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1.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 68(10): 1416-1422, Oct. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406556

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the self-practices with conventional and herbal drug use among ear, nose, and throat outpatients. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey-based study was carried out among all ear, nose, and throat outpatients on their first visit to the otorhinolaryngology department at a tertiary care hospital. The survey comprised a total of 14 questions with 4 different sections, including demographic characteristics, self-medication of conventional medicines, herbal medication usage, and perception regarding herbal medicines. RESULTS: Overall, 255 questionnaires were distributed among patients, of which 183 completed the questionnaire (response rate=71.7%). Respondents reported self-medication (44.8%) with conventional drugs before visiting a hospital. The most commonly used medicine was analgesics (31.7%) and antibiotics (21.9%). Nearly half of the patients (49.2%) used at least one herbal drug. The most commonly used herbal medications were Tilia cordata (78.8%), Zingiber officinale (62.2%), and Camellia sinensis (45.5%). According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, most of the medicinal herbs were considered as data deficient/least concern. About 36.6% of the participants perceived that herbal drugs are effective for ear, nose, and throat problems. Moreover, 22.9% of the patients did not know about herbal-drug interaction with other medications. CONCLUSIONS: This study observed a considerable prevalence of self-based practices with conventional and herbal medications. Strict national regulations on conventional and herbal medication access and long-term actions should be implemented to discourage inappropriate drug use.

2.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 26(3): 478-486, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405141

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has made otolaryngologists more susceptible than their counterparts to its effect. Objective This study aimed to find if COVID-19 had a different impact on ear, nose, and throat (ENT) physicians' of various categories (residents, registrars, and consultants ) regarding many aspects of the quality of life (protection, training, financial, and psychological aspects). Methods We included 375 ENT physicians, of different categories (residents, registrars, and consultants), from 33 general hospitals and 26 university hospitals in Egypt. The study was conducted using a 20-item questionnaire with a response scale consisting of three categories: yes, no, and not sure. It covered infection control and personal protective equipment (PPE) usage; medical practice and safety; online consultation and telemedicine,; webinars and online lectures; COVID-19 psychological, financial, and quarantine period effects; and future expectations. Results The results of the questionnaire showed that COVID-19 had a statistically significant impact on the daily life of the responders. There were statistically significant differences among the three involved categories, based on their answers. Conclusion This study showed a statistically significant difference regarding the impact of COVID-19 on many aspects of the quality of life (protection, training, financial, and psychological aspects) of ENT physicians of various categories (residents, registrars, and consultants), and these effects may persist for a long time.

3.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(2): 244-257, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389845

ABSTRACT

La inteligencia artificial posee una larga historia, llena de innovaciones que han dado como resultado diferentes recursos diagnósticos de alto rendimiento, que se encuentran disponibles actualmente. En este artículo se presenta una revisión sobre la inteligencia artificial y sus aplicaciones en medicina. El trabajo se centra en la especialidad de otorrinolaringología con el objetivo de informar a la comunidad médica la importancia y las aplicaciones más destacadas en los diferentes procesos diagnósticos dentro de la especialidad. Incluimos una sección para el análisis del estado actual de la inteligencia artificial en otorrinolaringología en Chile, así como los desafíos a enfrentar a futuro para utilizar la inteligencia artificial en la práctica médica diaria.


Artificial intelligence has a long history full of innovations that have resulted in different high-performance diagnostic resources currently available. This work has reviewed the artificial intelligence definition and its applications to medicine. We focused our review on otolaryngology's specialty to inform the medical community of the importance and the most relevant applications in the different diagnostic processes. We include an analysis of the current state of artificial intelligence in otolaryngology in Chile, and the challenges to be faced in the future to use artificial intelligence into daily medical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otolaryngology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/diagnosis , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/therapy , Artificial Intelligence , Chile , Machine Learning , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnosis
4.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(2): 279-286, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389853

ABSTRACT

Resumen La palabra placebo ha sido usada, indistintamente, para referir a una sustancia o procedimiento que es "inerte" ("placebo") y al efecto que ocurre como consecuencia de la administración de un placebo ("efecto placebo"). El efecto placebo es un fenómeno psicobiológico que ha sido explicado desde el conductismo (condicionamiento clásico), desde fenómenos preconscientes (expectativas o "efecto placebo clásico"), desde el cognitivismo (disonancia cognitiva) y también a nivel neurobiológico. No obstante, los ensayos clínicos abiertos que verifican la respuesta a placebo desafían el mecanismo de la expectativa, dando lugar al análisis bayesiano, que integra sensaciones, experiencias, predicciones y claves del contexto; biológicamente, el efecto placebo no es inerte. Por tanto, el placebo ocupa un lugar relevante en la práctica clínica y en la investigación biomédica. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática sobre placebo y otorrinolaringología en las bases de datos PubMed/Medline, SciELO y Cochrane Library. Se incluyeron estudios primarios y revisiones sistemáticas de la literatura. En cuanto a intervenciones placebo, la literatura publicada indica mejorías significativas en síntomas nasales y calidad de vida en rinitis alérgica (estacional y perenne) y disminución del dolor posoperatorio en amigdalectomía. En la enfermedad de Méniere, las intervenciones placebo son comparables a las de uso habitual, incluyendo las quirúrgicas. No se encontraron ensayos clínicos abiertos en otorrinolaringología ni evidencia sobre otras patologías del área. Las intervenciones y el efecto placebo abren un campo de investigación y desarrollo en otorrinolaringología que desafía la comprensión actual de las patologías, su funcionamiento, su tratamiento y la relación terapéutica.


Abstract The word placebo has been used interchangeably to refer to a substance or procedure that is "inert" ("placebo") and the effect that occurs as a consequence of its administration ("placebo effect"). The placebo effect corresponds to a psychobiological phenomenon that has been explained from behaviorism (classical conditioning), from preconscious phenomena (expectations or "classical placebo effect"), from cognitivism (cognitive dissonance) and at the neurobiological level as well. Nevertheless, some open-label trials that verify the response to placebo challenge the expectation mechanism, giving rise to Bayesian analysis, which integrates sensations, experiences, predictions and context clues; therefore, biologically, the placebo effect is not inert. The placebo has a relevant place both in clinical practice and in biomedical research. We conducted a systematic search on placebo and otolaryngology in PubMed/Medline, SciELO and Cochrane Library databases. We included primary studies and systematic reviews. Regarding placebo interventions, the available literature points out significant improvements in nasal symptoms and quality of life in allergic rhinitis (seasonal and perennial) and a decrease in post-tonsillectomy pain. In Méniére's disease, placebo interventions have demonstrated to be comparable to treatment-as-usual, including surgical interventions. No open-label clinical trials were found in otolaryngology, as well as no evidence on other diseases in the area. Placebo interventions and their effects open a field of research and development in otolaryngology, challenging the current understanding of pathologies, their functioning, their treatment and the therapeutic relationship.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otolaryngology , Placebo Effect , Pain, Postoperative , Tonsillectomy , Rhinitis, Allergic , Meniere Disease
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(5): 568-573, May 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376192

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to analyze and report on the complications that occurred in the cochlear implant surgeries performed at a large philanthropic teaching hospital located in a low-income area of Brazil. METHODS: A historical cohort study that analyzed surgical records of 432 patients of all age groups and both genders who received unilateral cochlear implant in a tertiary referral center that serves only Brazil's Public Health Care System patients, from February 2009 to December 2017. RESULTS: A total of 67 (15.5%) complications occurred in the cochlear implant surgeries, with 21 (5.4%) major complications. Minor complications occurred in 50 (12%) cases. The most frequent major complication was receiver-stimulator displacement (four cases). There were three cases of hardware failure. Only one case of meningitis and one case of facial nerve paralysis (grade VI in House-Brackmann scale) were found. Six patients needed to be explanted due to a major complication. The relative risk of major complications in the population aged 60 years and older was 4.41 (1.53-12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]). CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients suffered more complications than younger patients. receiver-stimulator displacement and dizziness were the most frequent complications (major and minor, respectively). The overall complication rates were comparable to those in the literature. Age as an isolated risk factor for complications in cochlear implant surgery is a path to be explored in future observations.

6.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389821

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los cuerpos extraños (CE) en oído, nariz y vía aéreodigestiva superior son el 30% de las urgencia en otorrinolaringología (ORL). No existen datos epidemiológicos nacionales que describan la casuística de CE. Objetivo: Describir la epidemiología de pacientes con diagnóstico de CE evaluados, entre el 2013-2018 en Clínica Santa María de Santiago, Chile. Describir las características de los CE, ubicación, método de extracción y complicaciones. Material y Método: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo, basado en revisión de fichas clínicas de pacientes con diagnóstico de CE, analizando variables epidemiológicas y clínicas. Resultados: Se revisaron 1.847 casos con diagnóstico de CE, confirmando 1.494. La mayoría de sexo masculino (53,3%), con un promedio de edad de 16,5 años (rango de 0-95 años). Los CE más prevalentes fueron ótico (52,9%) y nasal (27,9%). El síntoma asociado más frecuente fue la sensación de CE (18,1%). El diagnóstico fue principalmente por examen físico (84%), requiriéndose exámenes complementarios en 18,2%. La extracción fue ambulatoria en su mayoría (84,6%), requiriendo extracción en pabellón el 12,5%. El 5,5% presentó complicaciones, y la tasa de letalidad fue de 0,07%. Conclusión: Esta casuística, única a nivel nacional, nos permite conocer la epidemiología de los CE. Un bajo porcentaje de pacientes fue de riesgo vital, pero el manejo oportuno permite una baja tasa de complicaciones y letalidad.


Abstract Introduction: Foreign bodies (FB) in the ear, nose and upper airway-digestive tract are 30% of the emergencies in otolaryngology (ORL). There is no national epidemiological data that describes the FB casuistry. Aim: To describe the epidemiology of patients who have a diagnosis of a FB evaluated, between 2013-2018, at Santa María Clinic in Santiago, Chile. To describe the characteristics of FB, location, method of removal, and complications. Material and Method: A descriptive and retrospective study, based on review of clinical records of patients with the diagnosis of FB, analyzing epidemiological and clinical variables. Results: 1847 cases with a diagnosis of FB were reviewed, of which 1494 were confirmed. Most were male (53.3%), with an average age of 16.5 years (range 0-95 years). The most prevalent FB locations were otic (52.9%) and nasal (27.9%). The most frequent associated symptom was sensation of a FB (18.1%). The diagnosis was fundamentally based on physical examination (84%), requiring complementary tools in 18.2%. The extraction was mostly ambulatory (84.6%), requiring extraction in the operation room in 12.5%. 5.5% presented complications, and the fatality rate was 0.07%. Conclusion: This casuistry is unique at the national level, and allows us to know the epidemiology of FB. A low percentage of patients correspond to life-threatening locations, but timely management allows a low rate of complications and fatality.

7.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389828

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los biobancos son una innovadora herramienta biotecnológica y un recurso fundamental para el continuo avance en la investigación científica biomédica, y para el advenimiento de la medicina de precisión. Se han desarrollado de forma exponencial durante los últimos 20 años en el mundo, como también a nivel de nuestro país, con la creación de 10 biobancos desde el año 2004. En ellos se almacenan y organizan distintos tipos de muestras biológicas, asociadas a datos epidemiológicos y genéticos de donantes voluntarios. Todos los especímenes almacenados deben ser preservados con estándares de calidad garantizados, a modo de asegurar trazabilidad, integridad y calidad de las muestras. A pesar de que la mantención de un biobanco puede significar altos costos, a fin de cuentas, abaratan costos de los estudios clínicos, dado que es precisamente el biobanco quien se encarga de la obtención de datos y muestras clínicas confiables, permitiendo realizar múltiples estudios a partir de las mismas muestras. A través de este proceso, los biobancos permiten mantener una fuente confiable de recur-sos para la investigación en diversas áreas de la medicina, dentro de ellas la otorrinolaringología. En otorrinolaringología, los biobancos han significado un gran avance, facilitando la investigación en relación con hipoacusia, presbiacusia y tinnitus, así como en el área oncológica. En un futuro, se espera que la comunidad científica haga uso de este recurso, pudiendo expandir su utilidad no solo en el área médica, sino también en otras profesiones de la salud, maximizando así su gigantesco potencial.


Abstract Biobanks are novel biotechnological tools and a fundamental resource for the constant development of biomedical research, as much as for the growing practice of precision medicine. They have proliferated worldwide over the past 20 years and Chile has not been left behind with the creation of 10 bio-banks since 2004. Biobanks store and organize different types of biological samples associated with epidemiological and genetic data from volunteer donors. These samples are stored and preserved under guaranteed quality standards to ensure their traceability, integrity, and quality. Even though the price of maintaining a biobank may seem high, after all, they reduce the costs of research, since biobanks are responsible of the acquisition and storage of data and samples, allowing the performance of multiple studies from the same collection of specimens. In this direction, biobanks grant a constant source of well-founded scientific material for investigation in a wide range of medical fields, such as otolaryngology among them. In otolaryngology, the biobanks have meant a great improvement, facilitating investigations related to deafness, presbycusis, tinnitus and oncology. In the future we hope the scientific community will expand the use this innovative tool over a broader medical field and towards other health-related professions, making the most of its enormous potential.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930636

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish a scientific and standardized routine for perioperative nursing in pediatric otolaryngology, reduce the incidence of postoperative delirium, and improve the quality of postoperative recovery by implementing the best practice of evaluation and intervention of postoperative delirium in pediatric otolaryngology.Methods:By reviewing literature related to evaluation, prevention, intervention and management of postoperative delirium in pediatric otolaryngology from March 2018 to September 2019, fourteen best practice were concluded. By combining the best evidence and the clinical circumstances, the evidenced-based criteria were established and then applied in the Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery Department, the Children ′s Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. Results:After three rounds of reviews, the results showed that the criteria 2, 3, 6, and 8 had 100.0% complacence. Comparison of before and after applying the evidence, there was no statistically significant difference for the occurrence of postoperative delirium or pain ( P>0.05); there was a statistically significant reduction of pain score at 60 minutes after returning to the ward ( χ2=9.93, P<0.05); there was a statistically significant reduction of preoperative anxiety score of children ′s family members from (33.36 ± 6.84) points to (29.54 ± 6.94) points ( F=6.33, P<0.05); there was a statistically significant increase of doctors ′ score of delirium knowledge based on evidence from (23.00 ± 3.94) points to (33.43 ± 8.25) points ( t=-3.02, P<0.05); and there was a statistically significant increase of nurses ′ score of delirium knowledge based on evidence from (33.11 ± 8.46) points to (57.79 ± 6.58) points ( t=-10.35, P<0.05) when the evidence was applied. Conclusion:The evidence-based practice didn ′t significantly relieve the postoperative delirium in pediatric otolaryngology, but it was helpful to relieve the postoperative pain level of children and the anxiety level of their families. The management of postoperative delirium in pediatric otolaryngology needs to be further explored.

9.
Acta de Otorrinolaringología Cir. Cabeza cuello. ; 50(2): 151-158, 20220000. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1382352

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la mediastinitis se define como el proceso inflamatorio usualmente infeccioso del tejido conectivo mediastinal y los órganos que este rodea. Específicamente, la mediastinitis descendente corresponde a una complicación rara por infección de los espacios profundos del cuello, la orofaringe o la cavidad oral, que se extiende a través de los espacios fasciales del cuello y los diseca. De forma infrecuente, esta patología puede originarse a partir de la parotiditis, las infecciones de la piel del cuello o la epiglotitis. También, de manera menos frecuente, puede generarse en el contexto de un traumatismo del cuello o la cavidad oral. En este estudio se pretende llamar la atención, en particular, sobre los aspectos que involucran al especialista otorrinolaringólogo en el manejo de los pacientes con infecciones profundas del cuello y su rol en el diagnóstico y tratamiento eficaz de la mediastinitis descendente, como la principal causa de mortalidad en estos casos. Metodología: se llevó a cabo una búsqueda con las palabras clave "Airway" "Ludwig's angina" en PubMed, no se efectuó filtración por fecha ni tipo de estudio. Se encontró un total de 147 artículos. Se realizó lectura de los resúmenes por los autores y se seleccionaron 50. Se realizó lectura crítica del texto completo de los 50 artículos resultantes de la búsqueda y se extrajo la información relevante. Conclusión: esta patología de marcada severidad conlleva a un aumento significativo de la mortalidad. Su tratamiento, aunque permanece controversial en ciertas circunstancias, debe ser agresivo y oportuno, con un enfoque en el rol del otorrinolaringólogo en 4 pilares de tratamiento: el drenaje quirúrgico, la antibioticoterapia de amplio espectro, el soporte hemodinámico y la seguridad de la vía aérea.


Introduction: Mediastinitis is defined as the usually infectious inflammatory process of the mediastinal connective tissue and the organs it surrounds. Specifically, descending mediastinitis corresponds to a rare complication, an infection of deep spaces of the neck, oropharynx, or oral cavity, which extends through the facial spaces of the neck, dissecting. Less frequent, this pathology can originate from parotiditis, skin infections of the neck or epiglottitis. Also, less frequent it can be generated in the context of trauma to the neck or oral cavity. This study intends to draw attention to the aspects that involve the ENT specialist in the management of patients with deep neck infections and their role in the diagnosis and effective treatment of descending mediastinitis as the main cause of mortality in these patients. Methodology: A search was carried out with the keywords "Airway" "Ludwig's angina" in PubMed, no filtering was performed by date or type of study, finding a total of 147 articles, abstracts were read by the authors, selecting 50. A critical reading of the 50 articles full texts is carried out and the relevant information is extracted. Conclusion: This pathology of marked severity, carries a significant increase in mortality and its treatment, although it remains controversial in certain circumstances, it must be aggressive and timely, focusing the role of the otorhinolaryngologist on 4 pillars of treatment: surgical drainage, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic support, and airway safety.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ludwig's Angina , Airway Remodeling , Mediastinitis
10.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 50(3): 220-231, 20220000. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1400914

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los errores innatos de la inmunidad, previamente conocidos como inmunodeficiencias primarias, son un grupo heterogéneo de patologías cuya presentación clínica incluye infecciones recurrentes, persistentes o refractarias al tratamiento en el campo de la otorrinolaringología. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura a partir de la búsqueda de documentos en PUBMED y EMBASE. Discusión y conclusiones: Los pacientes con sospecha de error innato de la inmunidad requieren un diagnóstico temprano con el fin de disminuir las complicaciones a largo plazo, por lo que la valoración y el abordaje inicial desempeñan un papel fundamental en el reconocimiento de estas enfermedades.


Introduction: Inborn errors of immunity, previously known as primary immunodeficiencies, are a heterogeneous group of pathologies whose clinical presentation includes recurrent, persistent and/or refractory infections to treatment in otorhinolaryngology. Materials and methods: Narrative review of the literature was carried out from the search for articles in PUBMED and EMBASE. Discussion and conclusions: Patients with suspected inborn error of immunity require an early diagnosis to reduce long-term complications; the initial assessment and approach play a fundamental role in the recognition of these diseases


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/diagnosis , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/diagnosis , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology
11.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389782

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La práctica otorrinolaringológica presenta un riesgo elevado de contagio de SARS-CoV-2. Considerando esto, diversas sociedades científicas a nivel mundial llamaron a establecer prioridades en la atención clínica. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de la pandemia en la práctica clínica y quirúrgica de los otorrinolaringólogos en Chile, así como su impacto económico durante el inicio de la pandemia. Material y Método: Estudio de corte transversal, utilizando un cuestionario autoadministrado en línea a los socios de la Sociedad Chilena de Otorrinolaringología. Resultados: De un total de 461 socios, se obtuvieron 214 respuestas (46,4%). Un 66% en el servicio público y un 57% en el sistema privado refirió una disminución de la actividad de consulta ambulatoria en > 75%, o atención sólo urgencias. Un 92% en el servicio público y un 96% en el sistema privado declaró una reducción de la actividad quirúrgica en > 75%, o cirugías sólo oncológica o urgencias. La prevalencia de autorreporte de PCR SARS-CoV-2 positiva fue de un 5,1% de los encuestados. En cuanto al impacto económico, un 63% tuvo una disminución de al menos la mitad de sus ingresos y un 36,9% tuvo que recurrir a alguna ayuda financiera. Conclusión: Durante el inicio de la pandemia hubo un gran impacto a nivel nacional en la práctica clínica otorrinolaringológica, esto se observó en la consulta ambulatoria, en los procedimientos quirúrgicos y también en el ámbito económico. Estos hallazgos fueron comparables con estudios en otros países.


Abstract Introduction: Otolaryngologists have significantly higher risk of COVID-19 infection due to the nature of the specialty. Given the above, various scientific societies worldwide called to prioritize clinical care. Aim: Evaluate the impact of the pandemic on the clinical and surgical practice of otolaryngologists in Chile, alongside with the economic impact at the beginning of the pandemic. Material and Method: Cross-sectional study with an online self-administered questionnaire to members of the Chilean Society of Otorhinolaryngology. Results: From a total of 461 members, 214 responses were obtained (46.4%); Sixty six percent in the public service and fifty seven percent in the private system reported a decrease in ambulatory consultation activity by > 75% or only emergency care. Ninety two percent in the public service and ninety six percent in the private system reported a reduction in surgical activity by > 75% or only oncology/emergency care. The prevalence of self-report infection with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was 5.1%. Regarding the economic impact, 63% had a decrease of at least half of their income and 36.9% had to resort to some financial aid. Conclusion: During the pandemic, there was a great impact at the national level in the otolaryngological clinical practice, both in the outpatient consultation and in surgical procedures, as well as in the economic sphere. These findings were similar with studies in other countries.

12.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389788

ABSTRACT

Resumen La afectación del sentido del olfato puede pasar desapercibida en gran parte de los pacientes, siendo únicamente valorada cuando la alteración es importante. Sin embargo, la hiposmia es un síntoma asociado a numerosas patologías, de menor a mayor gravedad. Este sentido está relacionado con nuestros recuerdos y puede alertarnos de potenciales amenazas. Como médicos especialistas en Otorrinolaringología debemos estar alerta ante determinados síntomas que orienten a posible etiología central. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 39 años que acudió al Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital General Universitario Morales Meseguer derivada por hiposmia de un año de evolución con cervicalgia y cefalea occipital progresiva, sin otra sintomatología asociada. La exploración otorrinolaringológica resultó normal. Debido a la persistencia sintomática se solicitó una tomografía computarizada de senos paranasales con hallazgos de masa intracraneal extraaxial compatible con meningioma de fosa craneal anterior.


Abstract The affectation of smell can go unnoticed in a great part of the patients, being only valued when the alteration is important. However, this sense is related to our memories and can alert us to potential threats. As otolaryngologists we must be alert to certain symptoms that may lead to a possible central aetiology. We present the case of a 39-year-old woman who went to the otolaryngology service at Morales Meseguer General University Hospital due to one-year evolution of hyposmia with cervicalgia and progressive occipital headache, with no other symptoms associated. The otolaryngology examination was anodyne. In view of symptomatic persistence, a paranasal sinus computed tomography scan was requested with findings of extra-axial intracranial mass compatible with anterior cranial fossa meningioma.

14.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389735

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los trastornos somatomorfos (TS) corresponden a un conjunto de entidades de expresión polimorfa cuya característica común es la relevancia de los síntomas somáticos asociados a un malestar psicológico significativo evidente o no, pero sin una base estructural delimitada. Si la sintomatología se asocia al sistema nervioso se denominan trastornos conversivos (TC). Su etiología tiene una naturaleza multicausal y compleja y se expresan en todos los sistemas del organismo. Los TS y los TC han sido poco estudiados en la otorrinolaringología pediátrica y su enseñanza es escasa en la formación médica. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática sobre TS y TC en otorrinolaringología pediátrica en las bases de datos PubMed/Medline, SciELO y Cochrane Library. Se incluyeron 49 referencias, principalmente estudios observacionales y revisiones narrativas. Los cuadros clínicos descritos fueron el estridor funcional, la sordera psicógena, el trastorno facticio y el vértigo psicógeno. El proceso diagnóstico requiere de la evaluación otorrinolaringológica y psiquiátrica. En todos los estudios se reconoció que los participantes tenían alguna alteración afectiva prominente, aunque a veces oculta. El análisis del contexto social y escolar, además de los antecedentes familiares de TS, TC o cualquier desorden mental son elementos primordiales. La terapia es multidisciplinaria, incluyendo intervenciones otorrinolaringológicas, fonoaudiológicas, psicológicas y psicofarmacológicas. Sin embargo, la evidencia que sustenta a las intervenciones especializadas es escasa. Los niños, niñas y adolescentes con TS y TC presentan hallazgos clínicos y biológicos que no se presentan en los simuladores. Un adecuado diagnóstico y tratamiento se relacionan con un buen pronóstico.


Abstract Somatoform disorders (SD) make up a group of entities with polymorphic expression, characterized by the relevance of somatic symptoms associated to a significant psychological stress whether or not noticeable, but without a defined structural basis. When the symptomatology is related to the nervous system, they are known as conversion disorders (CD). Their etiology has a multicausal and complex nature, having expressions in all the body systems. SD and CD have been scarcely studied in pediatric otolaryngology and are poorly reviewed during medical training. We performed a systematic search on SD and CD in pediatric otolaryngology in PubMed/Medline, SciELO and Cochrane Library databases. We included 49 references, mostly observational studies and narrative reviews. The most described clinical pictures were functional stridor, psychogenic deafness, factitious disorder, and psychogenic vertigo. The diagnostic process requires otolaryngologic and psychiatric evaluations. All studies showed that participants had some relevant affective alteration, although sometimes unnoticeable. Thus, some essential elements are social and school context, family history of SD or CD or any mental disorder. Therapy involves a multidisciplinary approach, including otolaryngologic, audiological, psychological and psychopharmacological interventions. However, evidence supporting specialized interventions is still scarce. Children and adolescents who suffer from SD and CD show clinical and biological findings which are not found in malingering. Proper diagnosis and treatment are related to a good prognosis.

15.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 25(1): 98-107, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154428

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction One of the main factors that affect the early diagnosis and intervention of hearing loss is inadequate knowledge by the health care workers. Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialists are the main source of information about hearing loss and its management in most developing countries, such as Jordan. Objective The purpose of the present study is to explore the level of knowledge and the practice of hearing screening and hearing loss management for children among ENT physicians in Jordan as an example of health care providers in developing countries of the Middle East. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, adapting a questionnaire of knowledge and the practice of hearing screening and hearing loss management for children. The questionnaire consisted of 2 sections with 20 questions. A total of 40 ENT physicians completed the questionnaire. Results The majority of the respondents acknowledged the importance of hearing screening for children; however, there was limited knowledge regarding hearing loss management and testing. Only 10 of the ENT physicians believed that a referral to an audiologist is warranted, and the majority of the respondents were not aware that a child with a confirmed permanent hearing loss should be referred to a speech pathologist or to a rehabilitation center. Managing unilateral and mild sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) was another area about which ENT physicians have limited knowledge. Conclusion There is a strong need for professional intervention programs, providing the latest updates and standardizations in the field of audiology and pediatric rehabilitation for ENT physicians.

16.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 49(3): 189-198, 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1292708

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la infección por el coronavirus del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave de tipo 2 (SARS-CoV-2) tiene una elevada incidencia entre profesionales sanitarios, especialmente otorrinolaringólogos (ORL). El objetivo de este estudio fue recoger aspectos organizativos, de seguridad y de protección de los ORL durante el pico de la pandemia por la enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019 (COVID-19) en España. Material y métodos: estudio transversal con una encuesta por correo electrónico a los socios ORL de la Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello (SEORL-CCC). Resultados: respondieron 408 profesionales. La atención a pacientes con COVID-19 representó más del 25 % de la actividad asistencial para el 24,4 % de los encuestados. 213 encuestados (52,6 %) respondieron que algún compañero había guardado cuarentena o dado positivo en la prueba. La cantidad de facultativos diagnosticados con COVID-19 o que guardó cuarentena por síntomas compatibles osciló entre 1 y 12 por hospital (media 2,2; mediana 2) y se encontró una mayor incidencia en las regiones con mayor incidencia de coronavirus (62,1 % frente a 41,8 %; p < 0,001), atención directa a pacientes con COVID-19 (81 % frente a 46,4 %; p = 0,001) y actividad de guardias (p = 0,01). El 61,5 % de los especialistas en hospitalización y el 40,4 % en consultas no contaron siempre con la protección personal aconsejada. Conclusiones: la pandemia por COVID-19 ha alterado la organización y la actividad asistencial de los servicios de otorrinolaringología. Importancia clínica: los especialistas ORL no han contado siempre con los equipos de protección aconsejados por los protocolos y una cantidad relevante se ha visto afectada por la COVID-19.


Introduction: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has a high incidence among healthcare professionals, especially otorhinolaryngologists (ENT). Study objective: The objective of this study was to collect organizational, safety and protection aspects of otorhinolaryngologists during the peak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Spain. Material and methods: Cross-sectional study with an e-mail survey to the ENT partners of the Spanish Society of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery (SEORL-CCC). Results: 408 professionals completed the survey. Care of patients with COVID-19 represented more than 25% of healthcare activity for 24.4% of respondents. 213 respondents (52.6%) answered that a colleague tested positive or had been quarantined. The number of ENT surgeons diagnosed with COVID-19 or who were quarantined for compatible symptoms ranged between 1 and 12 per hospital (mean 2.2; median 2) and was related to regions with the highest incidence of coronavirus (62.1% vs. 41,8%; p <0.001), direct care for patients with COVID-19 (81% vs. 46.4%; p = 0.001) and on call activity (p = 0.01). 61.5% of the specialists attending inpatients and 40.4% attending outpatients did not always have the recommended personal protective equipment (PPE). Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered the organization and care activity of the otorhinolaryngology departments. Clinical importance: ENT specialists have not always had the protective equipment recommended by the protocols and a significant number have been affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Otolaryngology , Attention , Equipment Safety
17.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 49(3): 207-214, 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1292713

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus de 2019 (COVID-19) ha cambiado la practica quirúrgica. Su aparición en nuestro país ha provocado el aplazamiento masivo de las cirugías electivas. La evidencia actual sobre los desenlaces de las cirugías electivas de otorrinolaringología durante la pandemia de COVID-19 es limitada. Objetivo: describir la experiencia quirúrgica durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en un departamento de otorrinolaringología en Bogotá, Colombia. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo que incluyó las historias clínicas y las descripciones quirúrgicas de los pacientes que fueron llevados a cirugía de otorrinolaringología durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en dos hospitales, entre el 5 de mayo y el 15 de agosto de 2020 en Bogotá, Colombia. Resultados: Se incluyeron 199 pacientes (122 hombres con una mediana de edad de 28 años). Ningún paciente falleció o requirió del ingreso a una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI). El 97,5 % de las cirugías fueron electivas. 19,5 % pacientes desarrollaron síntomas relacionados con COVID-19 en el posoperatorio; de los pacientes evaluados, solo uno obtuvo un resultado positivo posquirúrgico para COVID-19 y no desarrolló ninguna complicación. Seis pacientes desarrollaron complicaciones después de la cirugía y uno tuvo neumonía con resultado negativo en la prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa nasofaríngeo (PCR) para COVID-19. Conclusiones: a pesar de la alta exposición a aerosoles durante las cirugías de otorrinolaringología y la alta transmisibilidad del virus, los resultados sugieren que estas cirugías, con el uso apropiado del equipo de protección personal (EPP), y la adecuada selección de los pacientes son seguras para el paciente y para el otorrinolaringólogo.


Introduction: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has changed global surgical activity causing massive elective surgery postponement. Current evidence surrounding surgical outcomes after otorhinolaryngological surgical procedures during COVID-19 pandemic is limited. Objective: To describe our surgical experience during COVID-19 outbreak in an otolaryngology department in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: This retrospective study analysed the records and surgical information of adults and children's patients who underwent an elective or emergency ENT surgery during COVID-19 outbreak at two hospitals between May 5 to August 15, 2020 in Bogotá, Colombia. Results: A total of 199 patients were enrolled (122 males, median age of 28 years). No patients died or required intensive unit care (ICU). Elective surgery represented the 97.5% surgeries. 19.5% patients had COVID-19 related symptoms in the postoperative period, from the tested patients only one obtained a positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test result and did not develop any associated respiratory complication. Six patients developed complications after surgery, and one had pneumonia with a negative COVID-19 PCR nasopharyngeal swab result. Conclusions: This study shows that despite the high exposure to droplets during otorhinolaryngologic surgeries and the inherent high transmissibility from the virus, the surgical procedures with correct patient selection and appropriate use of PPE can be safe for both the patient and the otolaryngologist.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Otolaryngology , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Ambulatory Care Facilities
18.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 49(1): 73-76, 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1152179

ABSTRACT

En la actualidad la educación médica está pasando por un momento de crisis dado que se requiere de una implementación de estrategias pedagógicas basadas en modelos educativos constructivistas, que deje a un lado parte del modelo educativo tradicional. Actualmente se requiere de nuevos cambios al modelo pedagógico en la especialidad de otorrinolaringología para la formación de los médicos residentes de primera y segunda especialidad, debido al estado de pandemia global. Apoyarse en las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación aplicadas a la educación médica merece tener más relevancia en los programas formativos; asi mismo, es importante una mirada educativa donde la alteridad (nos-otros) tome relevancia con un papel activo entre el cuerpo docente y el estudiantado, sin dejar a un lado la participación de los centros de formación académica mediante un trabajo en conjunto. Este, es el nuevo horizonte educativo de los programas de posgrados médico-quirúrgicos.


Medical education is currently going through a time of crisis where it requires an implementation of pedagogical strategies based on constructivist educational models and leaves aside part of the traditional educational model. Currently, further changes and adjustments to the educational model in the specialty of otolaryngology are required for the training of first and second specialty resident physicians by the global pandemic state. Relying on information and communication technologies applied to medical education deserves more relevance in training programs, likewise an educational look where the otherness (We-Others) takes relevance with an active role among the groups of teachers and students without leaving aside the participation of the academic formation centers by means of a joint work, this is the new educational horizon for medical-surgical postgraduate programs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otolaryngology/education , Teaching , Education, Medical/methods , COVID-19 , Internship and Residency
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908976

ABSTRACT

This paper introduces the clinical skill competition organized by the faculty of Otolaryngology Department of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, and analyzes the main problems in implementing items of basic life support, single ear compression bandage, debridement and suturing, foreign body removal from pharynx and larynx area, nasal packing and hemostasis and comprehensive skills. According to contestants' performances, their abilities in clinical analysis and operating skills have been tested, and their professional humanities have been cultivated. Thus, the aim of "promoting learning through examination and substituting competition for practice" is achieved through the competition. Clinical skill competitions can be used widely as supplement form of medical education for its practicability, entertainment, innovation and interaction.

20.
Medwave ; 21(1)2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252397

ABSTRACT

Introducción La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019, o COVID-19, se ha convertido en una pandemia. Dada que la mayor carga viral de coronavirus de tipo 2 causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS-CoV-2) se encuentra en la vía aérea, los otorrinolaringólogos tienen un elevado riesgo de infección. Múltiples recomendaciones han surgido con respecto a las medidas de protección, incluidos la suspensión de procedimientos y cirugías electivas. Objetivos Evaluar el impacto de la pandemia de COVID-19 en los programas de formación de otorrinolaringología a nivel nacional. Métodos Estudio transversal de encuesta en línea a residentes de otorrinolaringología realizado durante abril de 2020. Se analizaron datos demográficos, actividades clínicas, turnos de llamado, infección por COVID-19, exposición a pacientes COVID-19 positivos, despliegue a otras especialidades, procedimientos y cirugías realizadas. Se utilizaron los portafolios quirúrgicos de años previos para comparar los resultados. Resultados Completaron la encuesta 47 residentes, con 84% de tasa de respuesta; el 64% refirió haber acudido a su centro asistencial 10 días o menos durante el mes de abril de 2020. Con relación a procedimientos frecuentes tales como nasofibroscopía, endoscopia nasal rígida y drenaje de absceso periamigdalino, no fueron realizados por más del 40% de los residentes en el mes. Solo el 38% participó en cirugías, con un promedio de 0,6 procedimientos como primer cirujano; se constata una drástica disminución al comparar los registros de años anteriores. La mayoría de los residentes refieren estas medidas educativas complementarias: videoconferencias bibliográficas (87%), seminarios de casos clínicos en línea (60%), revisión de artículos (38%), entre otros. Conclusiones La formación clínica y quirúrgica disminuyó drásticamente durante abril de 2020. Se deben considerar ajustes a los planes de estudio para disminuir el impacto negativo de la pandemia en la formación de los residentes.


Introduction Coronavirus disease 2019, or COVID-19, has become a global pandemic. Given that the highest viral load of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is found in the airway, otolaryngologists are at high risk of infection. As a result, multiple recommendations have emerged regarding protective measures for surgical teams, including suspending non-urgent procedures and surgeries. Objectives To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on otolaryngology residency training programs nationwide. Methods A cross-sectional survey-based study was completed in April 2020. The participants were recruited through an online survey, sent by email to all Chilean otolaryngology residents. Demographics, clinical activities, on-call shifts, COVID-19 infection status, exposure to COVID-19 patients, deployment to other specialties, diagnostic/therapeutic procedures, and surgeries performed were analyzed. Self-reported surgical data logs from previous years were used to compare results. Results Forty-seven residents completed the survey (84% response rate); 64% of residents refer seeing patients ten days or less during April 2020. Commonly performed procedures such as flexible nasolaryngoscopy, rigid nasal endoscopy, and peritonsillar abscess drainage were not performed by over 40% of the residents in that month. Only 38% participated in surgeries, with an average of 0.6 surgeries as a first surgeon, a dramatic decrease in surgical exposure when comparing the data logs from previous years. Most residents refer the following measures taken by their residency program to improve residency training: bibliographic videoconferences (87%), online clinical case seminars (60%), weekly journal clubs (38%), among others. Conclusions Clinical and surgical opportunities decreased dramatically during April 2020. Adjustments to the regular academic curricula should be considered to decrease the negative impact of this pandemic on residency training.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Otolaryngology/education , COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies
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