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1.
Mastology (Online) ; 31: 1-9, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292858

ABSTRACT

The sensitivity of mammography as a screening method is low in dense breasts, which are associated with a high risk of developing tumors. Thus, molecular breast imaging (MBI) with background uptake (BPU) of fibroglandular tissue can be used as a complementary method. The aim of this review was to synthesize the existing evidence on these important diagnostic imaging tools. Three electronic databases were searched to identify original articles, including publications dating from September 2010 and September 2020, in English, conducted in any location, and addressing at least one aspect related to dense breasts and Breast-specific gamma-imaging (BSGI). In total, 22 studies were reviewed. Several advantages of MBI and BPU as complementary methods of screening for dense breasts were found. Among them, we can mention the increase in breast cancer detection rate, easy implementation in clinical practice, high patient satisfaction, low cost and good reproducibility. In view of the good results found in our review, we can conclude that the implementation of MBI, especially with BPU, can be a promising complementary tool for screening of dense breasts.

2.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 751-757, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911788

ABSTRACT

Parkinson′s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease, but due to the lack of reliable biomarkers, the clinical diagnosis of PD is challenging. Molecular imaging technology is a new technology which combines molecular biology technology with modern medical imaging. In recent years, the role of molecular imaging technology in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PD has been supported by more and more evidences, which can provide an important basis for the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PD. Although the research results of molecular imaging in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PD are increasing, the clinical application is still insufficient. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the research status of molecular imaging technology, and explore the future development direction, in order to make more rational use of this technology and better serve the clinical practice.

3.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(1): 62-65, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115643

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Obsessive-compulsive disorder is defined by the presence of obsessions and compulsions that cause marked anxiety or distress and has been associated with a disruption in corticostriato-thalamo-cortical circuitry. After treatment, around 50% of patients continue to experience incapacitating symptoms. Deep-brain stimulation has been shown to be an effective therapeutic alternative to regular treatment. Methods: Case report. Case presentation: A 54-year-old woman with a diagnosis of treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder was treated with deep-brain stimulation of the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Molecular imaging before and after the procedure was obtained and correlated with clinical features. Conclusions: Deep-brain stimulation may be a therapeutic alternative to regular care in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder and can be correlated to functional changes in suspected anatomical structures.


RESUMEN Introducción: El trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo se define por la presencia de obsesiones y compulsiones que ocasionan ansiedad y malestar marcados, y se ha asociado con una alteración en los circuitos cortico-estriado-tálamo-corticales. Tras tratamiento, alrededor de la mitad de los pacientes permanecen con síntomas discapacitantes. La estimulación cerebral profunda ha mostrado ser una alternativa efectiva al tratamiento usual. Métodos: Reporte de caso. Presentación del caso: Una mujer de 54 años con diagnóstico de trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo resistente a tratamiento fue tratada con estimulación cerebral profunda del brazo anterior de la cápsula interna. Se obtuvieron imágenes moleculares antes y después de la intervención y fueron correlacionadas con el cuadro clínico. Conclusiones: La estimulación magnética profunda puede ser una alternativa terapéutica al tratamiento usual en el trastorno obsesivo compulsivo resistente a tratamiento, y puede correlacionarse con cambios funcionales en estructuras anatómicas de sospecha.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Deep Brain Stimulation , Obsessive Behavior , Anxiety , Therapeutics , Aftercare , Neuroimaging , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865660

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have become one of the central components of the healthcare system and continuous efforts are made to bring innovative antibody therapeutics to patients in need. It is equally critical to acquire sufficient knowledge of their molecular structure and biological functions to ensure the efficacy and safety by incorporating new detection approaches since new challenges like individual differences and resistance are presented. Conventional techniques for determining antibody disposition including plasma drug concentration measurements using LC-MS or ELISA, and tissue dis-tribution using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence are now complemented with molecular imaging modalities like positron emission tomography and near-infrared fluorescence imaging to obtain more dynamic information, while methods for characterization of antibody's interaction with the target antigen as well as visualization of its cellular and intercellular behavior are still under development. Recent progress in detecting therapeutic antibodies, in particular, the development of methods suitable for illustrating the molecular dynamics, is described here.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-861037

ABSTRACT

Targeted therapy of cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) requires accurate estimation of EGFR expression in tumors. Molecular image is a molecular probe binds to a specific target molecule of a cell and detected by PET/CT, which can be used to evaluate the expression of the target molecule non-invasively, repeatedly in real time. The research advances of various EGFR molecular probes for PET were reviewed in this article.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-861012

ABSTRACT

Using smart responsive nanomolecular probes can realize tumor targeted imaging with rapid response, sensitive diagnosis and precise treatment under the guidance of imaging on detection of probe distributions and localization of tumors. MRI, especially 19F-MRI, has high sensitivity and low background noise. In recent years, smart responsive 19F-MR nanomolecular imaging probes had been applied for detecting changes of pH, enzyme activity, reducing microenvironment, hypoxia, light and thermo-responsive aspects. The research progresses of smart responsive 19F magnetic resonance nanomolecular imaging probes in diagnosis of tumors were reviewed in this article.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-860984

ABSTRACT

Objective: To prepare nanoparticles able to be used in early diagnosis and treatment of retinoblastoma (Rb), and to evaluate the in vitro ultrasound imaging capability and photothermal effect. Methods: Nanoparticles containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) shell, FeIII-tannic acid (FeIIITA), paclitaxel (PTX) and perflenapent (PFP) were prepared by double emulsification. The particle size, potential, encapsulation efficiency and drug loading rate were measured. The temperature and ultrasound signal change were evaluated after 808 nm near-infrared laser (1 W/cm2, 5 min) irradiation, and the phase transition of nanoparticles was observed under light microscope. Moreover, the biosafety of FeIIITA/PLGA/PFP nanoparticles was assessed in vitro. The following experimental groups were established according to different types of nanoparticles, i.e. control group, laser group, FeIIITA/PLGA/PTX/PFP (FPTP) group, FeIIITA/PLGA/PTX/PFP+laser (FPTP+laser) group as well as different concentrations of nanoparticles (0, 0.250, 0.500, 1.000 g/L) in FPTP+laser group. The killing effects on Y79 cells in all aforementioned groups were evaluated after irradiation for 5 minutes. Results: FeIIITA/PLGA/PTX/PFP nanoparticles were successfully prepared, the average particle size of nanoparticles was (155.8±55.68) nm and the mean surface charge was (-27.3±5.14) mV. Gray core with black FeIIITA coated nanoparticles could be seen under transmission electron microscope. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading rate of particles was (70.89±8.03)% and (9.61±0.63)%, respectively. In addition, temperature increased when applying irradiation in vitro and positively correlated with the concentration of nanoparticles. Moreover, the ultrasonic signals in B-mode and imaging-mode enhanced with increasing concentration of nanoparticles. The killing effect against Y79 in FPTP+laser group was stronger than that of control group, laser group and FTTP group in vitro, positively correlated with the concentration of nanoparticles. Conclusion: The phase changeable nanoparticles loaded with FeIII-tannic acid and PFP were successfully prepared and possessed excellent photothermal effect and ultrasound imaging effect along with a robust killing effect on Y79 cells, being expected to realize the integrated approach in diagnosis and treatment of Rb.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-860923

ABSTRACT

Early liver fibrosis is reversible and curable. Therefore, early diagnosis and staging of liver fibrosis are of great clinical significance. Targeting at the abnormal expression molecules in development of liver fibrosis, molecular probes are constructed as precise and non-invasive methods to integrate the information of human physiological and pathological metabolism, which is beneficial to early and specific diagnosis of fibrosis. The advances in molecular probes for early diagnosis and staging of liver fibrosis were reviewed in this article,

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-860916

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer is common malignant tumor. Immunotherapy is effective for patients with microsatellite instability and difficulty to treat with conventional chemotherapy. Understanding of tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) will help to improve the response to immunotherapy. Molecular imaging can visualize, characterize and quantify cellular and subcellular processes at the anatomical and molecular levels. Imaging of cell components at TIME can help to understand the dynamic development process of tumor, discover and clarify the molecular mechanism in the pathogenesis of tumor, therefore being assist for the development of effective treatment methods and accurately and effectively prediction of treatment response through identification of biomarkers. The advances in molecular imaging of TIME of colorectal cancer were reviewed in this article.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-855933

ABSTRACT

Carotid atherosclerotic plaque is closely related to the occurrence of ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease. Studies have shown that the vulnerability of carotid atherosclerotic plaque is one of the main causes of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and its vulnerability is closely associated with the core of lipid necrosis, thin fibrous cap, high levels of macrophages, and intraplaque hemorrhage. With the advantages of easy operation, low cost, high safety and time -saving, ultrasound is more suitable than other imaging methods to become the routine screening method for the vulnerability of carotid atherosclerotic plaque. The article mainly introduces several emerging ultrasound technologies and their convenience and effectiveness, which are expected to detect the vulnerability of carotid atherosclerotic plaques in clinical practice.

11.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(4): 436-444, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286530

ABSTRACT

Resumen La tomografía por emisión de positrones (PET) es una técnica de diagnóstico médico mediante la cual se obtienen imágenes funcionales a partir de registrar la biodistribución espacio-temporal de radiofármacos específicos dirigidos a blancos moleculares específicos, proveyendo información bioquímica a nivel molecular. A principios de la primera década de este siglo XXI, la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México implementó esta técnica de diagnóstico en México, convirtiéndose en pionera en aplicaciones PET en el país y Latinoamérica. Casi dos décadas después, la PET se ha convertido en una herramienta esencial en la clínica médica. En este artículo se describen los antecedentes, el estado actual, las perspectivas de la imagen molecular PET en México y el impacto que ha tenido en el manejo de pacientes con enfermedades oncológicas, neurológicas y cardiológicas.


Abstract Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a medical diagnostic technique by means of which functional images are obtained by recording the spatio-temporal biodistribution of specific radiopharmaceuticals targeted at specific molecular objectives, which provides biochemical information at the molecular level. Early in the first decade of this 21st century, the Faculty of Medicine of the National Autonomous University of Mexico acquired the technology to implement this diagnostic technique in Mexico, thus becoming a pioneer in PET applications in the country and in Latin America. Almost two decades after its implementation in Mexico, PET has become an essential tool in medical clinics. This article describes the background, current state and perspectives of PET molecular imaging in Mexico, and the impact it has had on the management of patients with oncological, neurological and heart diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Radiopharmaceuticals/administration & dosage , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Mexico , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging
12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 455-468, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774958

ABSTRACT

Cell death plays important roles in living organisms and is a hallmark of numerous disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, sepsis and acute pancreatitis. Moreover, cell death also plays a pivotal role in the treatment of certain diseases, for example, cancer. Noninvasive visualization of cell death contributes to gained insight into diseases, development of individualized treatment plans, evaluation of treatment responses, and prediction of patient prognosis. On the other hand, cell death can also be targeted for the treatment of diseases. Although there are many ways for a cell to die, only apoptosis and necrosis have been extensively studied in terms of cell death related theranostics. This review mainly focuses on molecular imaging and therapeutic strategies directed against necrosis. Necrosis shares common morphological characteristics including the rupture of cell membrane integrity and release of cellular contents, which provide potential biomarkers for visualization of necrosis and necrosis targeted therapy. In the present review, we summarize the updated joint efforts to develop molecular imaging probes and therapeutic strategies targeting the biomarkers exposed by necrotic cells. Moreover, we also discuss the challenges in developing necrosis imaging probes and propose several biomarkers of necrosis that deserve to be explored in future imaging and therapy research.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763373

ABSTRACT

In order to develop a successful vaccine against deadly diseases with a wide range of antigenic diversity, an in-depth knowledge of the molecules and signaling mechanisms between the vaccine candidates and immune cells is required. Therefore, monitoring vaccine components, such as antigen or adjuvants, and immune cell dynamics at the vaccination site or draining lymph nodes can provide important information to understand more about the vaccine response. This review briefly introduces and describes various non-invasive molecular imaging methods for visualizing immune cell dynamics after vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antigenic Variation , Lymph Nodes , Molecular Imaging , Vaccination , Vaccines
14.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 127-135, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763293

ABSTRACT

Most differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients have an excellent prognosis. However, about one-third of DTC patients with recurrent or metastatic disease lose the hallmark of specific iodine uptake initially or gradually and acquire radioactive iodine-refractory DTC (RAIR-DTC) with poor prognosis. Due to the potentially severe complications from unnecessarily repeated RAI therapy and encouraging progress of multiple targeted drugs for advanced RAIR-DTC patients, it has become crucial to identify RAIR-DTC early. In this review, we focus on the progress and controversies regarding the defining of RAIR-DTC, further with subsistent approaches and promising molecular nuclear medicine imaging in identifying RAIR-DTC, which may shed light on the proper management methodsof such patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Iodine Radioisotopes , Iodine , Molecular Imaging , Nuclear Medicine , Prognosis , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine over the last three decades have made great progress in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic methodologies for damaged tissues. However, regenerative medicine is still not the first line of treatment for patients due to limited understanding of the tissue regeneration process. Therefore, it is prerequisite to develop molecular imaging strategies combined with appropriate contrast agents to validate the therapeutic progress of damaged tissues. METHODS: The goal of this review is to discuss the progress in the development of near-infrared (NIR) contrast agents and their biomedical applications for labeling cells and scaffolds, as well as monitoring the treatment progress of native tissue in living organisms. We also discuss the design consideration of NIR contrast agents for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in terms of their physicochemical and optical properties. RESULTS: The use of NIR imaging system and targeted contrast agents can provide high-resolution and high sensitivity imaging to track/monitor the in vivo fate of administered cells, the degradation rate of implanted scaffolds, and the tissue growth and integration of surrounding cells during the therapeutic period. CONCLUSION: NIR fluorescence imaging techniques combined with targeted contrast agents can play a significant role in regenerative medicine by monitoring the therapeutic efficacy of implanted cells and scaffolds which would enhance the development of cell therapies and promote their successful clinical translations.


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Fluorescence , Humans , Molecular Imaging , Optical Imaging , Regeneration , Regenerative Medicine , Tissue Engineering , Translations
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862116

ABSTRACT

Tumor hyperthermia has become a new method of nanomedical therapy with low toxicity and high cure rate in recent years. Local hyperthermia, especially combined with surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, is effective in the treatment of malignant tumors, such as oral squamous cell carcinoma, but still has some problems in following fields,included the control of heat dose, the screening of targeted therapeutic area, the differentiation of normal cells from cancer cells and so on. With the development of nanotechnology, multifunctional nano-composites have been introduced into the local hyperthermia of head and neck cancer. Targeting cancer cells with molecular imaging and simultaneous therapy through local hyperthermia can effectively improve the accuracy of treatment, and prolong the survival of patients. The advancements of nano-composites combined with molecular imaging technology and the application for tracking oral squamous cell carcinoma in hyperthermia were reviewed in this article.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-861417

ABSTRACT

Magnetotactic bacteria encode iron nanoparticles-magnetosomes, which are regulated by a group of genes, have organelle-like structures. Their unique structures have received much attention in recent years due to the distinctive properties, including applications of purified magnetosomes in magnetic particles imaging and of magnetosome-associated regulatory genes in molecular imaging as MRI reporter genes. Although the research on magnetosomes has been increasing in recent years, its application as MRI reporter gene is still in its infancy. Molecular imaging studies of magnetosomes and related genes as MRI reporter genes were reviewed in this article.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786493

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer (BC) is themost common cancer among females withmore than 2 million new cases diagnosed worldwide in 2018. Although the prognosis in the majority of cases in the early stages combined with appropriate treatment is positive, there are still about 30% of patients who will develop locoregional diseases and distant metastases. Molecular imaging is very important in the diagnosis, staging, follow-up, and radiotherapy planning. Additionally, it is useful in characterizing lesions, prognosis, and therapy response in BC patients. Nuclear medicine imaging modalities (SPECT and PET) are of indispensable importance in diagnosis (positron emission mammography), staging (sentinel lymph node detection), and follow-up with ¹⁸F-FDG and tumor characterization. Among many available PET tracers, the most commonly used are ¹⁸F-FLT, ¹⁸F-FES, ¹⁸F-FDHT, ⁶⁴Cu DOTA trastuzumab (bevacizumab), ⁶⁸Ga-PSMA, ⁶⁸Ga-RM2 (gastrin-releasing peptide receptor), ¹⁸F-fluorooctreotide (SSTR), and ⁶⁸Ga-TRAP (RGD)-3αvβ3-integrin. Molecular imaging helps in evaluation of tumor heterogeneity, allowing a shift from one-size-fits-all-approach to era of personalized medicine and precision oncology.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Molecular Imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis , Nuclear Medicine , Population Characteristics , Positron-Emission Tomography , Precision Medicine , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Trastuzumab
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Molecular imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide the crucial pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic information of a drug non-invasively at an early stage of clinical drug development. Nevertheless, not much has been known how molecular imaging has been actually used in drug development studies.METHODS: We searched PubMed using such keywords as molecular imaging, PET, SPECT, drug development, and new drug, or any combination of those to select papers in English, published from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2015. The information about the publication year, therapeutic area of a drug candidate, drug development phase, and imaging modality and utility of imaging were extracted.RESULTS: Of 10,264 papers initially screened, 208 papers met the eligibility criteria. The more recent the publication year, the bigger the number of papers, particularly since 2010. The two major therapeutic areas using molecular imaging to develop drugs were oncology (47.6%) and the central nervous system (CNS, 36.5%), in which efficacy (63.5%) and proof-of-concept through either receptor occupancy (RO) or other than RO (29.7%), respectively, were the primary utility of molecular imaging. PET was used 4.7 times more frequently than SPECT. Molecular imaging was most frequently used in phase I clinical trials (40.8%), whereas it was employed rarely in phase 0 or exploratory IND studies (1.4%).CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirmed the trend that molecular imaging has been more actively employed in recent clinical drug development studies although its adoption was rather slow and rare in phase 0 studies.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Molecular Imaging , Positron-Emission Tomography , Publications , Tomography, Emission-Computed , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786454

ABSTRACT

Exploring the unknown is one of the key factors that lead to great discoveries in mankind history.With the advances in medicine and the development of new approaches towards patient care, like next-generation sequencing and patient-centered care, the need for treatments tailored to patient through personalized medicine has become more compelling. Theranostics has been introduced as a combination of a diagnostic tool and a therapeutic tool on the same vector for a specific disease, to facilitate personalized medicine. Nuclear medicine has shown the capability of providing a strong platform for this new approach through its arms, molecular imaging, and targeted molecular therapies. Though the prototype of theranostics has been practiced in Jordan since decades in the field of diagnosis and treatment of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, recently, the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC), a leading and comprehensive cancer center in Jordan and in the Middle East, has leaped forward to introduce the new approaches of theranostics through the nuclear medicine applications. This paper sheds the light on the most important aspects of this new theranostics practice in Jordan such as peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)–based theranostics.


Subject(s)
Arm , Diagnosis , Humans , Jordan , Membranes , Middle East , Molecular Imaging , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Nuclear Medicine , Patient Care , Patient-Centered Care , Precision Medicine , Receptors, Peptide , Theranostic Nanomedicine , Thyroid Neoplasms
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