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1.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(6): 554-556, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285357

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The Paraguayan War ended 150 years ago. Back then, there were outbreaks of combatants' limb weakness and tingling related to "palustrian cachexia", not clearly funded at the time on nutritional deficiency, the use of native flora to feed troops, and alcoholism. We report a case of a soldier with ascending paralysis, mental confusion and finally tetraplegia with preserved oculomotricity. This would probably be a case of locked-in syndrome (LIS) due to Gayet-Wernicke's encephalopathy consequent to thiamine deficiency. The role of thiamine in the peripheral or central nervous system expression was shown decades later to be related to poor diet, or use of foods containing thiaminase or thiamine antagonists, worsened by the fact that the bodily stores of thiamine are restricted, and deficits may grow fast.


RESUMO A Guerra do Paraguai terminou há 150 anos. Houve surtos de fraqueza dos membros dos combatentes e parestesias relacionadas à "caquexia palustre", não claramente fundamentados na época sobre deficiência nutricional, o uso da flora nativa para alimentar as tropas e o alcoolismo. Referimo-nos a um caso de um militar com paralisia ascendente, confusão mental e finalmente tetraplegia com oculomotricidade preservada. Esse relato seria provavelmente devido a um caso de "síndrome do encarceramento" secundário à encefalopatia de Gayet-Wernicke consequente à deficiência de tiamina. O papel da tiamina na expressão periférica ou do SNC foi previsto décadas mais tarde em relação a uma dieta pobre, ou ao uso de alimentos contendo tiamina ou antagonistas da tiamina, agravado pelo fato de que as reservas corporais de tiamina são restritas, e os déficits podem se manifestar rapidamente.

2.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 34(4): 245-249, oct.-dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973531

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El síndrome neuroléptico maligno (SNM) es una complicación severa de los antipsicóticos, en especial los de primera generación como el haloperidol, que fue el primero en el que se describió esta patología, caracterizada por fiebre, rigidez, alteración del estado de conciencia y disautonomías. Por otro lado, la mielinólisis central pontina (ahora llamada síndrome de desmielinización osmótica) resulta de las alteraciones agudas séricas del sodio, como las que ocurren en las reposiciones de hiponatremia, y podría poner en riesgo la vida al igual que el SNM. La asociación de estas dos patologías es inusual y hasta el momento no se conoce con claridad su relación causal, producto de los pocos casos reportados. Aunque se conoce la mortalidad del síndrome neuroléptico maligno, la compañía de la mielinolisis central pontina podría aumentar la morbimortalidad de esta entidad, por lo cual es necesario reconocerla rápidamente para prevenir la aparición de complicaciones, ya que no cuenta con un tratamiento específico. Presentamos el caso de un paciente joven que cursó con estas dos patologías, y consideramos que la causa de la mielinolisis central pontina fue el haloperidol, así como del SNM. A pesar de ello, este medicamento continúa siendo muy seguro en la práctica clínica ya que la aparición de estas complicaciones es una reacción idiosincrática por algún tipo de susceptibilidad genética desconocida.


SUMMARY Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a severe complication of antipsychotics, especially those of first generation such as haloperidol, which was the first in which this pathology was described, characterized by: fever, rigidity, alteration of the state of consciousness and dysautonomies. On the other side, central pontine myelinolysis (Now Called Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome), search results of acute sodium alterations of sodium, as those occurring in hyponatremia replenings and could put life at risk just like the NMS. The association of these two pathologies is unusual and until now, their causal relationship, the result of the few cases reported, is not clearly known. Although the relationship of the neurological syndrome may be limited, the company of central myelolysis could increase the morbidity of this entity, so it is necessary to be required quickly to prevent the onset of complications, which does not have a specific treatment. We present the case of a young patient who has these pathologies and we consider that the cause of centralized myelinolysis is haloperidol as well as NMS, despite this, this medication continues to be very safe in clinical practice since the appearance of These complications is an idiosyncratic reaction due to some type of unknown genetic susceptibility.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , Haloperidol , Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
3.
Rev. CEFAC ; 19(1): 135-140, jan.-fev. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-842586

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O presente trabalho é um relato de caso que descreve os achados fonoaudiológicos e de qualidade de vida apresentados por uma adolescente com um tumor do sistema nervoso central acometida pela mielinólise extrapontina. A mielinólise extrapontina é uma doença desmielinizante aguda que pode ser causada por variações abruptas na osmolaridade sérica, como o que ocorre na rápida correção da hiponatremia. Os dados foram obtidos a partir da avaliação clínica fonoaudiológica, de questionários pediátricos sobre a qualidade de vida e dados contidos no prontuário médico. A paciente apresentou mutismo, disartria e disfagia decorrentes da mielinólise extrapontina, com impactos significativos na sua comunicação verbal, alimentação e qualidade de vida. Os escores de qualidade de vida após a mielinólise extrapontina apresentaram piora quando comparados aos do período anterior à doença. Recebeu atendimento fonoaudiológico hospitalar e ambulatorial. Foram observadas evoluções nos padrões de fala, deglutição e mobilidade das estruturas orofaciais, com reversão parcial dos déficits neurológicos. A atuação fonoaudiológica, como parte de uma equipe multiprofissional de saúde, é de grande importância na reabilitação funcional dos pacientes acometidos por esta doença.


ABSTRACT This paper is a case report describing the speech-language and quality of life outcomes presented by a teenager with a central nervous system germ cell tumor affected by extrapontine myelinolysis. The extrapontine myelinolysis is an acute demyelinating disease that can be caused by abrupt changes in serum osmolality, as in the rapid correction of hyponatremia. Data were obtained from clinical assessment protocols, pediatric inventory about quality of life and medical records information. The patient presented mutism, dysphagia and dysarthria caused by extrapontine myelinolysis, with significant impacts on their verbal communication, feeding and quality of life. The scores of quality of life after extrapontine myelinolysis decreased compared to the time before the disease. She received speech-language therapy during hospital admission and in the outpatient clinic. We observed changes in patterns of speech, swallowing and mobility of orofacial structures; with partially reverse of neurological deficits. The speech therapists, as part of a multidisciplinary team of health care, are of great importance in the functional rehabilitation of patients affected by this disease.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-97889

ABSTRACT

Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a demyelinating disorder related to the rapid correction of hyponatremia. It usually affects the pontine area; hence, the name central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). However, it rarely occurs with the correction of hypernatremia and hyperosmolarity and involves extrapontine areas. A 56-year-old chronic alcoholic had been admitted with a history of confusion. He had been in alcohol withdrawal for 4 days. Laboratory examinations showed severe hypernatremia and hyperosmolarity. After serum sodium level was normalized; however, his clinical course did not improve and deteriorated to semicoma progressively. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed abnormal signal intensity in the pontine and extrapontine areas, including the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebral cortices. This is the first case report of combined central pontine and extrapontine demyelination after alcohol withdrawal and correction of hypernatremia in a chronic alcoholic.


Subject(s)
Alcoholics , Basal Ganglia , Cerebral Cortex , Demyelinating Diseases , Humans , Hypernatremia , Hyponatremia , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Myelinolysis, Central Pontine , Sodium , Thalamus
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(5): 675-679, mayo 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-791057

ABSTRACT

Posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRES) is a condition characterized by T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, localized preferentially in the occipital-parietal white matter regions. Pathological MRI images located in midbrain, pons, medulla and spinal cord, that could be asymptomatic, were recently included in this entity. These images are interpreted as vasogenic edema, which is caused by arterial hypertension or eclampsia, neurotoxicity related to immunosuppressive agents or chemotherapy, among other causes. We report a 25 years old asymptomatic male with AIDS, with normal blood pressure who after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reported vertigo. The MRI showed a central pontine T2 hyperintensity with diffusion restriction, which was interpreted as a central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), but the lack of motor symptoms made improbable a real demyelination of the pons. The follow-up MRI revealed complete regression of the images. To our knowledge, this case could be the second report of a reversible leucopathy of the pons in a patient with AIDS, were the MRI images also simulated a CPM. This report extends the knowledge around the variability of the pathogenic interpretation of CPM images and their association with HAART.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/chemically induced , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging
6.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 27(1): 77-81, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-744683

ABSTRACT

A rabdomiólise é caracterizada por destruição de tecido muscular esquelético, sendo as suas principais causas o trauma, os tóxicos e os distúrbios hidroeletrolíticos. Entre esses últimos, inclui-se a rabdomiólise induzida por hiponatremia, uma situação rara, que ocorre principalmente em doentes com polidipsia psicogênica. Esta acomete maioritariamente doentes com esquizofrenia, cursando com hiponatremia em quase 25% dos casos. É também nesse contexto que a rabdomiólise secundária a hiponatremia ocorre mais frequentemente. Neste artigo, descreveu-se o caso de um homem de 49 anos, com antecedentes de esquizofrenia, medicado com clozapina, trazido ao serviço de urgência por quadro de coma e convulsões. Foi objetivada hiponatremia hiposmolar grave, com edema cerebral em tomografia computorizada, sendo feito posteriormente o diagnóstico de hiponatremia secundária à polidipsia psicogênica. Foi iniciada terapêutica de correção de hiponatremia e internado em unidade de terapia intensiva. Feita correção de hiponatremia, contudo apresentou analiticamente marcada rabdomiólise, de agravamento crescente, com creatinofosfoquinase de 44.058UI/L no 3º dia de internação. Houve posterior redução progressiva com a terapêutica, sem ocorrência de lesão renal. Este caso alerta para a necessidade de monitorização dos marcadores de rabdomiólise na hiponatremia grave, ilustrando um quadro de rabdomiólise secundária à hiponatremia induzida por polidipsia psicogênica, situação a considerar em doentes sob terapêutica com neurolépticos.


Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by the destruction of skeletal muscle tissue, and its main causes are trauma, toxic substances and electrolyte disturbances. Among the latter is hyponatremia-induced rhabdomyolysis, a rare condition that occurs mainly in patients with psychogenic polydipsia. Psycogenic polydipsia mostly affects patients with schizophrenia, coursing with hyponatremia in almost 25% of the cases. It is also in this context that rhabdomyolysis secondary to hyponatremia occurs most often. In this article, the case of a 49-year-old male with a history of schizophrenia, medicated with clozapine, and brought to the emergency room in a state of coma and seizures is described. Severe hypoosmolar hyponatremia with cerebral edema was found on a computed tomography examination, and a subsequent diagnosis of hyponatremia secondary to psychogenic polydipsia was made. Hyponatremia correction therapy was started, and the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit. After the hyponatremia correction, the patient presented with analytical worsening, showing marked rhabdomyolysis with a creatine phosphokinase level of 44.058UI/L on day 3 of hospitalization. The condition showed a subsequent progressive improvement with therapy, with no occurrence of kidney damage. This case stresses the need for monitoring rhabdomyolysis markers in severe hyponatremia, illustrating the condition of rhabdomyolysis secondary to hyponatremia induced by psychogenic polydipsia, which should be considered in patients undergoing treatment with neuroleptics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , Schizophrenia/complications , Polydipsia, Psychogenic/complications , Hyponatremia/complications , Recurrence , Rhabdomyolysis/physiopathology , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Clozapine/adverse effects , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Polydipsia, Psychogenic/etiology , Hyponatremia/etiology , Middle Aged
7.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 787-789, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-498992

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic encephalopathy (PE)is one of the severe complications of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).Early diagnosis mostly depends on the history of disease as well as clinical symptoms and signs.PE progresses rapidly and is often complicated by multiple organ dysfunction,and it may finally develop into multiple organ failure with a high fatality rate if not treated in time.It is currently known that de-myelination is one of the important pathological features of this disease,with fat -soluble demyelination of cerebral gray matter and white matter,as well as inflammatory changes such as hemorrhage and edema.The target antigen of demyelinating lesions,however,is myelin basic protein (MBP).This paper reviews the changes in MBP levels in the demyelinating lesions of the central nervous system among PE pa-tients,with the purpose of providing clues for the early diagnosis and prognostic study of demyelinating lesions in PE.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173545

ABSTRACT

We describe a 37-yr-old man who developed central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. After HSCT, desquamation developed on the whole body accompanied by hyperbilirubinemia. The liver biopsy of the patient indicated graft-versus-host disease- related liver disease, and the dose of methylprednisolone was increased. Then, the patient developed altered mentality with eye ball deviation to the left, for which electroencephalogram and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were done. Brain MRI scan demonstrated the imaging findings consistent with central pontine myelinolysis and extrapontine myelinolysis. He did not have any hyponatremia episode during hospitalization prior to the MRI scan. To the best of our knowledge, presentation of CPM after allogeneic HSCT is extremely rare in cases where patients have not exhibited any episodes of significant hyponatremia. We report a rare case in which hepatic dysfunction due to graft-versus-host disease has a strong association with CPM after HSCT.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biopsy , Brain/pathology , Electroencephalography , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Hyperbilirubinemia/etiology , Liver/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Myelinolysis, Central Pontine/complications , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 660-663, 2001.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206839

ABSTRACT

Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a rare syndrome, especially in uremic patients undergoing dialysis. CPM induced by diabetic coma in hemodialysis patients or associated with rapid correction of hyponatremia in peritoneal dialysis patients have been reported. However, its pathogenesis has been unclear. We report a case of CPM in a 67-year-old female uremic patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, who was admitted to our hospital for drowsy mentality. Sodium was normal (140 mEq/L) initially and throughout the entire clinical course. The fasting blood sugar level was 110 mg/dL, serum osmolality 312 mOsm/KgH2O and osmolar gap 9.47. The axial T2-weighted brain MRI showed high signal intensity in the basal pons.


Subject(s)
Aged , Blood Glucose , Brain , Diabetic Coma , Dialysis , Fasting , Female , Humans , Hyponatremia , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myelinolysis, Central Pontine , Osmolar Concentration , Peritoneal Dialysis , Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory , Pons , Renal Dialysis , Sodium
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-536354

ABSTRACT

Objective A series of 5 patients with central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) confirmed either by cranial MRI,CT image (4 cases) or by autopsy pathological analysis (1 case) was reported. The pathophysiological mechanism,the early diagnosis and the role in prevention were discussed. Methods The creteria obtained from clinical features, cranial MRI and CT imagine as well as autopsy pathological changes were thoroughly analyzed. Results ① All 5 case of CPM were occurring in patients who had already had somatic disease and serious systemic functional failure, especially in those who had had seriously water and ion disturbances, such as hyponatremia. ② In 4 of the 5 patients, psychiatric manifestation tended to show the earliest clinical features. ③ The pseudobulbaral paralysis appeared in 4 patients. ④ Cranial MRI and CT served as the most reliable techniques for diagnosing CPM cases when patients are still alive. ⑤ A variety of paralysis were found in all of the 5 CPM patients. ⑥Pathological analysis demonstrated that there is a symmetric unspecific myelinolysis in areas of basal pontine, caudal middle brain and the superior medulla (1 patient). Conclusion ① The occurrence of hyponatrimia and its too fast correction may be associated with the onset of CPM. ② CPM, a self-restrained disease can be cured from dangerous complications, such as pneumonia, respiratory failure and malnutrition when suitably treated.

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