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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244966, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360197

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dengue fever (DF) is increasingly recognized as one of the world's major mosquito borne diseases and causes significant morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical countries. Dengue fever is endemic in most part of Pakistan and continues to be a public health concern. Knowledge, attitude and practices can play an important role in management of the disease. Current study was aimed to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding dengue fever among health practitioners, to study the level of knowledge and attitude with preventive practices for dengue fever. A cross sectional study was carried out in medical practitioners of the four districts of Malakand region during October to November 2019. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from medical practitioners. Data was analyzed using Graph Pad version 5. Significant value was considered when less than 0.05 (at 95% confidence of interval). The results revealed that most of participants have seen dengue vector (62%), the media being the most quoted source of information. Nearly 81.2% participants were aware from transmission of dengue fever is by mosquito bite. Practices based upon preventive measures were found to be predominantly focused towards prevention of mosquito bites rather than elimination of breeding places. Although the knowledge regarding DF and mosquito control measure was quite high among the medical practitioners but this knowledge was not put into practice. Further studies are required to aware the people about dengue and its vector in order to get prevention and control.


Resumo A dengue (DF) é cada vez mais reconhecida como uma das principais doenças transmitidas por mosquitos do mundo e causa significativa morbidade e mortalidade em países tropicais e subtropicais. A dengue é endêmica na maior parte do Paquistão e continua a ser um problema de saúde pública. Conhecimento, atitude e práticas podem desempenhar papel importante no manejo da doença. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar o nível de conhecimento, atitude e práticas em relação à dengue entre os profissionais de saúde, para estudar o nível de conhecimento e atitude com as práticas preventivas da dengue. Um estudo transversal foi realizado com médicos dos quatro distritos da região de Malakand de outubro a novembro de 2019. Um questionário pré-estruturado foi usado para coletar dados de médicos. Os dados foram analisados no Graph Pad versão 5. Valor significativo foi considerado quando menor que 0,05 (com intervalo de confiança de 95%). Os resultados revelaram que a maioria dos participantes já viu o vetor da dengue (62%), sendo a mídia a fonte de informação mais citada. Quase 81,2% dos participantes sabiam que a transmissão da dengue é por picada de mosquito. Constatou-se que as práticas baseadas em medidas preventivas se concentravam predominantemente na prevenção de picadas de mosquitos, e não na eliminação de criadouros. Embora o conhecimento sobre DF e medidas de controle de mosquitos fosse bastante elevado entre os médicos, esse conhecimento não foi colocado em prática. Mais estudos são necessários para conscientizar a população sobre a dengue e seu vetor, a fim de se obter prevenção e controle.

2.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(2): 170-177, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395056

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos: Conocer la diversidad genética de Aedes aegypti en el corredor vial transfronterizo Central-Alto Paraná de Paraguay, con registros de casos de dengue. Materiales y métodos: Se seleccionaron veinte hembras adultas de la eclosión de huevos de Ae. aegypti procedentes de casas geolocalizadas en los departamentos de Alto Paraná, Caaguazú, Cordillera y Central, entre el 2018 y 2019. Se extrajo ADN del tejido de las hembras para amplificación aleatoria de sus patrones polimórficos mediante amplificación aleatoria del ADN polimórfico por PCR (RAPD-PCR), usando cebadores H3 y B03 a fin de conocer parámetros genéticos de diversidad poblacional. Las relaciones entre las poblaciones de mosquitos según la localidad fueron visualizadas mediante análisis no apareado de la media aritmética. Las áreas idóneas de distribución geográfica real y potencial de estas poblaciones de Ae. aegypti fueron analizadas mediante DIVA-GIS 7.3.0 y MAXENT. Resultados: Se identificaron 40 loci mediante perfiles RAPD-PCR, con diferenciación génica moderada (Gst = 0,12). El corredor transfronterizo presentó condiciones bioclimáticas para la presencia de poblaciones variantes de Ae. aegypti, siendo determinantes en la distribución la precipitación del trimestre más cálido y la temperatura media del trimestre más seco. Conclusiones: Se evidencia que existe diversidad genética moderada en las poblaciones de Ae. aegypti procedentes de zonas con registros de casos de dengue ubicadas en el corredor vial transfronterizo que une los departamentos Central y Alto Paraná de Paraguay. El estudio de variabilidad genética de Ae. aegypti es de gran utilidad para la vigilancia entomoepidemiológica y evaluación de posibles eventos de resistencia al control químico.


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the genetic diversity of Aedes aegypti in the Central-Alto Paraná cross-border road corridor of Paraguay, an area that has reports of dengue cases. Materials and methods: Twenty adult females were selected from hatching Ae. aegypti eggs from households geolocated in the departments of Alto Paraná, Caaguazú, Cordillera and Central, between 2018 and 2019. DNA was extracted from the tissue of females for amplifying their polymorphic patterns by random amplification of polymorphic DNA by PCR (RAPD-PCR), using primers H3 and B03 in order to identify genetic parameters of population diversity. The relationships between mosquito populations according to locality were observed by unpaired arithmetic mean analysis. We used DIVA-GIS 7.3.0 and MAXENT to analyze the suitable areas of actual and potential geographic distribution of these Ae. aegypti populations. Results: Forty loci were identified by RAPD-PCR profiling, with moderate gene differentiation (Gst = 0.12). The cross-border corridor presented bioclimatic conditions for the presence of variant populations of Ae. aegypti, with precipitation in the warmest quarter and mean temperature in the driest quarter being determinant in the distribution. Conclusions: There is evidence of moderate genetic diversity in Ae. aegypti populations from areas that have reported dengue cases in the cross-border road corridor linking the Central and Alto Paraná departments of Paraguay. The study of genetic variability of Ae. aegypti is very useful for entomo-epidemiological surveillance and evaluation of possible resistance to chemical control.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236151, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249247

ABSTRACT

Abstract Galls, neo-formed plant structures that can occur in different organs, are generated by species-specific interaction with an inducing organism. Inducers manipulate the metabolism of its host. Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch.) Copel. is a Neotropical epiphytic fern that hosted two stem galls, one induced by a midge species (Diptera) and other by a micromoth species (Lepidoptera). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of these two gall-inducing insects on the biochemistry of phenolic acids and the cyanogenesis in galls, stems and leaves of M. vacciniifolia. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated a total of 14 phenol derivatives, including caffeic and coumaric acid. Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) of the phenolic substances indicated three groups consisting (1) non-galled stems and micromoth-induced galls; (2) midge-induced galls; (3) midge-induced galls with parasitoids. Regarding the frequency of cyanogenesis assessed by the picrate paper test, the chi-squared test showed significant difference between fertile leaves (8.3%), sterile leaves (27.7%), non-galled stems (0%) and galls. Among galls, only the midge-induced galls analyzed were cyanogenic (15%). Our results indicated that the different gall-inducers (midge and micromoth) promote species-specific alterations to the phenolic substance composition of the host fern.


Resumo Galhas são estruturas vegetais neo-formadas que ocorrem em diferentes órgãos. Elas são geradas por uma interação espécie-específica com um organismo indutor. Os indutores manipulam o metabolismo do hospedeiro. Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch.) Copel. é uma samambaia epífita neotropical que hospeda duas galhas caulinares, uma induzida por uma espécie de mosquito (Diptera) e outra por uma micromariposa (Lepidoptera). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto desses dois insetos indutores de galhas na bioquímica dos ácidos fenólicos e da cianogênese em galhas, caules e folhas de M. vacciniifolia. Em análise de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE) foi possível indicar a presença de um total de 14 derivados fenólicos, incluindo ácido cafeico e ácido cumárico. Análise das Coordenadas Principais (ACoP) indicou três grupos (1) caules não galhados e galhas induzidas pela micromariposa; (2) galhas induzidas pelo mosquito; (3) galhas induzidas pelo mosquito com parasitoides. Em relação a frequência da cianogênese analisada com o teste do papel picrato, o teste do qui-quadrado apresentou diferença significativa entre as folhas férteis (8,3%), folhas estéreis (27,7%), caules não galhados (0%) e galhas. Entre as galhas, somente aquelas induzidas pelo mosquito foram cianogênicas (15%). Os resultados encontrados indicam, ao menos para as substâncias fenólicas, que os insetos indutores de galha (mosquito e micromariposa) promovem alterações espécie-específica na composição química da samambaia hospedeira.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ferns , Diptera , Lepidoptera , Phenols , Plant Tumors , Plant Leaves , Insecta
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942364

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution of mosquito species and their associated viruses, and identify Culex pipiens subspecies in Hami City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Methods Mosquitoes were captured using mosquito trapping lamps method in Yizhou District, Yiwu County, and Balikun County of Hami City in mi-July, 2019 and 2020. The species and subspecies of all captured mosquitoes were characterized. In addition, the flavivirus, alphavirus, bunyavirus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Liaoning virus, Tahyna virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus and West Nile virus were detected using reverse-transcription PCR assay in captured mosquitoes. Results A total of 1 496 mosquitoes were captured from Yizhou District, Yiwu County, and Balikun County of Hami City, belonging to 3 genus and 3 species. Cx. pipiens was the dominant mosquito species (986 mosquitoes, 65.91%), followed by Aedes caspius (457 mosquitoes, 30.55%), while Culiseta alaskaensis had the lowest number (53 mosquitoes, 3.54%). All captured Cx. pipiens mosquitoes were identified as Cx. pipiens pipiens based on the terminalia of male mosquitoes. RT-PCR assay tested negative for flavivirus, alphavirus, bunyavirus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Liaoning virus, Tahyna virus, tick-borne encephalitis or West Nile virus in captured Cx. pipiens mosquitoes. Conclusions There were 3 species of mosquitoes in Hami City from 2019 to 2020, including Cx. pipiens, Ae. Caspius and C. alaskaensis, with Cx. pipiens as the dominant mosquito species, and all captured Cx. pipiens mosquitoes were Cx. pipiens pipiens; however, no arboviruses were detected.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939474

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Endophthalmitis is an uncommon but serious ocular infection often resulting in probable visual loss. Bacteroides fragilis is a rare cause of endophthalmitis. Patient concerns: A 46-year-old male patient complained of eye pain and low vision after pars plana vitrectomy. Diagnosis: Bacteroides fragilis endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy was diagnosed. Interventions: Pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil implantation were performed. Outcomes: Early treatment and choice of tamponade in endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy may possibly prevent evisceration and progression of endophthalmitis. Lessons: Bacteroides fragilis can be seen in cases of endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939473

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify unique immunogenic epitopes of Zika virus non-structural 1 (NS1) antigen and produce immunoglobulin Y (IgY) for potential use in he diagnosis of of Zika virus infection. Methods: Immunogenic epitopes were identified using in silico B-cell epitope prediction. A synthetic peptide analog of the predicted epitope was used to induce antipeptide IgY production in hens which was purified using affinity chromatography. Presence of purified IgY and its binding specificity were performed by gel electrophoresis and ELISA, respectively. Results: Out of the nine continuous epitopes identified, the sequence at position 193-208 (LKVREDYSLECDPAVI) was selected and used to produce anti-peptide IgY. The produced IgY was found to bind to the synthetic analog of the Zika virus NS1 immunogenic epitope but not to other flaviviruses and random peptides from other pathogens. Conclusions: In this study, we identified an immunogenic epitope unique to Zika virus that can be used to develop a serodiagnostic tool that specifically detect Zika virus infection.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939472

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the spatiotemporal distribution of Schistosoma (S.) japonicum infections in humans, livestock, and Oncomelania (O.) hupensis across the endemic foci of China. Methods: Based on multi-stage continuous downscaling of sentinel monitoring, county-based schistosomiasis surveillance data were captured from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2005 to 2019. The data included S. japonicum infections in humans, livestock, and O. hupensis. The spatiotemporal trends for schistosomiasis were detected using a Joinpoint regression model, with a standard deviational ellipse (SDE) tool, which determined the central tendency and dispersion in the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis. Further, more spatiotemporal clusters of S. japonicum infections in humans, livestock, and O. hupensis were evaluated by the Poisson model. Results: The prevalence of S. japonicum human infections decreased from 2.06% to zero based on data of the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2005 to 2019, with a reduction from 9.42% to zero for the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in livestock, and from 0.26% to zero for the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in O. hupensis. Analysis using an SDE tool showed that schistosomiasis-affected regions were reduced yearly from 2005 to 2014 in the endemic provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, and Anhui, as well as in the Poyang and Dongting Lake regions. Poisson model revealed 11 clusters of S. japonicum human infections, six clusters of S. japonicum infections in livestock, and nine clusters of S. japonicum infections in O. hupensis. The clusters of human infection were highly consistent with clusters of S. japonicum infections in livestock and O. hupensis. They were in the 5 provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui, and Jiangsu, as well as along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Humans, livestock, and O. hupensis infections with S. japonicum were mainly concentrated in the north of the Hunan Province, south of the Hubei Province, north of the Jiangxi Province, and southwestern portion of Anhui Province. In the 2 mountainous provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan, human, livestock, and O. hupensis infections with S. japonicum were mainly concentrated in the northwestern portion of the Yunnan Province, the Daliangshan area in the south of Sichuan Province, and the hilly regions in the middle of Sichuan Province. Conclusions: A remarkable decline in the disease prevalence of S. japonicum infection was observed in endemic schistosomiasis in China between 2005 and 2019. However, there remains a long-term risk of transmission in local areas, with the highest-risk areas primarily in Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake regions, requiring to focus on vigilance against the rebound of the epidemic. Development of high-sensitivity detection methods and integrating the transmission links such as human and livestock infection, wild animal infection, and O. hupensis into the surveillance-response system will ensure the elimination of schistosomiasis in China by 2030.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939471

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the resistance profiles to antimicrobial agents of wound-isolated Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa among Chinese burn patients. Methods: Electronic databases and manual search were used to identify eligible studies published since 2010. The objectives were pooled resistance rates for eleven common antimicrobial agents, estimated by a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were conducted by stratifying the studies into three four-year periods based on year of isolation. Results: A total of 35 studies were included. Gentamicin had the highest pooled resistance rate (56%, 95% CI 48%-64%), while meropenem had the lowest pooled resistance rate (29%, 95% CI 20%-40%). There was an increasing trend of resistance to common antimicrobial agents of wound-isolated P. aeruginosa over a span of twelve years (2009-2020). There remained the highest risk of gentamicin resistance over time in China. Subgroup analyses indicated significantly higher resistances to ceftazidime and levofloxacin from 2017 to 2020. Conclusions: Enhanced resistance to common antimicrobial agents in wound-isolated P. aeruginosa presents a challenge in burn wound management in mainland China. Effective stewardship programs should be established based on corresponding resistance profiles, thereby optimizing treatment options for hospitalized burn patients.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939470

ABSTRACT

Liposomes are phospholipid bilayer vesicles, which are biocompatible, biodegradable and nontoxic vehicles suitable for numerous drug and gene delivery applications. In this review, we discuss the prospect of using liposome technology in the development of a vaccine for tuberculosis. Tuberculosis remains an important health problem that requires the development of an effective vaccine, especially since the only approved vaccine for it continues to be the Bacille Calmette-Geurin (BCG) one developed 100 years ago. This review focuses on the different applications of liposomes toward achieving this goal. Numerous liposomal formulations showing prospect in the research stage and in clinical trials are discussed.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939469

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Human myiasis is the invasion of tissue or organs by fly larvae. This could be obligatory, facultative, or accidental. Patient concerns: A 4-year-old Saudi boy complained of fever over the past three days with multiple inflamed painful dermal furuncles and worms-like discharge. Diagnosis: Furuncular obligatory myiasis caused by Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Interventions: Maggots were removed for identification. The wounds were cleaned with antiseptic dressings. Topical and oral antibiotics were applied. Outcomes: Seven days later, the wounds completely healed. Lessons: Although several reports correlated human myiasis with old age, low health status, mental retardation, and low socioeconomic status, but the patient in our case was a healthy child from a family with good socioeconomic status, good hygiene, no history of diseases or mental disability, but traveled to a village where the climate is suitable for fly breeding.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939468

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate 11 Cuban native Bacillus (B.) thuringiensis isolates in order to select one with the best larvicidal activity against Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and low cytotoxicity. Methods: The cry and cyt genes of the isolates (A21, A51, L95, L910, M29, R84, R85, R87, R89, U81 and X48) were amplified by PCR. The influence of organic matter and NaCl on the larvicidal activity was tested by bioassays. Cytotoxicity was assayed on peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice. Results: The cyt1 (Aa, Ab, Ba), cyt2, cry4aA, cry4Ba, cry11 (Aa, Ba, Bb) and cry10 genes were identified in all native Cuban isolates. The larvicidal activity (LC90) of seven isolates was affected by the presence of organic matter in the water, while A21, A51, L910, R84, U81 and X48 had better LC50, LC90, LC95 than the 266/2 9-VI-98 control strain. The LC50 of two isolates was affected by the presence of NaCl and A21, A51, R85 isolate had better larvicidal activity than the 266/2 9-VI-98 control strain. In terms of toxicity against macrophages, the extracts of nine isolates were less cytotoxic than the control strains. Conclusions: Native isolate A21 had the main virulence factors against Ae. aegypti larvae, displayed a good larvicidal activity in presence of different factors related with Ae. aegypti breeding sites, and had low citotoxicity against macrophages. These results can contribute to the improvement of existing biological control strategies and the development of new biolarvicides.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939467

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the morphological structure of ovarian follicular cells and biochemical parameters of both ovaries and fat bodies (sites of vitellogenesis) from Rhodnius (R.) prolixus infected with Trypanosoma (T.) rangeli. Methods: Adult virgin females of R. prolixus were fed upon a membrane apparatus containing heat-inactivated citrated rabbit blood and a suspension of T. rangeli epimastigotes (Macias strain). Females from the control group and all the males received parasitefree blood. Transmission electron microscopy was used to reveal the morphological aspects of ovarian follicle cells in both control and parasite-infected groups. Protein profile, proteolytic activities and Western blotting analyses were performed in either ovary or fat body samples of control and parasite-infected groups. Results: According to the ultrastructural data, T. rangeli infection elicited a degeneration process in the ovarian follicular cells of R. prolixus. Proteolytic assays indicated a reduction in the activity of aspartic peptidases in the ovary and fat body from parasite-infected group, while a significant increase in the cysteine peptidase activity was measured in both insect organs. Additionally, immunoblotting revealed that vitellogenin was overexpressed in the ovary of parasite-infected insects. Conclusions: T. rangeli infection seems to elicit an early programmed cell death in the ovarian follicle cells as well as induces the modulation on the activities of different peptidase classes in either ovaries or fat bodies and the overexpression of the vitellogenin in the ovary of R. prolixus.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939466

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the residue determinants of the serospecificity and sero-cross-reactivity of dengue virus (DENV) envelope protein domain 3 (ED3), which contains two major putative epitopes of DENV. Methods: We constructed ED3 from DENV3 (3ED3) and DENV4 (4ED3), and six epitope-grafted variants, where we transferred epitope 1 (L304I, K305D, V309M, and S310A) and/or epitope 2 (D383N, K384S, K387T, and N389H) of 4ED3 onto 3ED3 and vice-versa. Swiss albino mice aged 3-4 weeks were immunized against wildtype and epitope-grafted ED3 variants and anti-ED3 IgG antibody responses were determined using ELISA. Results: Mouse immunization using 3ED3 and 4ED3 generated serotype-specific antisera, as expected. Similarly, most epitopegrafted ED3s produced antisera serospecific to the template ED3 with little or no cross-recognition of ED3 of the serotype from which the epitopes were taken. These indicated that a mere grafting of the epitope was not sufficient to transfer serospecificity, contrary to our expectations. However, one epitope-grafted ED3 mutant, where epitope 1 of 3ED3 was grafted onto 4ED3 (4ED3epi1), generated antisera that was serospecific to both 4ED3 and 3ED3. Conclusions: The 4ED3epi1 is a chimeric ED3 that produces antisera possessing serospecificity to both 3ED3 and 4ED3 onto a common 4ED3 scaffold. The 4ED3epi1, therefore, provides a unique tool for analyzing serospecificity and sero-cross-reactivity in dengue. We believe that chimeric ED3 may provide a template for future recombinant ED3 possessing serospecificity of multiple DENVs onto a single scaffold and may pave a way developing tri-and/or tetravalent anti-DENV antisera.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939465

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the frequency and profile of spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) sent to Ethiopia's pharmacovigilance (PV) database system. Methods: The descriptive and retrospective study analysed spontaneous ADR complaints reported to the PV database by healthcare professionals between 2013 and 2018. Spontaneous ADR reports that reached the PV center and met the minimum reporting criteria were identified and assessed in terms of reporting rate, patient characteristics, type of ADRs, suspected drugs, report sources, and reporters profession. Results: A total of 657 spontaneous ADR reports were filed to the PV center between 2013 and 2018. During the study period, the reporting pattern of ADRs changed dramatically. The number of reports increased from 2013 (n=12) and peaked in 2015 (n=205), and then declined from 2016 to 2018 (n=144, 142 and 65 in 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively). Females had a higher percentage of reported cases (56.3%) than males (43.7%). The highest number of ADRs was reported in the age categories of 15-64 years (475, 72.3%), followed by 0-14 years (154, 23.4%), and 65 years and above (21, 3.2%). Pharmacists reported the majority of ADRs (81.7%), followed by health officers (7.2%), nurses (5.8%), and physicians (5.2%). Skin and subcutaneous tissue abnormalities were the most commonly reported ADRs. The anatomical therapeutic chemicals code class "anti-infective for systemic use"was the most usually suspected medication. Trimethoprim with sulfamethoxazole as a combination ADRs was the most commonly reported drug that cause ADRs (14.2%). Conclusions: The number of ADRs reported in Ethiopia was small and unpredictable compared to developed countries, indicating the performance of PV system and level of awareness of health care professionals towards ADR reporting was not satisfactory. In order to increase the frequency of spontaneous reports, more efficient PV methods and public policies must be implemented.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939464

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed sex-based differences in anti-viral responses, with a higher rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections as well as a higher rate of morbidity and mortality in men than in women. Males and females also show disparate immune responses to COVID-19 infection, which may be important contributors to lower rates of infection, disease severity and deaths in women than in men. Here, the authors review sex differences in SARSCoV- 2 infections, anti-viral immunity and vaccine responses, putting forth the importance of sex, the underappreciated variables in vaccine response and disease infectivity.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939463

ABSTRACT

To assess the larvicidal activity of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) against larval stages of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Methods: A crude extract was prepared in ethanol from powdered mangosteen pericarps. A concentration gradient (0.01-4.92 g/ L) was prepared from the stock solution. Seven batches of 25 third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were used for larval bioassays. Larval mortality rates were observed after one and 24 hours. Cholesterol and total lipid contents in 20 randomly selected dead larvae at each trial were assessed by colorimetric method. The experimental setup was repeated five times. The General Linear Model and Probit analysis were used to evaluate the relationship of mortality with cholesterol level, total lipid level and cholesterol to total lipid ratio. Results: The percentage mortalities significantly varied with different concentrations (F7,32=385.737; P<0.001). The LC50 and LC99 values were (0.041 0.006) g/L and (10.616 1.758) g/ L, respectively after 24 hours. There was no mortality recorded within the one-hour exposure time. Only the cholesterol content (F5,24=173.245; P<0.001) in larvae exposed to different concentrations denoted a significantly decreasing trend within 24- hour exposure. Larvae that were exposed to the lowest concentration (0.55 g/L) showed a higher cholesterol level (22.67 1.33) g. Conclusions: The Garcinia mangostana extract acts as an effective sterol carrier protein inhibitor that inhibits cholesterol uptake in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Hence, it could be explored for use as a key source for the development of an environment-friendly plantbased larvicide.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920780

ABSTRACT

Objective To determine the seasonal fluctuation and population distribution of Aedes albopictus in Jiading District, and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of dengue fever and other Aedes-borne diseases. Methods In 2020, the mosq-ovitrap method and mosq-ovitrap index (MOI) were used to monitor and evaluate the density of Aedes albopictus in Jiading District. Spatial and temporal distribution of Aedes albopictus was determined. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results In 2020, the annual average MOI was determined to be 4.10, which was under safety threshold. The seasonal fluctuations showed a unimodal distribution, which peaked in July. The fluctuation trend in urban area was similar to the overall trend, while that in the non-urban area showed a bimodal distribution with peaks in June and August. The density of Aedes albopictus at different monitoring sites varied widely,with the highest MOI (6.64) at Anting town and the lowest MOI (2.09) at Huating town. The distribution of Aedes albopictus in different habitats also varied widely; the highest density was observed in environments as waste collection stations and construction sites, with the highest MOI 33.33 in waste collection stations in peak season. The MOI value of Aedes albopictus in residential areas was significantly higher than that in non-residential areas (χ2 = 6.082, P = 0.014). Conclusion Aedes albopictus is quite common in Jiading District. In certain areas, Aedes density may exceed the safety threshold from May to September. More targeted mosquito control measures should be implemented in waste collection stations, construction sites and residential areas.

18.
Acta biol. colomb ; 26(3): 423-438, sep.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360037

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las actinobacterias incluyen miembros productores de compuestos multipropósitos restringidamente sobreexplotados al género Streptomyces. No obstante, es necesario reorientar la exploración de bacterias no estreptomiceas para el uso de nuevos bioagentes ecológicos con miras a evitar redescubrimientos y contrarrestar la resistencia a insecticidas químicos en Aedes aegypti. En esta investigación, se caracterizó actinobacterias formadoras de biopelículas para evaluar su dinámica de crecimiento, actividad larvicida y efectos subletales. La identificación, crecimiento y bioactividades de los patógenos se realizaron por cultivos, análisis de imágenes por fotomicrografía y bioensayos. Las biopelículas pertenecen a Pseudonocardiaceae (PsA1TA) y Corynebacteriaceae (CoA2CA) característicamente dependientes a crecer sobre sustratos con revestimiento cuticular específico. PsA1TA coloniza estructuras membranosas de tórax y abdomen de larvas. Las microcolonias desarrollan infectivamente a biopelículas mono y biestratificadas hasta cubrir cuatro veces la amplitud toracoabdominal (envergadura infectiva entre 1010 μm a 1036 μm). En contraste, CoA2CA envuelve radialmente estructuras esclerotizadas cefálica y anal al triplicar la amplitud de los órganos infectados (envergadura infectiva: 1820 a 2030 μm y 1650 a 1860 μm, respectivamente). Las biopelículas ejercen mortalidad diferenciada a todas las etapas larvarias, no obstante, PsA1TA resultó más mortal y virulento frente al segundo estadio (58 %-96 horas, TL50: 3,4 días), mientras que CoA2CA lo fue sobre el cuarto estadio larval (85 %-96 horas, TL50: 2,5 días). CoA2CA indujo emergencia incompleta de farados y despliegue de tarsos curvos en adultos emergentes, además de revestir cadáveres larvarios con robustas biopelículas. Los morfotipos actinobacterianos revelan efecto larvicida y subletal en A. aegypti por formación de biopelículas.


ABSTRACT Actinobacteria include several ubiquitous members involved in the synthesis of multipurpose bioactive compounds strictly derived from the genus Streptomyces. Nevertheless, new bacterial consortia based on non-streptomycetes actinobacteria are needed to be explored in order to avoid rediscoveries and minimize the development of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti. In accordance with the use of eco-friendly bioagents, in this study biofilm-forming actinobacteria were characterized on the basis of assessment their growth dynamics, larvicidal mortality and sublethal effects. Actinobacteria identification, biofilm growth and larvicidal bioactivities were performed by employing bacterial cultures, photomicrograph-based image analysis and bioassays. Bacterial morphotypes belong to Pseudonocardiaceae (PsA1TA) and Corynebacteriaceae (CoA2CA), which showed a distinctly substrate-dependent growth. PsA1TA microcolonies were randomly distributed on abdominal and thoracic membranous epicuticle. Afterwards, the thickness of mono-and bi-layered biofilms were increased fourfold the larval thoracoabdominal width (infectious breadth, 1010 μm - 1036 μm). In contrast, cephalic and anal sclerotized structures were radially encased by CoA2CA biofilms and increased threefold the size of both structures (infectious breadth, 1820 - 2030 μm y 1650 - 1860 μm, respectively). Although biofilms caused dissimilar mortality rates on the four larval instars, PsA1TA exerted highest larvicidal activity and virulence on second instar larvae (58 %-96 hours, LT50: 3.4 days) y CoA2CA on fourth instar larvae (85 %-96 hours, LT5G: 2.5 days). CoA2CA also induced incomplete release of pharate individuals as well as buckled protruding tarsi in newly emergent adults, whilst larval cadavers were overwhelmingly encased within massive biofilm aggregates. Biofilm-forming actinobacteria performed biolarvicidal activity and sublethal responses in A. aegypti.

19.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(2): e623, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347490

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En 2017 se realizó la Campaña de Cobertura Universal, en que se aplicó el nuevo modelo de distribución de mosquiteros impregnados con insecticida de larga duración, después de las bajas coberturas encontradas en 2015. Objetivo: Caracterizar el nuevo modelo de distribución de mosquiteros con insecticida de larga duración, aplicado en la Campaña 2017, en la provincia de Tete, Mozambique. Métodos: Se realizóun estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, observacional y transversal. A partir de estadísticas univariadas, se estimó el porcentaje y sus intervalos de confianza del 95 % para los indicadores de registro correctos. Para encontrar la asociación entre los hogares registrados y los hogares de posesión, se calculó el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson (r) y el coeficiente de determinación (R2). Resultados: De los 3 284 hogares evaluados en la etapa de registro, al 98 por ciento se les asignaron calcomanías, al 99 por ciento cupones, y el criterio de adjudicación de mosquiteros impregnados con insecticida de larga duración fue correcto en el 97 por ciento, respectivamente. De los hogares registrados, 1 086 (97 por ciento) tuvieron acceso a al menos un mosquitero impregnado con insecticida de larga duración y 1 041 (92,9 por ciento) durmieron con estos mosquiteros la noche anterior a la encuesta. Conclusiones: La Campaña de Cobertura Universal, utilizando el nuevo modelo de distribución de mosquiteros impregnados con insecticida de larga duración, asegura un adecuado registro de los hogares, lo que ha contribuido al aumento de su posesión y uso, y al avance hacia el logro de las metas de cobertura universal en la comunidad(AU)


Introduction: As part of the Universal Coverage Campaign implemented in 2017, a new model was applied for the distribution of mosquito nets impregnated with long-lasting insecticide. Coverage had been found to be low in 2015. Objective: Characterize the new model for the distribution of mosquito nets impregnated with long-lasting insecticide applied in the 2017 Campaign in Tete Province, Mozambique. Methods: A cross-sectional observational descriptive quantitative study was conducted. Starting from univariate statistics, estimation was made of percentage and its 95 percent confidence intervals for correct registry indicators. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and the coefficient of determination (R2) were estimated to find the association between registered and possessing households. Results: Of the 3 284 households evaluated during the registration stage, 98 percent were given stickers and 99 percent received coupons. The criterion followed for the assignment of mosquito nets impregnated with long-lasting insecticide was correct in 97 percent , respectively. Of the households registered, 1 086 (97 percent) had access to at least one mosquito net impregnated with long-lasting insecticide, whereas 1 041 (92 percent) had slept under these mosquito nets the night before the survey. Conclusions: With the use of the new model for the distribution of mosquito nets impregnated with long-lasting insecticide, the Universal Coverage Campaign ensures the appropriate registration of households, contributing to an increase in their possession and use, and the attainment of universal coverage goals in the community(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Unified Health System , Insecticides , Insecticide-Treated Bednets/standards , Health Promotion , Mozambique
20.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 194-200, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279101

ABSTRACT

Resumen En países americanos, simultáneas a la pandemia de enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) se están dando epidemias ocasionadas por diferentes arbovirus (del dengue, chikunguña y virus del Zika). En México, varias de las estrategias para control del mosquito Aedes aegypti, transmisor de arbovirus, involucran la interacción del personal salubrista y los moradores. Debido a la pandemia de COVID-19 se han implementado medidas de distanciamiento social y resguardo domiciliario. Para respetar estas medidas y evitar riesgo de contagio por coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2), el Centro Nacional de Programas Preventivos y Control de Enfermedades (CENAPRECE) ha presentado la estrategia de control de vectores en el escenario de transmisión simultánea por dengue y COVID-19 en México. En este trabajo mencionamos las medidas habituales de manejo integral de mosquito y mencionamos las adaptaciones realizadas. De igual forma, discutimos la relevancia de la capacitación y la supervisión al personal médico, esto debido a la similitud entre la sintomatología entre ambas patologías.


Abstract Countries of Latin America are dealing with a simultaneous COVID-19 and vector borne disease (VBDs, Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya) outbreaks. In Mexico, certain activities to control Aedes aegypti mosquito (the main VBDs vector) comprise community participation through the interaction between householders and vector control personnel. Preventive measures against COVID-19 include social distancing and stay-at-home strategy, to obey these policies, and reduce the risk of infection, the National Center for Preventive Programs and Disease Control of Mexico (CENAPRECE) has adapted the vector control approaches in the country. In this paper we mention routine prevention and control activities to control mosquitoes and show the adapted measures. Because, a number of symptoms of the COVID-19 and dengue fever overlap with each other, we also discuss the relevance of accurate disease surveillance and medic’s training and supervision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/virology , Pandemics , Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/prevention & control , Dengue/epidemiology , Information Dissemination , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion
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