Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 6.319
Filter
1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 121(4): e20230480, abr.2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557042

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Em pediatria, a parada cardiorrespiratória (PCR) está associada a alta mortalidade e graves sequelas neurológicas. Informações sobre as causas e mecanismos de morte abaixo de 20 anos poderiam fornecer subsídios teóricos para a melhoria da saúde de crianças e adolescentes. Objetivos: Realizar uma análise populacional das taxas de mortalidade por causas primárias e múltiplas de morte abaixo de 20 anos, em ambos os sexos, no período de 1996 a 2019, no Brasil, e identificar a frequência com que a PCR foi registrada nas declarações de óbito (DOs) desses indivíduos e os locais de ocorrência dos óbitos, a fim de promover estratégias para melhorar a prevenção de mortes. Método: Estudo ecológico de séries temporais de óbitos em indivíduos menores de 20 anos, no período de 1996 a 2019, avaliando as taxas de mortalidade (TMs) e a mortalidade proporcional (MP) por causa básica de morte. Foram analisados os percentuais de PCR registrados em qualquer linha da DO e o local de ocorrência dos óbitos. Foram calculadas as TMs por 100 mil habitantes e a MP por causa básica de morte nos menores de 20 anos segundo sexo e faixa etária, os percentuais de óbito por causas básicas por faixa etária quando a PCR foi descrita em qualquer linha das Partes I e II da DO, e o percentual de óbitos por causas básicas segundo o local de ocorrência. Os dados foram retirados do DATASUS, IBGE e SINASC. Resultados: De 1996 a 2019, ocorreram 2.151.716 óbitos de menores de 20 anos, no Brasil, gerando uma taxa de mortalidade de 134,38 por 100 mil habitantes. A taxa de óbito foi maior entre os recém-nascidos do sexo masculino. Do total de óbitos, 249.334 (11,6%) tiveram PCR registrada em qualquer linha da DO. Especificamente, a PCR foi registrada 49.178 vezes na DO na faixa etária entre 1 e 4 anos e em 88.116 vezes entre 29 e 365 dias, correspondendo, respectivamente, a 26% e 22% dos óbitos nessas faixas etárias. Essas duas faixas etárias apresentaram as maiores taxas de PCR registradas em qualquer linha da DO. As principais causas básicas de óbito quando a PCR foi registrada na sequência de óbitos foram doenças respiratórias, hematológicas e neoplásicas. Conclusão: As causas perinatais e externas foram as principais causas de morte, com maior TM nos menores de 20 anos no Brasil de 1996 a 2019. Quando consideradas as causas múltiplas de morte, as principais causas primárias associadas à PCR foram as doenças respiratórias, hematológicas e neoplásicas. A maioria dos óbitos ocorreu no ambiente hospitalar. Melhor compreensão da sequência de eventos nesses óbitos e melhorias nas estratégias de ensino em ressuscitação cardiopulmonar pediátrica são necessárias.


Abstract Background: In pediatrics, cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) is associated with high mortality and severe neurologic sequelae. Information on the causes and mechanisms of death below the age of 20 years could provide theoretical support for health improvement among children and adolescents. Objectives: To conduct a population analysis of mortality rates due to primary and multiple causes of death below the age of 20 years in both sexes from 1996 to 2019 in Brazil, and identify the frequency in which CPA was recorded in the death certificates (DCs) of these individuals and the locations where the deaths occurred, in order to promote strategies to improve the prevention of deaths. Method: Ecological time-series study of deaths below the age of 20 years from 1996 to 2019, evaluating the mortality rates (MRs) and proportional mortality (PM) by primary cause of death. We analyzed the percentages of CPA recorded in any line of the DC and the location where the deaths occurred. We calculated the MRs per 100,000 inhabitants and the PM by primary cause of death under the age of 20 years according to sex and age group, the percentages of death from primary causes by age group when CPA was described in any line of Parts I and II of the DC, and the percentage of deaths from primary causes according to their location of occurrence. We retrieved the data from DATASUS, IBGE, and SINASC. Results: From 1996 to 2019, there were 2,151,716 deaths below the age of 20 years in Brazil, yielding a mortality rate of 134.38 per 100,000 inhabitants. The death rate was highest among male neonates. Of all deaths, 249,334 (11.6%) had CPA recorded in any line of the DC. Specifically, CPA was recorded in 49,178 DCs between the ages of 1 and 4 years and in 88,116 of those between the ages of 29 and 365 days, corresponding, respectively, to 26% and 22% of the deaths in these age groups. These two age groups had the highest rates of CPA recorded in any line of the DC. The main primary causes of death when CPA was recorded in the sequence of death were respiratory, hematologic, and neoplastic diseases. Conclusion: Perinatal and external causes were the primary causes of death, with highest MRs under the age of 20 years in Brazil from 1996 to 2019. When multiple causes of death were considered, the main primary causes associated with CPA were respiratory, hematologic, and neoplastic diseases. Most deaths occurred in the hospital environment. Better understanding of the sequence of events in these deaths and improvements in teaching strategies in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation are needed.

2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559727

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las malformaciones del desarrollo cortical se deben a alteraciones en la migración del neuroblasto durante la formación de la corteza cerebral. Se desconoce su frecuencia en embarazos monocoriales. Objetivo: Reportar el caso de un embarazo monocorial con diagnóstico de malformación del desarrollo cortical en uno de los fetos y revisar la literatura referente a su diagnóstico y pronóstico. Método: Mujer de 19 años, embarazo monocorial biamniótico de 26 semanas, que acudió con estudio ecográfico y resonancia fetal que evidenció en uno de los fetos asimetría de los hemisferios cerebrales, hipoplasia de la cisura de Silvio izquierda con simplificación del patrón giral por focos de paquigiria y polimicrogiria, con confirmación posnatal de alteración en la migración neuronal asociada a hipoplasia vermiana. Resultados: Se encontraron en la literatura tres casos de embarazo múltiple monocorial con trastorno de la migración neuronal con recién nacidos vivos. Los hallazgos más comunes fueron microcefalia, lisencefalia e hipoplasia cerebelosa. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico prenatal del trastorno de la migración neuronal se realiza con ecografía y resonancia fetal. La más frecuente es la alteración de la migración neuronal tipo II. El pronóstico depende del tipo de alteración; sin embargo, la mayoría de los casos presentan trastornos epileptiformes con alteraciones del neurodesarrollo.


Introduction: Malformations of cortical development are the result from alterations in the neuroblast migration during the cerebral cortex formation. Its frequency in monochorial multiple pregnancies remains unknown. Objective: To report a case of monochorial multiple pregnancy with diagnosis of malformation of the cortical development in one of the fetuses. In addition, to review the literature regarding the diagnosis and prognosis of this entity. Method: A 19-year-old female with a monochorial diamniotic pregnancy of 26 weeks gestation, arrived with an ultrasound anatomy scan visit, and fetal magnetic resonance imaging, we detected asymmetry in the cerebral hemispheres one of the fetuses, hypoplasia of the left sulcus of Sylvius with simplification of the gyrus pattern due to clusters of pachygyria and polymicrogyria. Those findings were confirmed afterbirth, with a definite diagnosis of neuronal migration disorder associated with vermian hypoplasia. Results: Three cases of monochorial pregnancy with neuronal migration disorder with live newborn, common findings like microcephaly, lissencephaly and vermian hypoplasia. Conclusions: Prenatal diagnosis with neuronal migration disorder is done via ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Neuronal migration disorders type II are the most common of them. Prognosis depends on the type of disorder; however, most patients have epileptiform activity and neurodevelopment impairment.

3.
Geriatr Gerontol Aging ; 18: e0000044, Apr. 2024. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556342

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar o uso de medicamentos potencialmente inapropriados (MPIs) e o uso de medicamentos usados em terapia de suporte que requerem cautela em idosos com câncer (MTSRCICs), determinando os fatores associados. Visou-se também determinar a concordância entre os critérios explícitos empregados na identificação de MPI. Metodologia: Estudo transversal com indivíduos com mieloma múltiplo (MM), idade ≥ 60 anos em tratamento ambulatorial. Os MPI foram identificados de acordo com os critérios AGS Beers 2019, PRISCUS 2.0 e o Consenso Brasileiro de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados (CBMPI). Os MTSRCIC foram definidos de acordo com a National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Os fatores associados ao uso de MPI e MTSRCIC foram identificados por regressão logística múltipla. O grau de concordância entre os três critérios explícitos empregados no estudo foi mensurado pelo coeficiente kappa Cohen. Resultados: As frequências de MPI foram 52,29% (AGS Beers 2019), 62,74% (CBMPI), 65,36% (PRISCUS 2.0) e 52,29% (MTSRCICs). As concordâncias entre AGS Beers 2019 com PRISCUS 2,0 e com CBMPI foram altas, enquanto a concordância entre CBMPI e PRISCUS 2.0 foi excelente. No modelo final de regressão logística polifarmácia foi associada positivamente ao uso de MPI por idosos para os três critérios explícitos utilizados, além de associado à utilização de MTSRCICs. Conclusões: A frequência do uso de MPI e de MTSRCIC foi elevada. A concordância em relação ao uso de MPI entre os critérios AGS Beers 2019, CBMPI e PRISCUS 2.0 foi alta ou excelente. A polifarmácia apresentou associação independente e positiva com uso de MPIs e de MTSRCICs por pacientes idosos com MM. (AU)


Objectives: To analyze the use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and medications used in supportive therapy that require caution in older adults with cancer, in addition to determining associated factors the agreement between criteria sets used to identify PIMs. Methods: This cross-sectional study included individuals with multiple myeloma aged ≥ 60 years who were undergoing outpatient treatment. PIMs were identified according to American Geriatric Society Beers 2019, PRISCUS 2.0, and Brazilian Consensus on Potentially Inappropriate Medicines criteria. Medications of concern were defined according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria. Factors associated with the use of PIMs and medications of concern were identified using multiple logistic regression. The degree of agreement between the 3 criteria sets was measured using Cohen's kappa coefficient. Results: The frequency of PIM use was 52.29% according to American Geriatric Society Beers criteria, 62.74% according to Brazilian Consensus criteria, and 65.36% according to PRISCUS criteria, while 52.29% of the patients were using medications of concern. Agreement between American Geriatric Society Beers, PRISCUS, and Brazilian Consensus criteria was high, while it was excellent between Brazilian Consensus and PRISCUS criteria. In the final logistic regression model, polypharmacy was associated with PIM use according to each criteria set, as well as the use of medications of concern. Conclusions: The frequency of PIMs and medications of concern was high. Agreement about PIM use between the American Geriatric Society Beers, Brazilian Consensus, and PRISCUS criteria was high or excellent. There was an independent association between polypharmacy and the use of PIMs and medications of concern by older patients with multiple myeloma. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Inappropriate Prescribing , Multiple Myeloma
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 111-116, feb. 2024. ilus, tab, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528817

ABSTRACT

El cáncer gástrico (CG), es la primera causa de muerte por cáncer, en hombres, y la tercera en mujeres, en Chile. No obstante ello, el CG bifocal (CGB) es una situación poco frecuente. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue reportar un caso de CGB, con linfonodos negativos en un paciente con cirrosis hepática, que fue intervenido quirúrgicamente; y revisar la evidencia existente respecto de sus características morfológicas, terapéuticas y pronósticas. Caso clínico: Hombre de 74 años diabético, hipertenso, insuficiente cardíaco y cirrótico; portador de CGB (subcardial y antro-pilórico), diagnosticado por endoscopia y con confirmación histológica de ambas lesiones; operado en Clínica RedSalud Mayor Temuco en septiembre de 2023. En el intraoperatorio se verificó además la coexistencia de una lesión de aspecto metastásico en el segmento III del hígado, y adhesión de la región antro-pilórica a la vesícula biliar. Se realizó gastrectomía total, linfadenectomía D2, esófago-yeyuno anastomosis término-lateral, resección segmentaria hepática (segmento III) y colecistectomía. El paciente permaneció 6 días en la UCI debido a que desarrolló insuficiencia hepática (encefalopatía leve y ascitis). Se alimentó vía enteral por sonda naso-yeyunal. Posteriormente inició alimentación oral progresiva, la que fue bien tolerada. Completó 11 días de hospitalización en servicio médico-quirúrgico, donde mejoró actividad neurológica, hasta su alta domiciliaria. Actualmente, lleva dos meses desde su operación, se encuentra en buenas condiciones generales, y el Comité Oncológico decidió no dar quimioterapia adyuvante. Se presenta un caso inusual de CG de tipo bifocal, respecto de lo cual hay escasa información disponible. Se logró realizar cirugía con intención curativa en un paciente de alto riesgo, con un resultado exitoso.


SUMMARY: Gastric cancer (GC) is the first cause of death from cancer in men, and the third one in women, in Chile. However, a bifocal GC (BGC) is uncommon. The aim of this study was to report a case of CGB, with negative-lymph nodes in a patient with liver cirrhosis, who underwent surgery; and review the existing evidence regarding its morphological, therapeutic and prognostic characteristics. Clinical case: A 74-year-old male patient with a medical history of diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and cirrhosis underwent surgical intervention for GC located in subcardial and antro- pyloric regions. The diagnosis was established via endoscopy and confirmed histologically. Surgery was performed at the RedSalud Mayor Temuco Clinic in September 2023. During intraoperative assessment, the coexistence of a lesion with metastatic-like characteristics in segment III of the liver was also verified, along with adhesions between the antro-pyloric region and the gallbladder. Surgical approach encompassed total gastrectomy, D2 lymphadenectomy, esophago-jejunostomy, segmental hepatic resection, and cholecystectomy. Subsequently, the patient required a six-day stay in ICU due to the development of hepatic insufficiency, characterized by mild encephalopathy and ascites. Enteral nutrition was administered via a naso-jejunal tube, followed by a gradual transition to oral feeding, which was well-tolerated. The patient completed an 11-day hospitalization period in the medical-surgical ward, during which his neurological function improved significantly, resulting in his discharge. At present, 2 months post-surgery, the patient remains in satisfactory general health, and the Oncology Committee decided not to proceed with adjuvant chemotherapy. This case represents a rare instance of bifocal GC, for which there is limited available literature. Surgical intervention with curative intent was successfully carried out in a high-risk patient, yielding a positive outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary , Gastrectomy
5.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 7(1): 103-110, ene. 26, 2024.
Article in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1526797

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades de Alzheimer y esclerosis múltiple son neurodegenerativas, con tratamientos complejos y de costos elevados, orientados a disminuir la progresión de la sintomatología. Sin embargo, a causa de la falta de terapias adecuadas y de los posibles efectos adversos ocasionados por tratamientos de primera línea, es necesario implementar mejores abordajes terapéuticos complementarios que no produzcan mayores efectos secundarios y mejoren la sintomatología de dichas patologías. La restricción calórica y el ayuno intermitente han demostrado ser estrategias novedosas y beneficiosas en enfermedades neurodegenerativas, a través de mecanismos inmunitarios, metabólicos y fisiológicos. Con el objetivo de determinar el uso del ayuno intermitente y la restricción calórica como tratamiento coadyuvante en esclerosis múltiple y enfermedad de Alzheimer, se realizó una revisión narrativa de artículos originales en revistas científicas, en idiomas inglés y español, de 2018 a 2022. El uso de la restricción calórica y ayuno intermitente han generado cambios positivos produciendo disminución de estados proinflamatorios, estrés oxidativo y envejecimiento. Se consideran abordajes que modulan la progresión de la enfermedad y mejoran la función cognitiva por vías de señalización de monofosfato de adenosina cinasa, factor de crecimiento similar a la insulina y la enzima sirtuina, generando un efecto neuroprotector.


Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis are neurodegenerative disorders with expensive and complex treatments aimed at reducing the progression of symptoms. However, due to the lack of adequate therapies and the possible adverse effects caused by first-line treatments, it's necessary to implement better complementary therapeutic approaches that do not produce major side effects and improve symptoms. Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting have been shown to be novel and beneficial strategies in neurodegenerative diseases, through immune, metabolic, and physiological mechanisms. To determine the use of intermittent fasting and caloric restriction as a new treatment in multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, a narrative review of original articles in both national and international scientific journals, in English and Spanish languages with no greater obsolescence than five years. The use of caloric restriction and intermittent fasting have generated positive changes, producing a decrease in pro-inflammatory states, oxidative stress, and aging. Approaches that modulate disease progression and improve cognitive function of adenosine monophosphate kinase, insulin-like growth factor, and sirtuin enzyme pathways are considered, generating a neuroprotective effect.


Subject(s)
El Salvador
6.
Braz. J. Oncol ; 20: e-20240443, 20240101.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552608

ABSTRACT

A systematic review of published articles based on randomized clinical trials was conducted to ascertain the efficacy or perspective of using CAR-T cell therapy for refractory multiple myeloma. The PubMed database was searched with the combination of terms "multiple myeloma", "refractory multiple myeloma", "CAR T-cell", and the PRISMA criteria were followed. Of the 78 articles found, only 5 were selected. The studies used different treatment protocols and four different types of CAR-T cells. All studies obtained interesting results in terms of increased progression-free survival and negative minimal residual disease responses. Some authors detected an expansion of CAR-T cells and noted dose-dependent relationship between treatment effectiveness and serum BCMA levels. Although the results were promising, a small number of patients still relapsed a few months after CAR-T cell infusion. Therefore, this new line of therapy should be further investigated, as it significantly increases progression-free survival and improves quality of life.


Uma revisão sistemática de artigos publicados com base em ensaios clínicos randomizados foi realizada para verificar a eficácia ou perspectiva do uso da terapia com células CAR-T para mieloma múltiplo refratário. Foi pesquisada a base de dados PubMed com a combinação dos termos "multiple myeloma", "refratory multiple myeloma", "CAR T-cell" e foram seguidos os critérios PRISMA. Dos 78 artigos encontrados, apenas 5 foram selecionados. Os estudos utilizaram diferentes protocolos de tratamento e quatro tipos diferentes de células CAR-T. Todos os estudos obtiveram resultados interessantes em termos de aumento da sobrevida livre de progressão e respostas negativas à doença residual mínima. Alguns autores detectaram uma expansão das células CAR-T e observaram uma relação dose-dependente entre a eficácia do tratamento e os níveis séricos de BCMA. Embora os resultados tenham sido promissores, um pequeno número de pacientes ainda apresentou recaída alguns meses após a infusão de células CAR-T. Portanto, esta nova linha de terapia deve ser mais investigada, pois aumenta significativamente a sobrevida livre de progressão e melhora a qualidade de vida.


Subject(s)
Multiple Myeloma , Neoplasms
7.
Rev. argent. dermatol ; 105: 6-6, ene. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559274

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los hidrocistomas ecrinos son tumores benignos, únicos o múltiples. Se presentan con mayor frecuencia en la mediana edad y predominan en el sexo femenino. Se presenta un paciente con hidrocistomas ecrinos múltiples, masculino de 74 años.


ABSTRACT Eccrine hydrocystomas are benign tumors, which can be single or multiple. They occur most oftenly in middle aged patients or in the elderly, predominantly female. We present a case of multiple eccrine hydrocystomas, in a 74-year-old male patient.

8.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529457

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the antibiotic profile of microorganisms isolated from urine samples of patients with community urine tract infections (UTI) admitted to the University Hospital of the Federal University of Sao Carlos to support an appropriate local empirical treatment. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2018 to October 2020. Data from 1,528 positive urine cultures for bacterial pathogens and antibiograms were tabulated. Bacterial species prevalence and their resistance profile were analyzed and compared by sex and age. For Gram-negative fermenting bacteria, resistance rates were compared between patients with previous hospitalization and the total of infections caused by this group. For comparisons, the Chi-square test was performed, using Fisher's exact test when necessary (BioEstat program, adopting p ≤ 0.05). A multivariate analysis was applied to assess the effect of the studied variables in predicting multidrug resistance. Infections were more prevalent in women and older adults. Gram-negative bacteria represented 90.44% of total cultures. In both sexes, E. coli prevalence was significantly higher in adults compared with older adults (p < 0.0001). For several antibiotics, resistance rates were higher in the older adults compared with other ages and in patients with Gram-negative fermenting infections and previous hospitalization compared with the total of infections by this group of bacteria. The closer to the hospitalization, the higher the number of antibiotics with superior resistance rates. Resistance rates for aminoglycosides, carbapenems, ceftazidime, nitrofurantoin, piperacillin+tazobactam, and fosfomycin were less than 20%, considered adequate for empirical treatment. Only hospitalization in the previous 90 days was statistically significant in predicting infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

9.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(4): e2021, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520237

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A 60-year-old-male with refractory relapsed multiple myeloma presented with redness, pain, foreign body sensation, and blurred vision in both eyes that gradually increased after his third belantamab mafotodin infusion. Biomicroscopy revealed bilateral microcyst-like epithelial changes and epithelial crystal-like deposits, whereas in vivo confocal microscopy revealed intraepithelial and subepithelial hyperreflective deposits in corneal epithelium. Belantamab mafodotin therapy was discontinued for seven weeks due to corneal toxicity, which cleared progressively. We aim to demonstrate belantamab mafodotin-related corneal toxicity that may be detected using slit lamp and in vivo confocal biomicroscopy.


RESUMO Um homem de 60 anos, diagnosticado com mieloma múltiplo recidivante refratário, apresentou vermelhidão, dor, sensação de corpo estranho e visão turva em ambos os olhos, aumentando gradualmente após sua terceira infusão de belantamabe mafodotina. À biomicroscopia, foram observadas alterações epiteliais bilaterais semelhantes a microcistos e depósitos epiteliais semelhantes a cristais. A microscopia confocal in vivo revelou depósitos hiper-refletivos intraepiteliais e subepiteliais na córnea. Devido à toxicidade corneana, a terapia com belantamabe mafodotina foi interrompida por sete semanas e a toxicidade foi gradualmente resolvida. Nosso objetivo é demonstrar os achados à biomicroscopia confocal in vivo e à lâmpada de fenda da toxicidade corneana relacionada ao belantamabe mafodotina.

10.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 37: eAPE00512, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1533322

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Mapear as evidências disponíveis sobre as ações do óxido nítrico na fisiopatologia da sepse e sua relação com a gravidade de pacientes sépticos. Método Revisão de escopo de acordo com a metodologia do Joanna Briggs Institute. Realizou-se busca por estudos que evidenciaram as ações do óxido nítrico na sepse e se o seu aumento está associado à gravidade de pacientes sépticos. Dois revisores independentes fizeram o mapeamento das informações utilizando um instrumento de extração de dados previamente elaborado. Os dados foram analisados quanto à sua relevância, sendo posteriormente extraídos e sintetizados. Resultados De 1342 estudos, 11 foram incluídos na revisão. O primeiro foi publicado em 2017 e o último, em 2022. A maioria foi desenvolvida nos Estados Unidos, na China e na Alemanha. Os estudos apresentaram informações referentes as ações do óxido nítrico, sintetizando sua biodisponibilidade e os inibidores endógenos relacionados a sua produção, além de abordarem a relação do óxido nítrico com a gravidade da sepse. Conclusão A produção de óxido nítrico fisiológico durante a sepse atua como protetor vascular, principalmente na microcirculação, porém, em altas concentrações, contribui para a disfunção vascular, que subverte a fisiologia da regulação da pressão arterial, causando profunda vasodilatação e hipotensão refratária e aumentando a gravidade de pacientes sépticos.


Resumen Objetivo Mapear las evidencias disponibles sobre las acciones del óxido nítrico en la fisiopatología de la sepsis y su relación con la gravedad de pacientes sépticos. Métodos Revisión de alcance de acuerdo con la metodología del Joanna Briggs Institute. Se realizó una búsqueda de estudios que evidenciaron las acciones del óxido nítrico en la sepsis y si su aumento estaba asociado a la gravedad de pacientes sépticos. Dos revisores independientes hicieron el mapeo de la información utilizando un instrumento de extracción de datos previamente elaborado. Los datos se analizaron respecto a su relevancia, para luego extraerlos y sintetizarlos. Resultados De 1342 estudios, se incluyeron 11 en la revisión. El primero fue publicado en 2017 y el último en 2022. La mayoría se realizó en Estados Unidos, China y Alemania. Los estudios presentaron información referente a las acciones del óxido nítrico, sintetizando su biodisponibilidad y los inhibidores endógenos relacionados con su producción, además de abordar la relación del óxido nítrico con la gravedad de la sepsis. Conclusión La producción de óxido nítrico fisiológico durante la sepsis actúa como protector vascular, principalmente en la microcirculación. Sin embargo, en altas concentraciones, contribuye a la disfunción vascular, que subvierte la fisiología de la regulación de la presión arterial, causa una profunda vasodilatación e hipotensión refractaria y aumenta la gravedad de pacientes sépticos. Registro da revisão de escopo no Open Science Framework: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/MXDK2


Abstract Objective Map the available evidence on the actions of nitric oxide in the pathophysiology of sepsis and its relationship with the severity of sepsis in patients. Method Scoping review following the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. A search was carried out for studies that highlighted the actions of nitric oxide in sepsis, informing whether its increase is associated with the severity of sepsis in patients. Two independent reviewers mapped the information using a previously designed data extraction instrument. The data was analyzed for its relevance and then extracted and synthesized. Results Eleven of 1342 studies were included in the review. The first of them was published in 2017 and the last in 2022. Most of them were developed in the USA, China, and Germany. Studies have reported the actions and bioavailability of nitric oxide and endogenous inhibitors related to its production, and related nitric oxide to the severity of sepsis. Conclusion The physiological production of nitric oxide during sepsis acts as a vascular protector, mainly in the microcirculation but contributes to vascular dysfunction in high concentrations, subverting the regulation of blood pressure, causing deep vasodilation and refractory hypotension, and increasing the severity of sepsis in patients. Registration of the scoping review in the Open Science Framework: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/MXDK2

11.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535306

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Multiple myeloma (MM) associated with Chagas disease is rarely described. This disease and its therapy suppress T cell and macrophage functions and increase regulatory T cell function, allowing the increase of parasitemia and the risk of Chagas Disease Reactivation (CDR). We aimed to analyze the role of conventional (cPCR) and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) for prospective monitoring of T. cruzi parasitemia, searching for markers of preemptive antiparasitic therapy in MM patients with Chagas disease. Moreover, we investigated the incidence and management of hematological diseases and CDR both inside and outside the transplant setting in the MEDLINE database. We found 293 studies and included 31 of them. Around 1.9-2.0% of patients with Chagas disease were reported in patients undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation. One case of CDR was described in eight cases of MM and Chagas disease. We monitored nine MM and Chagas disease patients, seven under Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation (ASCT), during 44.56±32.10 months (mean±SD) using parasitological methods, cPCR, and qPCR. From these patients, three had parasitemia. In the first, up to 256 par Eq/mL were detected, starting from 28 months after ASCT. The second patient dropped out and died soon after the detection of 161.0 par Eq/mL. The third patient had a positive blood culture. Benznidazole induced fast negativity in two cases; followed by notably lower levels in one of them. Increased T. cruzi parasitemia was related to the severity of the underlying disease. We recommend parasitemia monitoring by qPCR for early introduction of preemptive antiparasitic therapy to avoid CDR.

12.
São Paulo med. j ; 142(4): e2022370, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536906

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hyperchloremia is often encountered due to the frequent administration of intravenous fluids in critically ill patients with conditions such as shock or hypotension in the pediatric intensive care unit, and high serum levels of chloride are associated with poor clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the association between hyperchloremia and in-hospital mortality in pediatric patients with major trauma. DESIGN AND SETTING: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary university hospital in Turkey. METHODS: Data were collected between March 2020 and April 2022. Patients aged 1 month to 18 years with major trauma who received intravenous fluids with a concentration > 0.9% sodium chloride were enrolled. Hyperchloremia was defined as a serum chloride level > 110 mmol/L. Clinical and laboratory data were compared between the survivors and nonsurvivors. RESULTS: The mortality rate was 23% (n = 20). The incidence of hyperchloremia was significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (P = 0.05). In multivariate logistic analysis, hyperchloremia at 48 h was found to be an independent risk factor for mortality in pediatric patients with major trauma. CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric patients with major trauma, hyperchloremia at 48-h postadmission was associated with 28-day mortality. This parameter might be a beneficial prognostic indicator.

13.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551005

ABSTRACT

La isquemia intestinal aguda es una emergencia vascular provocada por fenómenos oclusivos y no oclusivos de la circulación mesentérica arterial y venosa, de difícil diagnóstico y pronóstico ominoso. Su incidencia va en aumento paulatino con el decurso de los años, asociada fundamentalmente al envejecimiento de la población. La tasa de mortalidad es elevada a pesar de los avances en el campo de la imagenología. Suele diagnosticarse de forma tardía, cuando está establecido el daño isquémico intestinal de carácter irreversible. El elemento imprescindible e indispensable lo constituye el tiempo que trascurre hasta la cirugía, por lo que su diagnóstico sigue siendo un reto clínico. El tratamiento exige medidas médicas intensivas, al igual que cirugía de revascularización y resección del intestino necrosado. Por desdicha, el examen físico y los hallazgos de laboratorio no son sensibles ni específicos para su diagnóstico. Teniendo en cuenta estos elementos, se presenta el caso de una paciente de 38 años con clínica difusa de vómitos, diarrea y dolor abdominal progresivo, que requirió intervención quirúrgica de urgencia con diagnóstico transoperatorio de isquemia mesentérica aguda. Durante su estancia hospitalaria se relaparotomizó en dos ocasiones, mantuvo soporte ventilatorio e inotrópico por fallo multiorgánico en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, mostrando una adecuada evolución posquirúrgica. El objetivo de esta presentación es enfatizar en la clínica como elemento fundamental para abordar de forma correcta esta entidad en un medio hospitalario de limitados recursos diagnósticos imagenológicos, al abordar conceptos teóricos recientes y facilitar una adecuada actuación en la toma de decisiones.


Acute intestinal ischemia is a vascular emergency caused by occlusive and non-occlusive phenomena of the mesenteric arterial and venous circulation of difficult diagnosis and ominous prognosis. Its incidence is gradually increasing over the years, mainly associated with the ageing of the population. The mortality rate is high despite advances in the field of imaging. It is usually diagnosed late, when irreversible ischemic intestinal damage is established. The essential and indispensable element is the time that elapses until surgery, so its diagnosis continues to be a clinical challenge. Treatment requires intensive medical measures, as well as revascularization surgery and resection of the necrotic intestine. Unfortunately, physical examination and laboratory findings are neither sensitive nor specific for its diagnosis. Taking these elements into account, the authors present the case of a 38-year-old female patient with diffuse symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea and progressive abdominal pain that required emergency surgery with intraoperative diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia. During her hospital stay, she underwent re-laparotomy twice, maintained ventilatory and inotropic support due to multi-organ failure in the Intensive Care Unit, showing an adequate post-surgical evolution. The objective of this presentation is to emphasize in the clinic as a fundamental element to correctly address this entity in a hospital environment with limited imaging diagnostic resources by addressing recent theoretical concepts and facilitating adequate action in decision-making.

14.
São Paulo med. j ; 142(4): e20230142, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551077

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, has a wide range of clinical manifestations, including meningoencephalitis, acute renal failure, pneumonitis, myocarditis, and septic shock. However, there are no documented cases of scrub typhus with hypokalemia. In this report, we present a case of scrub typhus with hypokalemia and multiple organ failure syndrome, highlighting the importance of electrolyte imbalance in patients with scrub typhus. CASE REPORT: A 59-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain that had been present for 1 day. On admission, the physical examination and laboratory test results indicated that the patient had renal, liver, and circulatory failure, and hypokalemia. She developed meningitis and disseminated intravascular coagulation during hospitalization. She recovered with appropriate management, and was discharged on day 17. CONCLUSION: This report highlights the potential for atypical presentations of scrub typhus, including a previously undocumented association with hypokalemia. Although the contribution of hypokalemia to the patient's clinical course remains uncertain, this case underscores the importance of considering electrolyte imbalance in the management of patients with scrub typhus. Further research is warranted to better understand the relationship between scrub typhus and electrolyte imbalance.

15.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551399

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Compreender o cotidiano de portadores de dor neuropática decorrente de lesão traumática. Metodologia: Pesquisa exploratória, descritiva, de abordagem qualitativa, com participantes selecionados por meio de mídias sociais. A coleta de dados foi realizada entre o período de julho a setembro de 2022, com indivíduos adultos que possuem diagnóstico de dor neuropática após lesão traumática. A coleta ocorreu por meio de um formulário online, utilizando um questionário sociodemográfico e um questionário aberto, para a captura de informações pertinentes sobre seu caso clínico e vivência com a dor crônica. Os dados foram analisados por meio de Bardin. Todos os preceitos éticos foram respeitados e o projeto foi aprovado sob parecer n.º 5.529.581 da Universidade Cesumar. Resultados: Participaram 15 pessoas com dor neuropática, com prevalência do sexo feminino (93,3%), com idade entre 41 a 50 anos (66,7%). Observou-se que 53,3% relataram comorbidades crônicas, sendo as doenças psíquicas, ansiolíticas e cardíacas mais citadas. Ainda, 33,3% dos participantes relataram que foram internados por causas de dores ou por tentativa de suicídio, 93,3% usam opióides e analgésicos potentes e ainda foram citados antidepressivos e ansiolíticos em 62% das respostas. Dentre os temas em destaque nas respostas, sobressaíram-se "Contexto e diagnóstico da dor neuropática; Vivência e frequência da dor; Apoio profissional e familiar diante da doença". Considerações Finais: Nesse sentido, a percepção acerca dos profissionais de saúde e valorização do médico para o tratamento da dor neuropática está relacionada, muitas vezes, à necessidade de aumentar o conhecimento referente ao manejo da dor e à utilização de opióides.


Objective: To understand the daily life of patients with neuropathic pain resulting from traumatic injury. Methodology: Exploratory, descriptive research, with a qualitative approach, with participants selected through social media. Data collection was carried out between July and September 2022, with adult individuals diagnosed with neuropathic pain after traumatic injury. The collection took place through an online form, using a sociodemographic questionnaire and an open questionnaire, to capture relevant information about their clinical case and experience with chronic pain. Data were analyzed using Bardin. All ethical precepts were respected and the project was approved by report n.º 5,529,581 of Cesumar University. Results: 15 people with neuropathic pain participated, with a prevalence of females (93.3%), aged between 41 and 50 years (66.7%). It was observed that 53.3% reported chronic comorbidities, with psychic, anxiolytic and cardiac diseases being the most cited. Also, 33.3% of the participants reported that they were hospitalized due to pain or a suicide attempt, 93.3% used opioids and potent analgesics, and antidepressants and anxiolytics were mentioned in 62% of the answers. Among the topics highlighted in the responses, the most important were "Context and diagnosis of neuropathic pain; Experience and frequency of pain; Professional and family support in the face of the disease". Final Considerations: In this sense, the perception of health professionals and the appreciation of physicians for the treatment of neuropathic pain is often related to the need to increase knowledge regarding pain management and the use of opioids.


Objetivo: Comprender el cotidiano de los pacientes con dolor neuropático resultante de lesiones traumáticas. Metodología: Investigación exploratoria, descriptiva, con enfoque cualitativo, con participantes seleccionados a través de las redes sociales. La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo entre julio y septiembre de 2022, con individuos adultos diagnosticados con dolor neuropático posterior a una lesión traumática. La recogida se realizó a través de un formulario online, utilizando un cuestionario sociodemográfico y un cuestionario abierto, para captar información relevante sobre su caso clínico y experiencia con el dolor crónico. Los datos se analizaron utilizando Bardin. Se respetaron todos los preceptos éticos y el proyecto fue aprobado bajo el dictamen número 5.529.581 de la Universidad Cesumar. Resultados: Participaron 15 personas con dolor neuropático, con predominio del sexo femenino (93,3%), con edades entre 41 y 50 años (66,7%). Se observó que 53,3% relataron comorbilidades crónicas, siendo las enfermedades psíquicas, ansiolíticas y cardíacas las más citadas. Aún así, el 33,3% de los participantes informaron que fueron hospitalizados por dolor o intento de suicidio, el 93,3% usaba opioides y analgésicos potentes, y los antidepresivos y ansiolíticos se mencionaron en el 62% de las respuestas. Entre los temas destacados en las respuestas, los más importantes fueron "Contexto y diagnóstico del dolor neuropático; Experiencia y frecuencia del dolor; Apoyo profesional y familiar ante la enfermedad". Consideraciones Finales: En este sentido, la percepción de los profesionales de la salud y la apreciación de los médicos por el tratamiento del dolor neuropático muchas veces se relaciona con la necesidad de aumentar el conocimiento sobre el manejo del dolor y el uso de opioides.

16.
REVISA (Online) ; 13(Especial 1): 324-332, 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538312

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Sistematizar a assistência de enfermagem à luz da teoria de Callista-Roy no cuidado ao paciente politraumatizado. Método:Trata-se de um estudo do tipo qualitativo de abordagem descritiva e exploratória na modalidade de caso clínico, realizado por estudantes de Enfermagem da Universidade Estadual de Feirade Santana no Hospital Geral Clériston Andrade na Clínica Ortopédica. A prática ocorreu em setembro de 2023, onde foram coletados dados e prestados cuidados à paciente. Resultados:Foi aplicada a Sistematização de Enfermagem, sob perspectiva da teoria deCallista-Roy, onde a coleta de dados foi realizada por meio do prontuário e contato direto com a paciente. Segundo a teoria, foram identificados os modos de adaptação físico-fisiológico, identidade de autoconceito, interdependência e desempenho de papel. Por fim, com base nas informações colhidas, foram realizados o planejamento, implementação e avaliação das condutas adotadas. Considerações finais:. Portanto, através da aplicação da sistematização de Enfermagem e do Modelo de adaptação é possível observara importância do exercício profissional da Enfermagem no processo de cuidado holístico, a fim de garantir as melhores condições de recuperação que perpassam o físico, como também na fundamentação teórico-prática do trabalho de enfermagem.


Objective: Systematize nursing assistance based on Callista-Roy's theory in the care of polytraumatized patients. Method:This is a qualitative study with a descriptive and exploratory approach in the form of a clinical case, carried out by nursing students from the State University of Feira de Santana at Clériston Andrade General Hospital in the Orthopedic Clinic. The practice took place in September 2023, where data were collected, and care was provided to the patient. Results:The Nursing Process was applied from the perspective of Callista-Roy's theory, with data collection performed through medical records and direct contact with the patient. According to the theory, modes of physical-physiological adaptation, self-concept identity, interdependence, and role performance were identified. Finally, based on the gathered information, planning, implementation, and evaluation of the adopted measures were carried out. Final considerations: Therefore, through the application of the nursing process and the Adaptation Model, it is possible to observe the importance of the nursing profession in the holistic care process, aiming to ensure the best conditions for recovery that go beyond the physical, as well as in the theoretical-practical foundation of nursing work.


Objetivo: Sistematizar la asistencia de enfermería a la luz de la teoría de Callista-Roy en el cuidado del paciente politraumatizado. Método:Se trata de un estudio cualitativo con enfoque descriptivo y exploratorio en forma de caso clínico, realizado por estudiantes de enfermería de la Universidad Estatal de Feira de Santana en el Hospital General Clériston Andrade en la Clínica Ortopédica. La práctica tuvo lugar en septiembre de 2023, donde se recopilaron datos y se brindó atención a la paciente. Resultados:Se aplicó el Proceso de Enfermería desde la perspectiva de la teoría de Callista-Roy, con la recopilación de datos realizada a través de expedientes médicos y contacto directo con la paciente. Según la teoría, se identificaron modos de adaptación físico-fisiológica, identidad del autoconcepto, interdependencia y desempeño del rol. Finalmente, con base en la información recopilada, se llevaron a cabo la planificación, implementación y evaluación de las medidas adoptadas. Consideraciones finales: Por lo tanto, mediante la aplicación del proceso de enfermería Y el Modelo de Adaptación, es posible observar la importancia de la profesión de enfermería en el proceso de atención integral, con el objetivo de garantizar las mejores condiciones de recuperación que van más allá de lo físico, así como en la fundamentación teórico-práctica del trabajo de enfermería.


Subject(s)
Adult Health , Nursing Theory , Multiple Trauma , Nursing Care
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 82(3): s00441779690, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557128

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Oligoclonal bands (OCBs) and Kappa free light chains (FLCs) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are sensitive markers of intrathecal immunoglobulin (Ig)G synthesis in patients with multiple sclerosis. Objective To evaluate the concordance rate between OCBCs and the Kappa index (KI) in patients with suspected multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods Patients with suspected MS were referred to a specialized CSF laboratory as part of their diagnostic investigation. Paired CSF and serum samples were collected and submitted to detection of OCBs and determination of the KI. Positive and negative results were determined with both methods, and the percentage of agreement between them was established. Results In total, 171 serum and CSF samples from 171 patients were included in the analysis. The mean age of the patients was of 40 ± 14.2 years; 18.9% of them were male, and 81.1% were female. The OCBs and KI presented concordant results in 161 (94.2%) samples: in 74 (43.3%), both were positive, and in 87 (50.9%), both were negative. In 10 cases, the results were discrepant: KI positive/OCB negative in 8 and OCB positive/KI negative in 2 cases. Conclusion The KI and OCBs presented high concordance level. Currently, the detection of OCBs in the CSF is the standard method for MS diagnosis, but it is time-consuming, and its visual interpretation can be difficult. The results suggest that the KI is a good alternative for the detection of intrathecal immunoproduction in cases of suspected MS.


Resumo Antecedentes Bandas oligoclonais (BOCs) e cadeias leves de imunoglobulina (free light chains, FLCs, em inglês) Kappa no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) são marcadores sensíveis da síntese intratecal de imunoglobulina (Ig)G em pacientes com esclerose múltipla (EM). Objetivo Avaliar a taxa de concordância entre BOCs e o índice Kappa (IK) em pacientes com suspeita de EM. Métodos Pacientes com suspeita de EM foram encaminhados a um laboratório especializado em LCR como parte de sua investigação diagnóstica. Amostras pareadas de LCR e soro foram coletadas e investigadas quanto à presença de BOCs e submetidas à determinação do IK. Resultados positivos e negativos foram determinados com ambos os métodos, e estabeleceu-se o percentual de concordância entre eles. Resultados Ao todo, 171 amostras de soro e LCR de 171 pacientes foram incluídas na análise. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 40 ± 14,2 anos; 18,9% deles eram do sexo masculino, e 81,1%, do sexo feminino. Resultados concordantes entre as BOCs e o IK foram observados em 161 (94,2%) amostras: em 74 (43,3%), ambos foram positivos, e em 87 (50,9%), ambos foram negativos. Em 10 casos, os resultados foram discrepantes: IK positivo/BOC negativo em 8, e BOC positivo/IK negativo em 2. Conclusão Observou-se alto nível de concordância entre o IK e as BOCs. A detecção de BOCs no LCR é atualmente o método padrão para o diagnóstico de EM, mas é demorado, e sua interpretação visual pode ser difícil. Os resultados sugerem que o IK pode ser uma alternativa para a detecção de imunoprodução intratecal em casos de suspeita de EM.

18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 82(3): s00441779271, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557132

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Unlike cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has not been as well described as an environmental risk for Multiple sclerosis (MS) nor as a risk factor for disease progression. Objective We systematically reviewed the association between ETS and the risk of onset and/or progression of MS. Methods We systematically screened MedLine/PubMed, Science Direct, LILACs, and SciELO searching for publications between January 1st, 2010, and July 5, 2021, with the following keywords: "multiple sclerosis and smoking"; "multiple sclerosis and passive smoking"; "multiple sclerosis and secondhand smoking". Results Fifteen articles were included in this review, which consisted of systematic reviews with meta-analysis (N = 2), systematic reviews (N = 2), and observational studies (N = 11). Both meta-analyses reported an impact of ETS on MS onset among secondhand smokers. One of the systematic reviews selected two observational studies showing the association between ETS and MS development, and one study that did not find a significant association between ETS and the risk of MS development. The other systematic review identified selected eight articles showing a relationship between ETS and MS. Seven observational studies reported higher odds of MS onset when associated with ETS. Four observational studies did not show a relationship between ETS and MS onset or progression. Conclusion Most articles showed a positive association between ETS exposure and the risk of developing MS. On the other hand, an association between ETS and a higher risk for MS progression could not be established.


Resumo Antecedentes Ao contrário do tabagismo ativo, o fumo passivo (FP) não é tão bem estabelecido como risco para o desenvolvimento de esclerose múltipla (EM) nem como um fator de risco para a progressão da doença. Objetivo Revisamos sistematicamente a associação entre FP e o risco de aparecimento e/ou progressão da EM. Métodos Fizemos uma triagem sistemática nas bases de dados MedLine/PubMed, Science Direct, LILACs e SciELO em busca de publicações entre 1° de janeiro de 2010 e 5 de julho de 2021 com as seguintes palavras-chave: "multiple sclerosis and smoking"; "multiple sclerosis and passive smoking"; "multiple sclerosis and secondhand smoking". Resultados Quinze artigos foram incluídos nesta revisão, que consistiu em revisões sistemáticas com metanálise (N = 2), revisões sistemáticas (N = 2) e estudos observacionais (N = 11). As metanálises relataram um impacto do FP no surgimento da EM entre fumantes passivos. Um revisão sistemática selecionou dois estudos observacionais mostrando a associação entre FP e desenvolvimento de EM, e um estudo que não encontrou associação significativa entre FP e o risco de desenvolvimento de EM. Outra revisão sistemática identificou oito artigos selecionados mostrando uma relação entre FP e EM. Sete estudos observacionais relataram maiores chances de aparecimento de EM quando associados a FP. Quatro estudos observacionais não mostraram uma relação entre FP e o desenvolvimento ou progressão da EM. Conclusão A maioria dos artigos mostrou uma associação positiva entre a exposição ao FP e o risco de desenvolver EM. Por outro lado, não foi possível estabelecer uma associação entre FP e maior risco de progressão da EM.

19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 70(4): e20231466, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558896

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The ability to cause death is the definitive measure of an infectious disease severity, particularly one caused by a novel pathogen like severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 (COVID-19). This study describes sickle cell disease-related mortality issues during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. METHODS: The provisional 2020 mortality data originated from the public databases of the Mortality Information System and were investigated using the multiple-cause-of-death methodology. RESULTS: In 2020, 688 sickle cell disease-related deaths occurred, of which 422 (61.3%) had an underlying cause of death and 266 (38.7%) had an associated cause of death. Furthermore, 98 COVID-19-related deaths occurred, of which 78 were underlying cause of death among sickle cell disease associated (non-underlying) cause of death. Sickle cell disease-related deaths occurred mostly among young adults aged 25-49 years. COVID-19 deaths occurred at ages older than among sickle cell disease-related deaths. Majority of deaths happened in the southeast (42.3%) and northeast regions (34.0%), while COVID-19 deaths prevailed in the northeast region (42.9%). Regarding overall deaths, the leading underlying cause of death was sickle cell disease itself, followed by infectious and parasitic diseases (14.8%), owing to COVID-19 deaths, and diseases of the circulatory system (8.9%). Next, in males, diseases of the digestive system (4.8%) occurred, while, in females, maternal deaths succeeded, included in the chapter on pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium, accounting for 5.9% of female deaths. The leading overall associated (non-underlying) cause of deaths were septicemias (29.4%), followed by respiratory failure (20.9%), pneumonias (18.3%), and renal failure (14.7%). CONCLUSION: In Brazil, COVID-19 deaths produced trend changes in sickle cell disease-related causes of death, age at death, and regional distribution of deaths in 2020.

20.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 51: e20243690, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559019

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: fat embolism syndrome (FES) is an acute respiratory disorder that occurs when an inflammatory response causes the embolization of fat and marrow particles into the bloodstream. The exact incidence of FES is not well defined due to the difficulty of diagnosis. FES is mostly associated with isolated long bone trauma, and it is usually misdiagnosed in other trauma cases. The scope of this study was to identify and search the current literature for cases of FES in nonorthopedic trauma patients with the aim of defining the etiology, incidence, and main clinical manifestations. Methods: we perform a literature search via the PubMed journal to find, summarize, and incorporate reports of fat embolisms in patients presenting with non-orthopedic trauma. Results: the final literature search yielded 23 papers of patients presenting with fat embolism/FES due to non-orthopedic trauma. The presentation and etiology of these fat embolisms is varied and complex, differing from patient to patient. In this review, we highlight the importance of maintaining a clinical suspicion of FES within the trauma and critical care community. Conclusion: to help trauma surgeons and clinicians identify FES cases in trauma patients who do not present with long bone fracture, we also present the main clinical signs of FES as well as the possible treatment and prevention options.


RESUMO Introdução: a síndrome da embolia gordurosa (SEG) representa um distúrbio respiratório agudo que ocorre quando uma resposta inflamatória leva a uma embolização de partículas de gordura e medula na corrente sanguínea. A incidência exata da SEG não está bem estabelecida devido à dificuldade de diagnóstico. Tal síndrome está associada principalmente a traumas isolados de ossos longos e geralmente é diagnosticada erroneamente em outros casos de trauma. O escopo deste estudo foi de realizar uma pesquisa e identificar na literatura atual casos de SEG em pacientes com trauma de natureza não ortopédica com o objetivo de definir a etiologia, a incidência e as principais manifestações clínicas. Métodos: foi realizada uma pesquisa na literatura utilizando como base de dados o PubMed a fim de identificar os relatos e series de casos de embolias gordurosas em pacientes vítimas de traumas de natureza não ortopédica. A pesquisa final resultou em 23 artigos de pacientes que apresentaram embolia gordurosa/SEG devido a trauma não ortopédico. Resultados: a apresentação e a etiologia dessas embolias gordurosas são variadas e complexas, diferindo de paciente para paciente. Nesta revisão, destacamos a importância de manter uma suspeita clínica de SEG para pacientes vítimas de trauma que se encontrem sob cuidados intensivos. Conclusão: para ajudar os cirurgiões de trauma e os clínicos a identificar casos de SEG em pacientes com trauma que não apresentam fratura de ossos longos, foram destacados os principais sinais clínicos de SEG, bem como as possíveis opções de tratamento e prevenção.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL