pequenos mamíferos não-voadores (Rodentia e Didelphimorphia) foram amostrados usando armadilhas de captura viva Sherman® e Tomahawk® (18.987 armadilhas-noite) e armadilhas de queda (4.591 armadilhas-noite). Trinta e duas espécies (11 marsupiais e 21 roedores) foram registradas em 1.185 espécimes capturados. A riqueza de espécies variou de 18 a 28 entre as áreas de amostragem. Dez e 11 espécies foram capturadas exclusivamente em armadilhas de captura viva e armadilhas de queda, respectivamente. A riqueza observada (32 espécies) representou 91,4% da riqueza de espécies estimada para a área de estudo. As áreas 2 e 4 foram as mais semelhantes entre si quanto à composição de espécies, e a área 3 foi a mais dissimilar. As espécies com maior abundância relativa foram Euryoryzomys russatus (14%) e Delomys dorsalis (14%), enquanto seis espécies tiveram abundâncias relativas inferiores a 1%. Quatorze e 17 espécies foram identificadas pelo cariótipo e por análise molecular, respectivamente. O presente estudo acrescentou 22 espécies à lista de pequenos mamíferos não-voadores do parque, que passou a contar com 37 espécies com ocorrência confirmada. Essa riqueza de espécies encontrada no PNSB é uma das maiores já registradas para o grupo dos pequenos mamíferos não-voadores em áreas protegidas da Mata Atlântica no Brasil, corroborando a região da Serra da Bocaina como um hotspot de biodiversidade.

10.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 157-163, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940740

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThe internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 2 region of ribosomal gene, a DNA barcode, was employed to identify 12 medicinal Aconitum species and the genetic relationship among the species was analyzed. MethodA total of 30 samples of the 12 species were collected. The DNA was extracted with spin column plant genomic DNA kit and the universal primers of ITS2 sequence were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, followed by electrophoresis detection and bi-directional sequencing. The yielded sequences were aligned and spliced by CodonCode Aligner 17.0 and sequence variation was analyzed by MEGA 7.0. The secondary structure was predicted by ITS2 Database and the neighbor-joining (NJ) method was applied to generate the phylogenetic tree. ResultThe ITS2 sequences of the 12 species were 220-221 bp, with the average guanine and cytosine (GC) content of 64.09%, 140 variable sites, 137 informative sites, and 81 conservative sites. The intraspecific genetic distance (K2P) was smaller than the interspecific genetic distance. According to the secondary structures of ITS2 sequences and NJ cluster analysis, A. scaposum, A. sinomontanum, and A. barbatum had close genetic relationship, while the rest nine showed close kinship, particularly A. soongaricum and A. yinschanicum. ConclusionITS2 sequence is of great value for the molecular identification and genetic relationship determination of Aconitum, which provides a new method for the study of ethnomedicine.

11.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 106-112, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940733

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo establish a polymerase chain reaction(PCR) method to accurately discriminate the crude materials of Murrayae Folium et Cacumen, Murraya exotica and M. paniculata. MethodBased on the difference in chloroplast genome sequences of M. exotica and M. paniculata, species-specific identification primers P03 and P04 of M. exotica and M. paniculata were designed according to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the chloroplast genome. A multiplex allele-specific PCR identification method was established for the identification of M. exotica and M. paniculata following the optimization of annealing temperature, number of cycles, and primer concentration ratio. The established PCR method for identification was explored and verified in terms of tolerance and feasibility by investigating the type of Taq polymerases and PCR system model. ResultIn this multiplex allele-specific PCR identification method, about 330 and 230 bp of specific fragments were amplified from DNA templates of M. exotica and M. paniculata, respectively, under the following conditions:cycle number of 31, annealing temperature of 60 ℃, and primer concentration ratio of P03 and P04 of 1∶2. Consistent results were obtained for samples from different sources. ConclusionThe multiplex allele-specific PCR identification method established in this study can accurately identify the origin of Murrayae Folium et Cacumen, which can be used for the simultaneous identification of M. exotica and M. paniculata by the length of fragments in a single identification assay.

12.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 173-180, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940674

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo identify the molecular biology of various species of Tibetan Codonopsis plants based on internal transcribed spacer(ITS)2 and psbA-trnH sequence barcode technology. MethodThe genomic DNA of 28 Tibetan Codonopsis plant samples from four species (Codonopsis canescens,C. foetens subsp. nervosa,C. pilosula, and C. thalictrifolia var. mollis) were extracted,and the ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences were amplified and sequenced. The related sequences of 81 Tibetan Codonopsis plant samples belonging to 15 species were downloaded from GenBank, and MEGA 6.0 was used for sequence comparison and mutation site analysis. The GC content and genetic distance within and between species were calculated. Additionally, phylogenetic trees were constructed by maximum likelihood (ML) method, neighbor-joining (NJ) method,and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA) . ResultAccording to the mutation site,C. canescens, C. pilosula,C. pilosula subsp. tangshen, C. pilosula var. modesta,C. bhutanica,C. clematidea,C. lanceolata,C. subglobosa and C. foetens were distinguished. In the phylogenetic trees,the optimal clustering effects for ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences were obtained using the ML method and the UPGMA method, respectively, and 12 species were effectively clustered. ConclusionITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences have a high identification rate for species of single origin,but there are still some limitations in identifying variants and original variants. This study provides basis for the identification of affinity relationship and clinical safety of Tibetan Codonopsis plants.

13.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 134-140, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934024

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the types and distribution of non-polio enterovirus (NPEV) in acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases in Henan Province in 2019.Methods:A total of 513 cases of AFP were reported in Henan Province in 2019. Two stool specimens were collected from each case for virus isolation. The VP1 gene of NPEV-positive strains was amplified and sequenced. Sequence alignment and construction of the phylogenetic tree were completed by MEGA5.1 software. The epidemiological data of NPEV-positive strains were statistically analyzed by Excel 2016 and SPSS19 software.Results:A total of 39 NPEV strains were isolated from 513 AFP cases, with an isolation rate of 7.60% (39/513). Among them, 18 strains were group A viruses and 21 strains were group B viruses. Both group A and group B viruses contained seven serotypes. No viruses of group C and group D was isolated. Coxsackievirus A type 4 (CVA4) and CVA16 were the predominant types in group A, and echovirus type 11 (Echo11) was the predominant type in group B. The nucleotide identity between the NPEV-positive strains was 67.4%-100.0%, and their nucleotide identity with the prototype strain was 71.4%-85.6%. NPEV was mainly detected in scattered children under 7 years old with an isolation rate of 84.62% (33/39), and the ratio of male to female was 2.07∶1. No statistically significant difference in the isolation rate was found between different age groups or between different sexes ( P>0.05). Among the group A viruses, CVA2, CVA4 and CVA16 were widely distributed. Echo3, Echo11 and Echo30 were the widely distributed group B viruses. NPEV could be isolated throughout the year except for January. Group A virus infections mainly occurred from April to July, accounting for 66.67% (12/18) of the whole year. Group B virus infections mainly occurred in September, accounting for 28.57% (6/21) of the whole year. Conclusions:The main serotype of NPEV isolated in Henan Province in 2019 was Echo11. The pathogen spectrum and regional distribution of NPEV as well as the isolation rate in different age groups changed significantly compared with those in 2018. Therefore, it was necessary to strengthen monitoring and conduct targeted prevention and control to effectively reduce the occurrence of AFP.

14.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 393-400, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929270

ABSTRACT

Andrographis Herba, the aerial part of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees (Acanthaceae), has a wide geographic distribution and has been used for the treatment of fever, cold, inflammation, and other infectious diseases. In markets, sellers and buyers commonly inadvertently confuse with related species. In addition, most Chinese medicinal herbs are subjected to traditional processing procedures, such as steaming and boiling, before they are sold at dispensaries; therefore, it is very difficult to identify Andrographis Herba when it is processed into Chinese medicines. The identification of species and processed medicinal materials is a growing issue in the marketplace. However, conventional methods of identification have limitations, while DNA barcoding has received considerable attention as a new potential means to identify species and processed medicinal materials. In this study, 17 standard reference materials of A. paniculata, 2 standard decoctions, 27 commercial products and two adulterants were collected. Based on the ITS2 sequence, it could successfully identify A. paniculata and adulterants. Moreover, a nucleotide signature consisting of 71 bp was designed, this sequence is highly conserved and specific within A. paniculata while divergent among other species. Then, we used these new primers to amplify the nucleotide signature region from processed materials. In conclusion, the DNA barcoding method developed in the present study for authenticating A. paniculata is rapid and cost-effective. It can be used in the future to guarantee the quality of Andrographis Herba of each regulatory link for clinical use.


Subject(s)
Andrographis , Andrographis paniculata , DNA Primers , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
15.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 623-628, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958234

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the serotypes and epidemic characteristics of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) in acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases in Henan Province in 2021.Methods:Fecal specimens of 529 AFP cases reported in Henan Province in 2021 were collected for virus isolation. The VP1 regions of NPEV were sequenced. MEGA5.1 software was used for sequence alignment and a phylogenetic tree was constructed as well. The epidemiological data were organized and statistically analyzed using Excel2016 and SPSS26 software.Results:A total of 30 strains of NPEV were isolated from the fecal specimens of 529 AFP cases, with an isolation rate of 5.67% (30/529). They were belonged to group A and group B with 15 strains in each group, and no group C or group D viruses were isolated. Group A contained six serotypes and was dominated by coxsackievirus A2 (CVA2) and CVA6. Group B contained tree serotypes and was dominated by CVB3. In the population distribution, the separation rate of NPEV was the highest among children under 5 years old, which was 76.67% (23/30), and the ratio of male to female was 1.51∶1. In the regional distribution, group A viruses were mainly distributed in the central, southern and southwestern parts of Henan Province with CVA2 and CVA4 being the most widely distributed, while group B viruses were relatively concentrated, mainly distributed in the central, northern and southwestern parts of Henan Province with CVB3 being the predominant. In terms of time distribution, NPEV could be isolated throughout the year except from January to February, showing the epidemic characteristics of high incidence in spring and summer and low incidence in autumn and winter. The peak of group A virus infection was in May and the peak period of group B virus infection was from June to July.Conclusions:CVB3 was the main serotype of NPEV isolated in Henan Province in 2021. The pathogenic spectrum and regional distribution of NPEV had changed significantly compared with those in 2018-2019. In order to provide reference for the diagnosis and surveillance of AFP and maintain the polio-free status in Henan Province, much attention should be paid to the current epidemic trend of NPEV.

16.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 59-65, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920745

ABSTRACT

Objective To identify the species of trematodes isolated from laying ducks in Nanchang City using morphological and molecular approaches. Methods Trematodes were isolated from the hepatobiliary duct, gallbladder and large intestine of market-sold laying ducks in Nanchang City. Following morphological characterization, total DNA was extracted from all trematode specimens, and internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) genes were amplified using PCR assay and sequenced. Sequence alignment was performed using the Blast software, and homology and phylogenetic analyses were done in the trematode isolates based on ITS and Cox1 gene sequences. Results The morphological characteristics of two trematode isolates from the large intestine of laying ducks were similar to those of Echinostoma revolutum and E. miyagawai, and the morphological characteristics of eight trematode samples isolated from the hepatobiliary duct and gallbladder of laying ducks were similar to those of Amphimerus anatis. The ITS and Cox1 gene sequences of the two trematode isolates from the large intestine of laying ducks had 99.3% and 98.9%-99.4% homology with E. miyagawai, and the phylogenetic analysis showed that two trematode isolates had the closest genetic relationship with E. miyagawai based on ITS and Cox1 gene sequences. The ITS gene sequences of eight trematode isolates from the hepatobiliary duct and gallbladder of laying ducks shared 95.1%-95.5% with Opisthorchis sudarikovi and Clonorchis sinensis, while the Cox1 gene sequences of eight trematode isolates from the hepatobiliary duct and gallbladder of laying ducks shared 86.3%-86.4% and 85.5%-85.7% with O. viverrini and O. sudarikovi. ITS gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis showed that the duck-derived trematode isolates had the closest genetic relationship with C. sinensis, and Cox1 gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis showed that the duck-derived trematode isolates had the closest genetic relationship with Metorchis orientalis and O. viverrini. Conclusions The trematode isolates from the large intestine of laying ducts in Nanchang City may be E. miyagawai, and the trematode isolates from the hepatobiliary duct and gallbladder may be an unidentified trematode species of the family Opisthorchiidae.

17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1814-1823, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928177

ABSTRACT

Scutellaria baicalensis is a commonly used Chinese medicinal herb. In this study, we identified the germplasm resources of commercial S. baicalensis samples based on trnH-psbA, petA-psbJ, and ycf4-cemA sequences according to the available chloroplast genome sequencing results, and measured the content of baicalin by HPLC. Through the above means we determined the best DNA barcode that can be used to detect the germplasm resources and evaluate the quality of commercial S. baicalensis samples. A total of 104 samples were collected from 24 provinces, from which DNA was extracted for PCR amplification. The amplification efficiencies of trnH-psbA, petA-psbJ, and ycf4-cemA sequences were 100%, 59.62%, and 25.96%, respectively. The results of sequence analysis showed that 5, 4, and 2 haplotypes were identified based on trnH-psbA, petA-psbJ, and ycf4-cemA sequences, respectively. However, the sequences of haplotypes in commercial samples were different from that of the wild type, and the joint analysis of three fragments of S. baicalensis only identified 6 haplotypes. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis and genetic distance analysis indicated that trnH-psbA could be used to identify S. baicalensis from adulterants. The above analysis showed that trnH-psbA was the best fragment for identifying the germplasm resources of commercial S. baicalensis samples. We then analyzed the haplotypes(THap1-THap5) of commercial S. baicalensis samples based on trnH-psbA and found that THap2 was the main circulating haplotype of the commercial samples, accounting for 86.55% of the total samples, which indicated the scarce germplasm resources of commercial S. baicalensis samples. The content of baicalin in all the collected commercial S. baicalensis samples exceeded the standard in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and had significant differences(maximum of 12.21%) among samples, suggesting that the quality of commercial S. baicalensis samples varied considerably. However, there was no significant difference in baicalin content between different provinces or between different haplotypes. This study facilitates the establishment of the standard identification system for S. baicalensis, and can guide the commercial circulation and reasonable medication of S. baicalensis.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic/methods , DNA, Plant/genetics , Phylogeny , Scutellaria baicalensis/genetics
18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 514-524, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922928

ABSTRACT

Rhei Rhizoma is commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine with multiple botanical origins. Different botanical sources may have different pharmacological activities. The germplasm resources of commercial Rhei Rhizoma were determined based on the chloroplast gene matK, and the anthraquinone and free anthraquinone content was determined by UPLC to analyze quality of commercial Rhei Rhizoma. Eighty-nine commercial Rhei Rhizoma samples were collected from 40 cities in 27 provinces. DNA was extracted and the matK gene was amplified by PCR. Results indicated that the collected samples were from the same botanical origin, Rheum palmatum, and 8 genotypes were identified, including Rp1, Rp2, Rp3, Rp4, Rp5, Rp6, Rp10 and Rp12. Rp4 and Rp6, cultivated in Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces were the main circulating genotypes, representing 40.45% and 37.08% of the total samples, respectively. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the eight genotypes were mainly divided into two branches, of which the main genotypes Rp4 and Rp6 were in one branch. Genetic distance analysis indicated that the genetic separation of the eight genotypes was between 0.001 and 0.010. UPLC analysis indicated that 93.26% of the samples met the Pharmacopoeia standards. There were significant differences in the content of total anthraquinone and free anthraquinone among the samples, in which the difference in free anthraquinone was 1.01% and the difference in total anthraquinone content was 3.79%, indicating that the quality of commercial Rhei Rhizoma samples varies considerably. There was no significant difference in the content of total anthraquinone and free anthraquinone in commercial Rhei Rhizoma among different collection provinces and genotypes. This study will help guide the circulation of Rhei Rhizoma in the market and provides valuable insights for molecular identification and quality analysis of other traditional Chinese medicines.

19.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 29-33, Jan. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Agkistrodon acutus, a traditional Chinese medicine, clinically used in the treatment of rheumatism, tumor, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Due to the unique medicinal value and the difficulty of artificial breeding of Agkistrodon acutus, the supply of Agkistrodon acutus on the market exceeds the demand, and a large number of its adulterants are found on the market. In this study, the cytb gene sequences of Agkistrodon acutus and 9 snakes were compared and analyzed, specific primers were designed, and specific PCR methods were established to detect Agkistrodon acutus medicinal samples on the market. RESULTS: This method was successfully applied to distinguish the snake from other adulterated species, and tested 18 Agkistrodon acutus samples randomly purchased from six cities. Twelve samples were counterfeit and six were genuine. The standard reference material of Agkistrodon acutus was cloned by molecular cloning and sequencing, and the gene sequence difference with other species was significant. It shows that the region could be used as the fingerprint region of the target species. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method can be used as a species-specific marker and can be highly distinguished from other adulterated snake species, which is helpful to effectively avoid the problem of false sale of Agkistrodon acutus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Agkistrodon/genetics , Cytochromes b/genetics , Mitochondria/genetics , Snakes , Species Specificity , DNA/analysis , Cloning, Molecular , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
20.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 198-208, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906162

ABSTRACT

The Leguminosae perennial vines of Callerya and Millettia have many species and wide distribution, not only can be used for medicines, but also they have ornamental and insecticidal effects. With increasing demand for Spatholobi Caulis, and the reserves of wild medicinal materials are on the verge of exhaustion, resulting in the increasing number of mixtures and substitutes in the market, which makes it urgent to study the origin of Spatholobi Caulis. By referring to related literature, there are three major origins of Spatholobi Caulis, including Callerya, Millettia and Spatholobus. Callerya is separated from Millettia, they are divided and united for many times, now the official website of Flora of China has accepted the revision of them as two genera. This paper intends to compare the chemical components and pharmacodynamic effects of Callerya and Millettia, aiming to explore the similarities and differences between the two genera, so as to determine the rationality and necessity of separating Callerya from Millettia. After comparing, it was found that the chemical composition and pharmacodynamic effects of the two genera were different, which supported the separation of Callerya from Millettia, and it was not recommended to mix use of them.

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