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1.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 148-155, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013351

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo establish a rapid and stable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS) for simultaneous analysis of 17 chemical components in Gnaphalium affine aboveground parts with flowers, so as to provide experimental basis for improving the quality standard of this herb. MethodUltra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field orbitrap mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS) was used for the quantitative analysis of 17 constituents in 15 batches of G. affine from different origins, the separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC® BEH C18 column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) with the mobile phase of methanol(A)-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution(B) for gradient elution(0-1.0 min, 8%A; 1.0-4.0 min, 8%-26%A; 4.0-9.0 min, 26%A; 9.0-14.0 min, 26%-34%A; 14.0-14.5 min, 34%-45%A; 14.5-15.0 min, 45%-60%A; 15.0-18.0 min, 60%-90%A; 18.0-19.0 min, 90%A; 19.0-19.01 min, 90%-8%A; 19.01-20.0 min, 8%A), the flow rate was 0.3 mL·min-1, the column temperature was 40 ℃ and the injection volume was 2 μL. And the electrospray ionization was used with full scanning in both positive and negative ion modes, and the scanning range was m/z 100-1 000. ResultThe established method has been verified by the methodology and could be used for the simultaneous quantification of 17 components in G. affine. The content ranges of the 17 components(quinic acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, 1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, isoquercitrin, 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, astragalin, isochlorogenic acid C, luteolin, apigenin and hispidulin) in 15 batches of G. affine samples was 39.60-179.12, 0.17-0.84, 2.41-8.38, 4.33-31.50, 13.63-180.38, 2.43-14.75, 1.16-19.68, 0.49-5.63, 55.77-445.16, 0.23-10.26, 62.04-530.10, 1.11-18.01, 11.36-90.61, 12.22-65.98, 7.22-69.84, 3.37-45.65, 0.30-2.59 μg·g-1, respectively. The content of organic acids was higher than that of flavonoids in G. affine, and the contents of 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, quinic acid and chlorogenic acid were higher. Meanwhile, the content of flavonoids in the samples from Guizhou was higher than that from Jiangsu, while the content of organic acids in the samples from Jiangsu was higher than that from Guizhou. ConclusionThe established method can be used for the rapid and accurate determination of 17 components in G. affine, which clarifies the content range of the main components in this herb, and can provide a reference for the selection of quality control markers of G. affine.

2.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 30(1): 1-8, 2023-01-22. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1438335

ABSTRACT

Background: Today, cardiovascular, oncological, and neurodegenerative diseases are the main causes of death in the world, according to official World Health Organization (WHO) statistics. Antioxidants are used to treat and prevent these diseases. In order to develop optimal technology for obtaining drugs based on plant extracts with antioxidant action, it is necessary to determine the total antioxidant capacity of raspberry shoots. Objectives: The study aimed to determine the total antioxidant capacity of red raspberry shoots, study the content of biologically active substances (BAS), and the antioxidant activity of red raspberry shoot extracts obtained during subsequent exhaustive extraction. Methods: The number of phenolic compounds, catechins, flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamic acids was determined by a spectrophotometric analysis method, whereas organic acids were determined by the alkalimetric method in red raspberry shoot extracts; the antioxidant activity of obtained extracts was evaluated by potentiometric method. Results: The total antioxidant capacity of red raspberry shoots was 164.12 mmol-equiv./m dry weight, the sum of the total content of phenolic compounds was 24.40 mg gallic acid (GA)/mL, catechins ­ 21.36 mg epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG)/mL, flavonoids ­ 0.77 mg rutin (R)/mL, hydroxycinnamic acids derivatives ­ 2.56 mg chlorogenic acid (ChA)/mL and organic acids ­ 1.88 mg citric acid (CA)/mL in red raspberry shoot extracts obtained during subsequent exhaustive extraction. The analysis showed that there is a very high positive correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds, catechin, flavonoid, hydroxycinnamic acids derivatives, and organic acids content in red raspberry shoot extracts. Conclusions: Total red raspberry shoots' antioxidant capacity has been determined. The study results can be used to develop optimal technology for obtaining drugs based on the extract of red raspberry shoots, which has an antioxidant effect


Contexto: Hoy en día, las enfermedades cardiovasculares, oncológicas y neurodegenerativas son las principales causas de muerte en el mundo según estadísticas oficiales de la Organización Mundial de la Salud OMS. Los antioxidantes se utilizan para tratar y prevenir estas enfermedades. Para desarrollar una tecnología óptima para la obtención de fármacos a base de extractos de plantas con acción antioxidante, es necesario determinar la capacidad antioxidante total de los brotes de frambuesa.Objetivos: El estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la capacidad antioxidante total de los brotes de frambuesa roja, estudiar el contenido de sustancias biológicamente activas (SBA) y la actividad antioxidante de los extractos de brotes de frambuesa roja obtenidos mediante extracción exhaustiva. Métodos: La cantidad de compuestos fenólicos, catequinas, flavonoides y ácidos hidroxicinámicos se determinó por método de análisis espectrofotométrico, mientras que los ácidos orgánicos por método alcalimétrico en extractos de brotes de frambuesa roja; La actividad antioxidante de los extractos obtenidos se evaluó por método potenciométrico. Resultados: La capacidad antioxidante total de los brotes de frambuesa roja fue de 164.12 mmol-equiv./m de peso seco, la suma del contenido total de compuestos fenólicos fue de 24.40 mg gálico ácido (GA)/mL, catequinas ­ 21.36 mg epigalocatequina-3-O-galato (EGCG)/mL, flavonoides ­ 0.77 mg rutina (R)/mL, derivados de ácidos hidroxicinámicos ­ 2.56 mg clorogénico ácido (ChA)/mL y ácidos orgánicos ­ 1.88 mg cítrico ácido (CA)/mL en extractos de brotes de frambuesa roja obtenidos durante extracción exhaustiva. La correlación analizada mostró que existe una correlación positiva entre la actividad antioxidante y el contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales, catequinas, flavonoides, derivados de ácidos hidroxicinámicos y ácidos orgánicos en extractos de brotes de frambuesa roja. Conclusiones: Gracias a nuestros resultados se ha determinado la capacidad antioxidante total de los brotes de frambuesa roja. Los resultados del estudio se pueden utilizar para desarrollar una tecnología óptima para la obtención de fármacos basados en el extracto de brotes de frambuesa roja, que tiene un efecto antioxidante


Subject(s)
Humans , Antioxidants , Phenols , Serial Extraction , Organic Acids , Correlation of Data
3.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 176-186, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984596

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveA rapid method for identification of chemical constituents in Puerariae Lobatae Radix dispensing granules was established in order to clarify the material basis. MethodThe chemical constituents of Puerariae Lobatae Radix dispensing granules was qualitatively analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) under positive and negative ion modes, and the chromatographic conditions were on an ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution(A)-0.1% formic acid acetonitrile solution(B) as mobile phase for gradient elution(0-4 min, 5%-10%B; 4-10 min, 10%-15%B; 10-20 min, 15%-16%B; 20-27 min, 16%-31%B; 27-33 min, 31%-59%B; 33-42 min, 59%-95%B; 42-42.1 min, 95%-5%B; 42.1-45 min, 5%B), the flow rate was 0.35 mL·min-1, the column temperature was 40 ℃, the injection volume was 5 μL, and electrospray ionization(ESI) was selected. Then these chemical constituents were comprehensively identified based on PeakView 1.2, PubChem, ChemicalBook, ChemSpider, comparative control profiles and literature information. ResultA total of 128 chemical constituents were identified from the dispensing granules, including 60 flavonoids, 26 organic acids, 7 glycosides, 6 coumarins, 3 nucleosides and 26 other compounds. By focusing on the cleavage patterns of flavonoids, organic acids, glycosides, coumarins, nucleosides and other compounds, 12 compounds that have not been reported in Puerariae Lobatae Radix species were identified from the dispensing granules. ConclusionThe established method can systematically and rapidly identify the chemical constituents in Puerariae Lobatae Radix dispensing granules, and cleared it composition is mainly flavonoids and organic acids. Laying a foundation for the study of the material basis, mechanism of action and clinical application of the dispensing granules.

4.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e198402, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1417480

ABSTRACT

The use of antimicrobials as growth promoters and disease prevention is being constantly reduced in several animal production systems, including in the swine industry. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using acidifiers to control Salmonella Typhimurium in 65-day-old pigs by detecting the pathogen in organs at euthanasia. For this, 24 piglets were divided into two experimental groups consisting of 12 piglets each. An untreated control group (G1) and a treatment group (G2) received a liquid organic acidifier in the drinking water for 10 days (D-5 to D5). Five days after the start of treatment (D0), all piglets were challenged with 106 CFU of Salmonella Typhimurium and assessed for 12 days (D12). Every three days (D3, D6, D9, and D12), three animals from each experimental group were euthanized and then submitted for necropsy. Samples from the intestines (ileum, cecum, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ileocolic lymph nodes), liver, spleen, and lungs were collected to isolate Salmonella. The results show that, numerically, Salmonella isolation in the organs of G2 was lower than in G1 and that the number of positive cecum samples in G1 (66.7%; 8/12) was statistically different from the number of positive models in G2 (16.7%; 2/12), with a reduction of 28.6% of the total cecum positive samples in the treated group compared to the control. Therefore, it was observed that the liquid organic acidifier product could reduce the colonization of organs by Salmonella Typhimurium. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella Infections/prevention & control , Swine/physiology , Organic Acids/analysis , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects
5.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e198402, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1419067

ABSTRACT

The use of antimicrobials as growth promoters and disease prevention is being constantly reduced in several animal production systems, including in the swine industry. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using acidifiers to control Salmonella Typhimurium in 65-day-old pigs by detecting the pathogen in organs at euthanasia. For this, 24 piglets were divided into two experimental groups consisting of 12 piglets each. An untreated control group (G1) and a treatment group (G2) received a liquid organic acidifier in the drinking water for 10 days (D-5 to D5). Five days after the start of treatment (D0), all piglets were challenged with 106 CFU of Salmonella Typhimurium and assessed for 12 days (D12). Every three days (D3, D6, D9, and D12), three animals from each experimental group were euthanized and then submitted for necropsy. Samples from the intestines (ileum, cecum, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ileocolic lymph nodes), liver, spleen, and lungs were collected to isolate Salmonella. The results show that, numerically, Salmonellaisolation in the organs of G2 was lower than in G1 and that the number of positive cecum samples in G1 (66.7%; 8/12) was statistically different from the number of positive models in G2 (16.7%; 2/12), with a reduction of 28.6% of the total cecum positive samples in the treated group compared to the control. Therefore, it was observed that the liquid organic acidifier product could reduce the colonization of organs by Salmonella Typhimurium.(AU)


O uso de antimicrobianos como promotores de crescimento e prevenção de doenças vem sendo constantemente reduzido em diversos sistemas de produção animal, inclusive na suinocultura. Portanto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do uso de acidificantes no controle de Salmonella Typhimurium em suínos de 65 dias de idade, detectando o patógeno em órgãos após a eutanásia. Para isso, 24 leitões foram divididos em dois grupos experimentais constituídos por 12 leitões cada. Um grupo controle não tratado (G1) e um grupo de tratamento (G2) que recebeu um acidificante orgânico líquido na água de beber por 10 dias (D-5 a D5). Cinco dias após o início do tratamento (D0), todos os animais foram inoculados oralmente com 106 UFC de Salmonella Typhimurium e avaliados por 12 dias (D12). A cada três dias (D3, D6, D9 e D12), três leitões de cada grupo experimental foram eutanasiados e posteriormente submetidos à necropsia. Amostras de intestino (íleo, ceco, linfonodos mesentéricos e linfonodos ileocólicos), fígado, baço e pulmões foram coletadas para o isolamento de Salmonella. Os resultados mostram que, numericamente, o isolamento de Salmonella nos órgãos do G2 foi inferior ao G1, e que o número de amostras positivas de ceco no G1 (66,7%; 8/12) foi estatisticamente diferente do número de amostras positivas no G2 (16,7%; 2/12), com redução de 28,6% do total de amostras positivas de ceco no grupo tratado em relação ao controle. Portanto, observou-se que o ácido orgânico líquido foi capaz de reduzir a colonização de órgãos por Salmonella Typhimurium.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Swine/physiology , Organic Acids/adverse effects , Salmonella Infections, Animal/drug therapy , Virus Shedding
6.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 30(3): 1-11, 2022-09-22. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1538063

ABSTRACT

Background: Beef slaughterhouses must use a carcass decontamination procedure to control pathogens and thus prevent foodborne diseases transmitted by meat. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize beef carcass decontamination procedures at slaughterhouses located in the province of Antioquia (Colombia). All the slaughterhouses were in service, registered, and approved by Invima (Instituto Nacional de Vigilancia de Medicamentos y Alimentos in Spanish) at the time of the study. Methods: This descriptive study collected information from 23 beef slaughterhouses between July 2019 and April 2021 through documentary reviews and visits to slaughterhouses, using forms and questionnaires. Results: The study allowed the characterization of the procedures used to decontaminate beef carcasses, showing that the chemical disinfection of the carcasses is used to control microorganisms in at least 73.9% of the slaughterhouses analyzed. According to secondary sources, it was found that most of the slaughterhouses are small (slaughter volume <50,000 heads per year); 10 of them use citric acid, lactic acid, peracetic acid, and a mixture of organic acids in concentrations between 900 and 1,200 ppm, 1.5 and 1.7%, 180 and 190 ppm, and 900 and 1,200 ppm, respectively, as carcass disinfectants and according to the technical data sheet of the product. During the visits and through the application of the questionnaire, it was found that the 12 slaughterhouses had implemented chemical disinfection which is not scientifically based, using manual devices as an intervention method to control pathogenic microorganisms. It was found that the type of company, slaughter volume, and the lack of financial resources are the determining factors in the selection of decontamination procedures. The validation of the beef carcass decontamination procedures in the different slaughterhouses in the study was demonstrated. Conclusions:Although it was established that at least one decontamination procedure, such as chemical disinfection, is used in the slaughterhouses of study, this option is not supported by scientific or technical evidence. The findings support the need for improvements in the slaughterhouses of the province of Antioquia, including the improvement of surveillance programs to reduce pathogens in the meat chain effectively.


Antecedentes: Las plantas de beneficio animal deben utilizar un procedimiento de descontaminación de canales para el control de patógenos y con ello, prevenir la aparición de enfermedades transmitidas por el consumo de carne. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el procedimiento de descontaminación de canales bovinas en las plantas de beneficio animal del Departamento de Antioquia, Colombia, que se encontraban en servicio, inscritas y autorizadas por el Invima al momento del estudio. Métodos: Este estudio descriptivo recolectó información de 23 plantas de beneficio animal de la especie bovina, a partir de revisiones documentales y visitas a las plantas, usando formatos y cuestionarios entre julio de 2019 y abril de 2021. Resultados: El estudio permitió caracterizar los procedimientos y técnicas de descontaminación de canales bovinas, revelando que en al menos el 73,9% de las plantas de beneficio estudiadas se realiza la desinfección química de las canales para el control de microorganismos. A partir de fuentes secundarias, se encontró que la mayoría de las plantas de beneficio animal en el Departamento de Antioquia son muy pequeñas, 10 de ellas utilizan productos de desinfección de canales, tales como el ácido cítrico, ácido láctico, ácido peracético y mezcla de ácidos orgánicos en concentraciones entre 900 y 1200 ppm, 1,5 y 1,7%, 180 y 190 ppm y 900 y 1200 ppm, respectivamente; y estos son utilizados de acuerdo con las recomendaciones de la respectiva ficha técnica del producto. Por otro lado, durante la visita a las plantas de beneficio y mediante la aplicación del cuestionario, se constató que las 12 plantas visitadas han implementado la desinfección química como método de intervención para el control de microorganismos patógenos, realizando su aplicación mediante dispositivos manuales, no obstante, estas prácticas no están fundamentadas científicamente. Por otro lado, se estableció que aparentemente el tipo de empresa, volumen de sacrificio y falta de recursos financieros son los factores que determinan la elección del procedimiento de descontaminación de canales. De igual manera, se evidenció la necesidad de realizar estudios para validar la efectividad del procedimiento de descontaminación en las diferentes plantas de beneficio. Conclusiones: Aunque se estableció que en las plantas de beneficio animal visitadas se implementa al menos una técnica de intervención como la desinfección química, esta elección no tiene un sustento con base a fundamentos científicos y técnicos. Estos hallazgos respaldan la necesidad de mejoras en las plantas de beneficio animal del Departamento, incluyendo mejoras al programa de vigilancia de la reducción efectiva de patógenos en la cadena cárnica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Decontamination , Cattle , Disinfection , Organic Acids , Meat
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 343-351, mayo 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396913

ABSTRACT

Leaf and fruit decoctions of Schinus areira L. from northwest Argentina were investigated here. Phenolic compounds and organic acids were analyzed by HPLC. Antioxidant capacity and α-glucosidase inhibition were determined by using in vitro tests. The general toxicity was assessed against Artemia salina nauplii. Hyperoside and 3 O-caffeoylquinic acid in leaf decoctions; gallic acid and catechin in fruit decoction were the major phenolic compounds. Malic and citric acids were the main organic acid quantified in the leaf and fruit decoctions, respectively. Fruit decoction had a relatively important content of shikimic acid, precursor of Tamiflu. Leaf decoction presents a greater richness in bioactive compounds with antiradical activity against DPPH●, O2●-and ●NO radicals. S. areira leaves and fruits had α-glucosidase inhibitory activity comparable to hyperoside and acarbose. Fruit decoction was not eco-toxic; leaf decoction showed significant eco-toxic activity and could be chosen for the search of other bioactive compounds with pharmacological activity.


Se investigaron decocciones de hojas y frutos de Schinus areira L. del noroeste de Argentina. Compuestos fenólicos y ácidos orgánicos se analizaron mediante HPLC. Capacidad antioxidante e inhibición de α-glucosidasa se determinaron in vitro. Se evaluó toxicidad general con Artemia salina. Los principales compuestos fenólicos fueron hiperósido y ácido 3 O-cafeoilquínico en hojas y ácido gálico y catequina en frutos. Los principales ácidos orgánicos cuantificados fueron málico en hojas y cítrico en frutos. Ácido shikímico, precursor del Tamiflu está presente en decocción de frutos con un contenido relativamente importante. La de hojas presenta una mayor riqueza en compuestos bioactivos con actividad antirradicalaria frente a DPPH●, O2●-y ●NO. Las hojas y frutos de S. areira tenían una actividad inhibidora de la α-glucosidasa comparable a la de hiperósido y acarbosa. La decocción de frutas no fue eco-tóxica, pero sí la de hojas que podría ser fuente de compuestos bioactivos con actividad farmacológica.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/chemistry , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Organic Acids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors , Fruit/chemistry
8.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38098, Jan.-Dec. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415854

ABSTRACT

Mild brown and black spot diseases symptoms were detected on citrus varieties, Valencia and Navel fruits during season 2018 in some citrus orchards at North Egypt. Collected diseased fruit samples revealed isolation of Alternaria alternata and Phyllosticta citricarpa (McAlpine) van der Aa. Some organic acids, salts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated against the diseases incidents in vitro and in vivo. Complete growth inhibition was recorded for fungi tested at 2g/L of salicylic acid, Potassium dihydrogen phosphate, Tri-Sodium polyphosphate and 2.5 g/L of S. cerevisiae. All pre-harvest treated Valencia trees, inoculated fruits revealed no diseases symptoms up to 10 days of storage period. Meanwhile, S. cerevisiae and salicylic acid treatments had extended protective effect up to 20 days. Control strategy through spraying Valencia orange trees with yeast or some organic acids and salts as pre-harvest approaches should be taken in consideration especially these diseases began to occur in North region of Egypt.


Subject(s)
Citrus , Organic Acids/prevention & control , Cercospora/pathogenicity
9.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 579-585, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920728

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To establish a comprehensive and rapid m ethod for the a nalysis of chemical constituents as phthalides and organic acids in Angelica sinensis ,and to provide scientific reference for the quality evaluation and pharmacodynamic substance research of A. sinensis . METHODS The 70% ethanol extract of A. sinensis was analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). The determination was performed on ACQUITY UPLC BEH-C 18 column with mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid solution- acetonitrile(gradient elution )at the flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The column temperature was set at 30 ℃,and sample size was 2 µL. The ion source was an electrospray ion source ,using positive ion scanning mode ,and the mass scanning range was m/z 50-1 000. Capillary voltage was 4 000 V; atomizer pressure was 35 psi;cracking voltage was 135 V and the taper hole voltage was 65 V;the temperature of dry gas was 320 ℃;the flow of dry gas was 10 L/min and the flow of sheath gas was 11 L/min;collision energy were 20 and 40 V. Qualitative Analysis 10.0 software was used to obtain the retention time of compounds ,the accurate mass number of excimer ion peaks and secondary fragments. The compounds were analyzed by comparing with the mass spectra of the reference substance ,combined with relevant literature ,mass spectrometry cleavage law and database such as Chemspider ,MassBank,PubChem. RESULTS A total of 72 compounds were identified or deduced from A. sinensis ,including 55 phthalides,13 organic acids and 4 other constituents. CONCLUSIONS The established method is rapid and accurate for the identification of chemical constituents from A. sinensis ,such as organic acids and phthalides ,which provides an efficient and rapid analytical method for the comprehensive characterization of its chemical constituents.

10.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 196-203, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940778

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveChemical components in ethanol extract of Cyclocarya paliurus dried leaves were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS). MethodAn Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (3.0 mm×100 mm, 2.7 μm) was used with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) as the mobile phase for gradient elution (0-26 min,2%-18%B; 26-60 min, 18%-72%B; 60-70 min, 72%-100%B; 70-71 min, 100%-2%B; 71-72 min, 2%B), and the flow rate of 0.4 mL·min-1 and injection volume of 3 μL. The electrospray ionization (ESI) was used in positive and negative modes, and detection range was m/z 50-1 100. The collected data were processed by Agilent MassHunter workstation. According to the retention time and MS information of each compound, combined with existing literature and MS database information, the compounds were identified and analyzed for the fragmentation rule. ResultA total of 52, 55 components were identified in the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. Among them, 14 flavonoids, 3 triterpenoids, 15 organic acids and 20 other compounds were identified under positive ion mode, while 18 flavonoids, 9 triterpenoids, 18 organic acids and 10 other compounds were identified under the negative ion mode. By summarizing the positive and negative ion modes and removing the common compounds, 87 compounds were identified, including 22 flavonoids, 27 organic acids, 11 triterpenoids and 27 other compounds. ConclusionUHPLC-Q-TOF/MS can be used to quickly analyze the chemical constituents in C. paliurus dried leaves. 1-Kestose and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid and other components related to hypoglycemic activity of this herb are identified for the first time, which can provide reference for clarifying the pharmacodynamic substance basis of C. paliurus dried leaves.

11.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236471, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249254

ABSTRACT

Date fruit is known to be the staple food in the Arab countries. It provides a lot of potential health benefits and can be the essential source of nutrients. The majority of Moroccan varieties are not characterized for their chemical, biochemical and quality properties. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition of 17 varieties of Moroccan date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and to determine their nutritive components. The analysis showed that the dates are rich in sugars (51.80-87.98%), they contain low concentration of proteins (1.09-2.80%) and lipids (0.16-0.39%). The predominant mineral is potassium (1055.26-1604.10 mg/100 g DW). Moreover, they contain high concentrations of malic acid (69.48-495.58 mg/100 g (DW)), oxalic acid (18.47-233.35 mg/100 g DW) and tartaric acid (115.70-484.168 mg/100 g DW). These results suggest that the date fruit are nutritious and can be an excellent source for human nutrition and health benefits.


A fruta da tâmara é conhecida por ser o alimento básico nos países árabes. Oferece muitos benefícios potenciais à saúde e pode ser a fonte essencial de nutrientes. A maioria das variedades marroquinas não se caracteriza por suas propriedades químicas, bioquímicas nem de qualidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição química de 17 variedades de frutos de tâmara marroquina (Phoenix dactylifera L.) e determinar seu valor nutritivo. A análise mostrou que as tâmaras são ricas em açúcares (51,80-87,98%) e contêm baixa concentração de proteínas (1,09-2,80%) e lipídios (0,16-0,39%). O mineral predominante é o potássio (1.055,26-1.604,10 mg/100 g DW). Além disso, contêm altas concentrações de ácido málico (69,48-495,58 mg/100 g DW), ácido oxálico (18,47-233,35 mg/100 g DW) e ácido tartárico (115,70-484,168 mg/100 g DW). Esses resultados sugerem que o fruto da tamareira é nutritivo e pode ser uma excelente fonte de nutrição humana e conferir benefícios à saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phoeniceae , Clone Cells/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Minerals/analysis , Nutritive Value
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-12, 2022. map, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468488

ABSTRACT

Date fruit is known to be the staple food in the Arab countries. It provides a lot of potential health benefits and can be the essential source of nutrients. The majority of Moroccan varieties are not characterized for their chemical, biochemical and quality properties. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition of 17 varieties of Moroccan date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and to determine their nutritive components. The analysis showed that the dates are rich in sugars (51.80-87.98%), they contain low concentration of proteins (1.09-2.80%) and lipids (0.16-0.39%). The predominant mineral is potassium (1055.26-1604.10 mg/100 g DW). Moreover, they contain high concentrations of malic acid (69.48-495.58 mg/100 g (DW)), oxalic acid (18.47-233.35 mg/100 g DW) and tartaric acid (115.70-484.168 mg/100 g DW). These results suggest that the date fruit are nutritious and can be an excellent source for human nutrition and health benefits.


A fruta da tâmara é conhecida por ser o alimento básico nos países árabes. Oferece muitos benefícios potenciais à saúde e pode ser a fonte essencial de nutrientes. A maioria das variedades marroquinas não se caracteriza por suas propriedades químicas, bioquímicas nem de qualidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição química de 17 variedades de frutos de tâmara marroquina (Phoenix dactylifera L.) e determinar seu valor nutritivo. A análise mostrou que as tâmaras são ricas em açúcares (51,80-87,98%) e contêm baixa concentração de proteínas (1,09-2,80%) e lipídios (0,16-0,39%). O mineral predominante é o potássio (1.055,26-1.604,10 mg/100 g DW). Além disso, contêm altas concentrações de ácido málico (69,48-495,58 mg/100 g DW), ácido oxálico (18,47-233,35 mg/100 g DW) e ácido tartárico (115,70-484,168 mg/100 g DW). Esses resultados sugerem que o fruto da tamareira é nutritivo e pode ser uma excelente fonte de nutrição humana e conferir benefícios à saúde.


Subject(s)
Food Analysis , Phoeniceae/chemistry , Food Quality
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 822022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468675

ABSTRACT

Abstract Date fruit is known to be the staple food in the Arab countries. It provides a lot of potential health benefits and can be the essential source of nutrients. The majority of Moroccan varieties are not characterized for their chemical, biochemical and quality properties. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition of 17 varieties of Moroccan date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and to determine their nutritive components. The analysis showed that the dates are rich in sugars (51.80-87.98%), they contain low concentration of proteins (1.09-2.80%) and lipids (0.16-0.39%). The predominant mineral is potassium (1055.26-1604.10 mg/100 g DW). Moreover, they contain high concentrations of malic acid (69.48-495.58 mg/100 g (DW)), oxalic acid (18.47-233.35 mg/100 g DW) and tartaric acid (115.70-484.168 mg/100 g DW). These results suggest that the date fruit are nutritious and can be an excellent source for human nutrition and health benefits.


Resumo A fruta da tâmara é conhecida por ser o alimento básico nos países árabes. Oferece muitos benefícios potenciais à saúde e pode ser a fonte essencial de nutrientes. A maioria das variedades marroquinas não se caracteriza por suas propriedades químicas, bioquímicas nem de qualidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição química de 17 variedades de frutos de tâmara marroquina (Phoenix dactylifera L.) e determinar seu valor nutritivo. A análise mostrou que as tâmaras são ricas em açúcares (51,80-87,98%) e contêm baixa concentração de proteínas (1,09-2,80%) e lipídios (0,16-0,39%). O mineral predominante é o potássio (1.055,26-1.604,10 mg/100 g DW). Além disso, contêm altas concentrações de ácido málico (69,48-495,58 mg/100 g DW), ácido oxálico (18,47-233,35 mg/100 g DW) e ácido tartárico (115,70-484,168 mg/100 g DW). Esses resultados sugerem que o fruto da tamareira é nutritivo e pode ser uma excelente fonte de nutrição humana e conferir benefícios à saúde.

14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1381-1390, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355675

ABSTRACT

The utilization of antimicrobials in animal production, causes selection of resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to compare the utilization of alternatives in association with preventive antibiotic therapy in swine feed during the growing and finishing phases. 1,045 animals were used from 60 to 190 days of age and were subjected to six treatments with 16 repetitions as follows: 1) antibiotic free; 2) antibiotics; 3) prebiotic; 4) probiotic; 5) essential oils; and 6) organic acid. Animals were weighted, and clinical history was recorded including mortality and diarrhea. At the abattoir, pneumonia index and gastric ulcers were investigated. The cost for each treatment was discussed. No difference between treatments were observed (P>0.05) regarding feed conversion rate (2.64±0.03), overall average weight gain (107.06±0.9kg), average daily weight gain (856.49±7.7g) and carcass weight (92.4±0.7kg). The application injectable drugs in animals presenting clinical symptoms, represented US$ 0.56/intervention, without difference between the treatments (P>0.05). Furthermore, independently of the treatment, high frequency of pneumonia was observed (>0.90). No difference for the degree of gastric ulcer nor feces consistency were observed (P>0.05). The utilization of antibiotic therapy and alternatives to antibiotics in feed did not produce benefits to the production indices and sanitary performances of the animals.(AU)


A utilização de antimicrobianos na produção animal provoca seleção de bactérias resistentes. O objetivo do estudo foi comparar a utilização de alternativas associadas à antibioticoterapia preventiva na alimentação de suínos nas fases de recria e de terminação. Foram utilizados 1.045 animais de 60 a 190 dias de idade, submetidos a seis tratamentos com 16 repetições, como segue: 1) sem antibióticos; 2) com antibióticos; 3) prebióticos; 4) probióticos; 5) óleos essenciais; e 6) ácidos orgânicos. Os animais foram pesados, e a história clínica foi registrada, incluindo mortalidade e diarreia. No abatedouro, foram investigados índices de pneumonia e úlceras gástricas. O custo de cada tratamento foi discutido. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos (P>0,05) em relação à taxa de conversão alimentar (2,64 ± 0,03), ao ganho de peso médio geral (107,06 ± 0,9kg), ao ganho de peso médio diário (856,49 ± 7,7g) e ao peso de carcaça (92,4 ± 0,7kg). A aplicação de medicamentos injetáveis em animais com quadro clínico representou US$ 0,56/intervenção, sem diferença entre os tratamentos (P>0,05). Além disso, independentemente do tratamento, foi observada alta frequência de pneumonia (>0,90). Não foi observada diferença para o grau de úlcera gástrica nem na consistência das fezes (P>0,05). A utilização de antibioticoterapia e de alternativas aos antibióticos na ração não trouxe benefícios aos desempenhos zootécnico e sanitário dos animais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/growth & development , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Prebiotics/administration & dosage , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Animal Feed/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use
15.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 931-936, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912499

ABSTRACT

Objective:Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was used to detect the species and content of metabolites in urine of patients with inherited metabolic diseases, and to explore the application value of NMR technology in the diagnosis of inherited metabolic diseases.Methods:Urine samples were collected from 20 patients with inherited metabolic diseases diagnosed in Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from March to June 2019, including 9 cases of methylmalonic acidemia (MMA). NMR pulse length-based concentration determination and Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) semi-quantitative method were used to detect the composition of metabolites in urine samples of patients with inherited metabolic diseases, and the levels of abnormal metabolites in the two methods were analyzed.Results:NMR technology can detect the levels of characteristic metabolites significantly increased in the urine of patients with MMA, isovalerinemia, glutaric acidemia, propionic acidemia, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, ornithine carbamyltransferase deficiency, Citrin deficiency, Canavan disease, tyrosinemia and lysinuria protein intolerance. The average is 8 times of the upper limit of the reference value, and the highest is 545 times. Compared to GC/MS, NMR technology can detect the levels of various metabolites such as organic acids, amino acids and sugars. In 9 cases of untreated MMA,the median levels of methylmalonic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid in NMR [1 800 (180-12 000) and 50 (0-270) mmol/mol Cr] were higher than the reference values (0-31, 0-35). The median levels of methylmalonic acid and methylmalonic acid in GC/MS [136.56 (43.79-518.67) and 4.87 (1.52-7.52)] were higher than the reference values (0-4 and 0-0.7).Conclusions:NMR and GC/MS technologies are specific for the diagnosis of organic acidemia. The primary component detected by GC/MS is organic acid. NMR technology can break through this limitation and measure the level of various metabolites in urine, which provides a more theoretical basis for the diagnosis and research of inherited metabolic disease.

16.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 113-126, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906524

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the chemical constituents in Euodiae Fructus by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Method:The chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) with acetonitrile (A)-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (B) as mobile phase (0-3 min, 6%A; 3-4 min, 6%-10%A; 4-7 min, 10%-12%A; 7-8 min, 12%-14%A; 8-13 min, 14%-15%A; 13-15 min, 15%-20%A; 15-18 min, 20%-30%A; 18-21 min, 30%-49%A; 21-25 min, 49%-51%A; 25-27 min, 51%-73%A; 27-30 min, 73%-80%A; 30-31 min, 80%-100%A; 31-32 min, 100%A) for gradient elution. The column temperature was 35 ℃, and the flow rate was 0.4 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>. Mass spectrometry was performed using an electrospray ionization and data were collected in positive and negative ion modes, and the detection range was <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 100-1 200. The chemical constituents in Euodiae Fructus were identified rapidly and comprehensively based on the accurate relative molecular mass and combined with literature data and reference substances. Result:A total of 92 chemical constituents were speculatively identified from the 70% methanol extract of Euodiae Fructus, including 39 alkaloids, 19 flavonoids, 12 limonoids, 20 phenolic acids and 2 organic acids. Among them, 26 compounds were confirmed by the reference substances. Conclusion:The compound types of Euodiae Fructus are multiple and quite different in polarity. The chemical compositions of Euodiae Fructus from different regions and species are similar. The established method is rapid and accurate, with which the chemical compositions of Euodiae Fructus have been identified comprehensively. Therefore, this study provides an experimental reference for further clarifying active and toxic constituents of Euodiae Fructus.

17.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 118-128, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906464

ABSTRACT

Objective:Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/electrostatic field orbital trap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q Exactive Focus MS/MS) was developed to rapidly analyze and identify the chemical components in the rhizomes of <italic>Bergenia scopulosa</italic>. Method:The 75% methanol extract of <italic>B</italic>.<italic> scopulosa</italic> rhizomes was analyzed on a Thermo Accucore aQ RP18 column (2.1 mm×150 mm, 2.6 μm) with the mobile phase of methanol (A) and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (B) for gradient elution (0-40 min 5%-95%A, 40-45 min 95%A), the flow rate was 0.3 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> and the column temperature was at 30 ℃. The information of the chemical constituents was acquired in positive and negative ion modes by heated electrospray ion source (HESI), and the scanning range was <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 80-1 200. Result:A total of 66 chemical constituents were identified, including 2 free amino acids, 7 bergenin derivatives, 15 flavonoids, 15 organic acids, 25 glycosides, and 2 others. Conclusion:The chemical constituents in the rhizomes of <italic>B</italic>.<italic> scopulosa</italic> can be identified systematically, accurately and rapidly by this method. Among them, 8 compounds were unambiguously identified by comparing with reference substances (succinic acid, arbutin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, bengenin, catechin, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid), 51 compounds were found from <italic>B</italic>.<italic> scopulosa</italic> for the first time and 28 compounds were found from the genus <italic>Bergenia</italic> for the first time. This paper can provide an important basis for the further material basis clarification and quality assessment of <italic>B</italic>.<italic> scopulosa</italic>.

18.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 91-99, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906368

ABSTRACT

Objective:An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) was developed to analyze and identify the chemical constituents in <italic>Coptis chinensis</italic> inflorescence. Method:The chromatographic separation was performed on ACQUITY UPLC BEH C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) for gradient elution (0-15 min, 10%-22%B; 15-20 min, 22%B; 20-25 min, 22%-44%B; 25-35 min, 44%-50%B; 35-40 min, 50%-60%B; 40-55 min, 60%-85%B), the flow rate was 0.15 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, the injection volume was 3 μL and the column temperature was 30 ℃. HRMS was equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) and scanned in positive and negative ion modes by means of full scan/data dependent secondary scan (Full MS/dd-MS<sup>2</sup>). Compound Discoverer 3.0 software combined with mzCloud, mzVault, ChemSpider databases and HRMS database of components in traditional Chinese medicine were used to analyze and identify the collected data by HRMS, based on accurate relative molecular mass, retention time and characteristic ion fragmentation of the compounds, as well as literature information and relevant reference materials. Result:A total of 51 chemical constituents were identified in <italic>C</italic>.<italic> chinensis</italic> inflorescence, including 16 alkaloids, 14 flavonoids, 7 phenylpropanoids, 7 organic acids and 7 others. Among them, 10 components [berberine, palmatine, coptidine, rutin, quercetin, isoquercitrin, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid,<italic> D</italic>-(-) quinic acid and <italic>D</italic>-proline] were unambiguously identified by comparing with reference standards. Conclusion:The established UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS can be used to accurately analyze and identify chemical constituents of <italic>C. chinensis</italic> inflorescence. A total of 41 chemical constituents are reported from <italic>C. chinensis</italic> inflorescence for the first time and 6 alkaloids are found from the <italic>C. chinensis</italic> for the first time. These findings can provide methodological reference and experimental basis for the basic research of quality evaluation and efficacy materials of <italic>C. chinensis</italic> inflorescence, and lay a foundation for its further development and utilization.

19.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 137-145, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906310

ABSTRACT

Objective:High performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used to identify the main chemical constituents of Daishenning. Method:Cosmosil 5 C<sub>18</sub>-AR-Ⅱ column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) was employed for chromatographic separation with mobile phase of acetonitrile (A)-0.5% formic acid aqueous solution (B) for gradient elution (0-10 min, 5%A; 10-20 min, 5%-20%A; 20-30 min, 20%A; 30-55 min, 20%-35%A; 55-65 min, 35%-55%A; 65-75 min, 55%-100%A; 75-80 min, 100%A; 80-85 min, 100%-5%A; 85-90 min, 5%A), the flow rate was 1 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, column temperature was 40 ℃, and injection volume was 10 μL. Electrospray ionization (ESI), positive and negative ion detection modes and mass scanning range of <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 100-2 000 were selected for mass spectrometry. The main chemical constituents in Daishenning were identified by MassHunter B.06.00 software in combination with PubChem, MassBank, ChemicalBook and other databases, and reference information. Result:A total of 96 components were identified from Daishenning, including 32 flavonoids, 19 organic acids, 6 glycosides, 6 terpenoids, 5 phenylpropanoids, 8 phenols, 14 other components and 6 unknown components. Conclusion:The established method can simultaneously analyze different types of compounds in Daishenning, it is helpful for further research on the extraction and separation of main chemical components and quality control of this preparation. In addition, through the rapid identification of the chemical constituents in Daishenning, it is speculated that the main effective substances of Daishenning may be flavonoids and organic acids.

20.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 138-148, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906249

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the chemical constituents in Microctis Folium by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Method:Waters CORTECS UPLC C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×150 mm, 1.6 μm) was used for chromatographic separation with the mobile phase of methanol (A) -0.1% formic acid solution (B) for gradient elution (0-4 min, 14%-30%A; 4-16 min, 30%-58%A; 16-25 min, 58%-78%A; 25-25.1 min, 78%-98%A; 25.1-29 min, 98%A), the flow rate was 0.25 mL· min<sup>-1</sup>, the injection volume was 1 μL. The electrospray ionization (ESI) was adopted for determining the chromatographic effluent under positive and negative ion modes, the main chromatographic peaks were assigned and distinguished by Q-TOF, and the scanning range was <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 100-1 500. Result:A total of 31 chemical constituents in Microctis Folium were identified by confirmation of reference substances, literature comparison and high resolution mass spectrometry data analysis. The chemical constituent cluster was composed of 28 flavonoids (9 flavone C-glycosides, 10 flavonols and their glycosides, 8 proanthocyanidins, 1 xanthone) and 3 organic acids (caffeic acid, <italic>p</italic>-coumaric acid, ferulic acid). Conclusion:UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS technique provides a simple, rapid and accurate method for the identification of chemical constituents in Microctis Folium. Flavone C-glycosides, flavonol oxyglycosides and proanthocyanidins are the main chemical constituents. The 7 proanthocyanidins are reported for the first time in this herb. In conclusion, the chemical profile of Microctis Folium is characterized and the findings are meaningful for the in-depth quality assessment and material basis clarification of Microctis Folium.

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