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1.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 114-123, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005260

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo study whether Chaihu Longgu Mulitang can inhibit hypothalamic inflammation, mitigate anxiety-like behavior, and alleviate anxiety symptoms by regulating the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-κB (p38 MAPK/NF-κB) signaling pathway in the rat model of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). MethodTwelve out of 74 Wistar rats were randomly selected as the blank group, and the remaining rats were subjected to chronic restraint stress for the modeling of GAD. The open field test (OFT) and elevated Porteus maze test (PMT) were conducted 14 days after modeling to detect the anxiety-like behaviors. Sixty successfully modeled rats were selected and randomized into model, low-, medium-, and high-dose (6, 12, and 24 g·kg-1, respectively) Chaihu Longgu Mulitang, and diazepam (1 mg·kg-1) groups (n=12) and administrated with corresponding drugs for 14 consecutive days. OFT and PMT were then carried out to examine the anxiety-like behaviors of the rats. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the hypothalamus and serum of rats were determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR)was conducted to determine the mRNA levels of p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, nuclear factor κB inhibitor α (IκBα), and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1). The protein levels of p38 MAPK, phosphorylated (p)-p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, p-NF-κB p65, and IκBα in the hypothalamus of rats were determined by Western blot. The expression of Iba-1 in the hypothalamic microglia was detected by immunofluorescence assay. ResultCompared with the blank group, the model group had decreased body weight, scattered dark yellow fur, increased irritability, and preference to hibernation in the corner. In addition, the modeled rats showed increased edge movement distance and time in OFT (P<0.01) and decreased movement distance and time and the number of entries in the open arm in PMT (P<0.01). The modeling increased the fluorescence intensity of Iba-1 in paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (P<0.01), elevated the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the serum and hypothalamus (P<0.01), up-regulated the protein and mRNA levels of p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, p-p38 MAPK, p-NF-κB p65, and Iba-1 (P<0.05, P<0.01), and down-regulated the protein and mRNA levels of IκBα (P<0.01) in the hypothalamus. Compared with the model group, medium- and high-dose Chaihu Longgu Mulitang and diazepam increased the body weight, improved the fur and behaviors, decreased the edge movement distance and time in OFT (P<0.05, P<0.01), and increased the movement distance and time in the open arm in PMT (P<0.05, P<0.01). Furthermore, they decreased the fluorescence intensity of Iba-1 in hypothalamic microglia (P<0.05, P<0.01), lowered the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the serum and hypothalamic tissue (P<0.05, P<0.01), down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, p-p38 MAPK, p-NF-κB p65, and Iba-1 (P<0.05, P<0.01), and up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of IκBα (P<0.05, P<0.01) in the hypothalamus. ConclusionChaihu Longgu Mulitang can mitigate anxiety-like behaviors and relieve anxiety in GAD rats by inhibiting the p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway and reducing the activation of microglia and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus.

2.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 20-28, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016458

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo study the effects of Epimedii Folium polysaccharides on mice with exercise-induced fatigue and explore its possible mechanism of action. MethodICR male mice screened by swimming training were randomly divided into a control group, model group, vitamin C group, and low, medium, and high dose groups of Epimedii Folium polysaccharides, with eight mice in each group. The exercise-induced fatigue model was established by weight-bearing swimming training in each group except for the control group. After two weeks of weight-bearing swimming, the Epimedii Folium polysaccharide groups were given 100, 200, 400 mg∙kg-1 of Epimedii Folium polysaccharides by gavage, and the vitamin C group was given 200 mg∙kg-1 of vitamin C by gavage. The control group and the model group were given equal amounts of saline for 14 d. At the end of the experimental period, the body mass of the mice in each group and the time of last swimming due to exhaustion were recorded. Serum urea nitrogen (BUN), lactic acid (LA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidation (GSH-Px), myoglycogen (MG) in skeletal muscle, hepatic glycogen (HG) in the liver were detected by kits. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes in muscle tissue. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), phosphorylation (p)-p38 MAPK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), p-NF-κB, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in muscle tissue. The immunofluorescence (IF) method was used to detect the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in skeletal muscle tissue of mice in each group. ResultCompared with the control group, the body mass of mice in the model group decreased, and the time of last swimming due to exhaustion decreased (P<0.01). In addition, there were significantly higher serum levels of the fatigue metabolites LA, LDH, BUN, and lipid peroxidation product MDA (P<0.01) and decreased levels of MG, HG, SOD, and GSH-Px (P<0.01). The protein expressions of p-p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, p-NF-κB, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in skeletal muscle tissue were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the body mass and time of last swimming due to exhaustion of the mice in the low, medium, and high dose groups of Epimedii Folium polysaccharides and the vitamin C group were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the contents of LA, LDH, BUN, and MDA were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). The levels of MG, HG, SOD, and GSH-Px increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the protein expression levels of p-p38 MAPK, ERK, p-NF-κB, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in skeletal muscle tissue decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). ConclusionEpimedii Folium polysaccharides can play a role in alleviating exercise-induced fatigue by inhibiting the p38 MARK/NF-κB signaling pathway, thereby reducing the accumulation of metabolites, improving the activity of antioxidant enzymes, increasing the glycogen content of the body, and reducing inflammation in skeletal muscle.

3.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 9-17, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984578

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the effect of Shenling Baizhusan on the intestinal inflammatory reaction in the rat model of Crohn's disease (CD) and study its relationship with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, so as to provide an experimental and theoretical basis for the clinical application of this prescription. MethodA total of 72 SD rats (36 males and 36 females) were randomized into a normal group (n=12) and a modeling group (n=60). The rats in the modeling group were treated with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS, 3 mL·kg-1) and then randomized into model, mesalazine (0.21 g·kg-1·d-1), and low-, medium-, and high-dose (5.88, 11.76, 23.59 g·kg-1·d-1, respectively) Shenling Baizhusan groups. The rats in the drug intervention groups were administrated with corresponding agents by gavage for 14 days, and those in the normal and model groups with an equal volume of distilled water. The disease activity index (DAI) score of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the colon mucosal damage index (CMDI) score of rats in each group were assessed after gavage. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the histopathological changes in the colon, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the serum. Western blotting was employed to determine the protein levels of p38 MAPK, phosphorylated p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK), p65 nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and phosphorylated-p65 NF-κB (p-NF-κB p65) in the colon tissue. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was conducted to determine the miRNA levels of p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 in the colon tissue. ResultThe model group had higher DAI and CMDI scores than the normal group (P<0.01) and showed damaged epithelial cells in the colon mucosa, disarrangement of glands, damaged simple tubular glands, local necrosis, infiltration of a large number of inflammatory cells and lymphocytes in each layer, and presence of ulceration. Compared with the normal group, the model group showed elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 in the serum (P<0.01) and up-regulated protein levels of p-p38 MAPK and p-NF-κB p65 and miRNA level of p38 MAPK in the colon tissue (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, mesalazine and high- and medium-dose Shenling Baizhusan decreased the DAI and CMDI scores (P<0.05, P<0.01), repaired the mucosal epithelium of the colon tissue, increased the glands and goblet cells, lowered the levels of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 in the serum (P<0.05, P<0.01), and down-regulated the protein levels of p-p38 MAPK and p-NF-κB p65 and the miRNA level of p38 MAP in the colon mucosa (P<0.01, P<0.05). ConclusionShenling Baizhusan can reduce intestinal inflammation of CD rats and promote the repair of colon mucosa by down-regulating the protein levels of p-p38 MAPK and pNF-κB p65 and the miRNA level of p38 MAPK to inhibit the p38 MAPK pathway.

4.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 71-78, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996812

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo study the effect and underlying mechanism of Stemona tuberosa alkaloids on the proliferation and apoptosis of human non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 cells. MethodNon-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 cells were divided into a blank group and S. tuberosa alkaloids groups (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg·L-1). The effect of S. tuberosa alkaloids on the proliferation of human NCI-H460 cells was observed by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and colony formation assay. Cell apoptosis was observed by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry. Real-time fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) was used to detect the effect of S. tuberosa alkaloids on the mRNA expression of cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease 3 (Caspase-3), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The protein expression levels of Caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, protein kinase B (Akt), phosphorylated (p-)Akt, EGFR, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p-JNK, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and p-p38 MAPK were measured by Western blot. ResultCompared with the blank group, the S. tuberosa alkaloids groups showed increased inhibition rate on cell proliferation (P<0.01), reduced number of cell clones formed and the rate of cell clonal formation (P<0.05, P<0.01), and increased karyopyknosis, cytoplasmic aggregation, and cell apoptosis rate (P<0.01). The S. tuberosa alkaloids groups at 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg·L-1 showed increased Caspase-3 mRNA expression (P<0.05), decreased EGFR mRNA expression (P<0.05, P<0.01), up-regulated protein expression of Caspase-3 and p-JNK (P<0.01), and down-regulated protein expression of EGFR and p-Akt (P<0.05, P<0.01). Additionally, compared with the blank group, the S. tuberosa alkaloids groups showed increased expression of Bax mRNA (P<0.01), decreased expression of Bcl-2 mRNA (P<0.01), up-regulated protein expression of Bax and p-p38 MAPK (P<0.01), and down-regulated protein expression of Bcl-2 (P<0.01). ConclusionsS. tuberosa alkaloids can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of human non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 cells, and the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of EGFR protein expression and phosphorylation of Akt protein, as well as the activation of the JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

5.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 64-70, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996811

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo decipher the mechanism of modified Sanpiantang in the treatment of nitroglycerin-induced migraine in rats. MethodSeventy-two Wistar rats were randomized into the control, model (nitroglycerin, 10 mg·kg-1), positive control (rizatriptan, 0.89 mg·kg-1), and high- (12.96 g·kg-1), medium- (6.48 g·kg-1), and low-dose (3.24 g·kg-1) modified Sanpiantang groups. The rat model of migraine was established by intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg·kg-1 nitroglycerin. The behavioral test was carried out to measure the mechanical pain thresholds (MPT) of the periorbital region and hindpaw after successful modeling. The serum levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in rats were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was employed to determine the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC). Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of iNOS and phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) in the TNC. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR) was performed to measure the mRNA levels of iNOS, p38 MAPK, and IL-1β in the TNC. ResultCompared with the control group, the model group showed decreased MPT (P<0.01), elevated serum levels of NO, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β (P<0.01), and up-regulated expression levels of p38 MAPK, iNOS, and IL-1β in the TNC (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the model group, modified Sanpiantang increased the MPT (P<0.05), and the medium-dose group showed the most significant effect (P<0.01). In addition, modified Sanpiantang down-regulated the mRNA levels of iNOS, p38 MAPK, and IL-1β and the protein levels of p-p38 MAPK and iNOS in the TNC of migraine rats (P<0.05, P<0.01) and lowered the serum levels of NO, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β (P<0.05, P<0.01). ConclusionModified Sanpiantang may treat migraine by down-regulating the expression of pro-inflammatory factors such as NO, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β in the p38 MAPK/iNOS signaling pathway to reduce the neurogenic inflammation.

6.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 61-68, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988181

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo reveal the intervention effect of Dahuang Mudantang on pancreatic injury in rats with acute pancreatitis (AP) of dampness-heat in large intestine syndrome and explore its possible mechanism based on network pharmacology. MethodNinety-six SPF-grade Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following six groups: a blank group, a model group, low-, medium-, and high-dose Dahuang Mudantang groups (3.5, 7, and 14 g·kg-1), and a Qingyi Lidan granules group (3 g·kg-1), with 16 rats in each group. The AP model of dampness-heat in large intestine syndrome was induced in rats except for those in the blank group by "high-temperature and high-humidity environment + high-sugar and high-fat diet + retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreaticobiliary duct". The blank and model groups received equal volumes of distilled water by gavage, while the treatment groups were administered Dahuang Mudantang or Qingyi Lidan granules 1 hour before modeling, and 12 and 24 hours after modeling. Samples were collected 1 hour after the last administration. The general conditions of the rats were observed. The AP model of dampness-heat in large intestine syndrome was evaluated. Serum amylase (AMS) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were determined using biochemical methods. Pancreatic tissue morphology was observed using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Network pharmacology was employed to predict potential targets of Dahuang Mudantang in the intervention in AP, and molecular biology technique was used to verify relevant targets. ResultCompared with the blank group, the model group exhibited lethargy, unkempt fur, loose and foul-smelling stools, elevated anal temperature with arching and twisting reactions, significantly increased serum levels of AMS and CRP (P<0.05), abnormal pancreatic ductules, disordered interlobular spaces, and inflammatory cell infiltration in histopathological examination, as well as pathological changes including pancreatic acinar cell swelling, congestion, and necrosis. Compared with the model group, the treatment groups showed varying degrees of improvement in general survival conditions, reduced twisting reactions, visibly improved stool characteristics, reduced pancreatic tissue edema and necrosis, decreased serum AMS and CRP levels (P<0.05), with the high-dose Dahuang Mudantang group showing the most pronounced effects (P<0.05). Network pharmacology prediction indicated that hederagenin, β-sitosterol, and quercetin were the most widely connected active compounds with disease targets. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis revealed that protein kinase B (Akt), tumor protein P53 (TP53), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), transcription factor (JUN), vascular endothelial growth factor α (VEGFα), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM1) were key targets in the "drug-disease" interaction. KEGG enrichment analysis suggested that the response of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway might be a core mechanism for DHMDT in the intervention in AP. Molecular biology analysis showed that compared with the blank group, the model group had significantly increased levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and VCAM-1 in pancreatic tissue (P<0.05), as well as significantly elevated expression levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), and human antigen R (HUR) genes and proteins (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the treatment groups exhibited decreased levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and VCAM-1 in pancreatic tissue (P<0.05), reduced expression levels of p38 MAPK, MK2, and HUR genes and proteins, with the high-dose Dahuang Mudantang group showing the most pronounced effects (P<0.05). ConclusionDahuang Mudantang activates and regulates the p38 MAPK/MK2/HUR signaling pathway to suppress the release of inflammatory factors, thereby improving pancreatic injury.

7.
Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6): 50-55, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1015255

ABSTRACT

Objective To detecte the expressions of phosphorylated p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK), Bax and Bcl-2 in the cerebral cortex of hyperlipidemia rats after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and the effect of SB203580 on the expressions of p-p38 MAPK, Bax and Bcl-2, to explore the effect of p38 MAPK activation on the expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 in hyperlipidemia cerebral I/R injury. Methods After the hyperlipidemia model was established, the rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham operation group, operation group (I/R) and SB203580 treatment group (SB+I/R), with 10 rats in each group. The focal cerebral I/R model in hyperlipemia rats was established with thread embolism of the left middle cerebral artery. The neurobehavioral score was used to observe the symptoms of neurobehavioral injury. The 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was used to detect the volume of cerebral infarction, and the TUNEL staining was used to observe apoptotic cells. The relative expression levels of p-p38 MAPK, Bax and Bcl-2 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with the sham group, the infarct volume, apoptosis index and neurobehavioral score of rats in the I/R group increased significantly, and the expressions of p-p38 MAPK and Bax increased significantly, and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased significantly (P<0. 05). Compared with the I/R group, rats in the SB+I/R group had less brain damage, the infarct volume and the apoptosis index were significantly reduced, the expressions of p-p38 MAPK reduced significantly, Bax expression decreased while Bcl-2 expression increased. The differences were statistically significant (P<0. 05). Neurobehavioral scores were lower in SB+I/R group than in I/R group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion In the process of cerebral I/R injury in hyperlipidemiarats, activation of p38 MAPK can regulate the expression of Bax and Bcl-2.

8.
Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6): 652-659, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1015162

ABSTRACT

[Abstract] Objective To explore the inhibitory effect of sodium ferulate (SF) on the inflammatory response in migraine rats by regulating the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) / p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway. Methods The migraine rat model was prepared by intraperitoneal injection of nitroglycerin. After successful modeling, the rats were randomly grouped into model group, SF low dose (SF-L) group (50 mg/ kg), SF high dose (SF-H) group (100 mg/ kg), SF+JNK inhibitor (SF + SP600125) group (SF 100 mg/ kg +SP600125 10 mg/ kg), and SF+JNK activator [SF + anisomycin(AN)] group (SF 100 mg/ kg +AN 5 mg/ kg), 12 in each group, another 12 SD rats without treatment were taken as blank group. The behavioral changes of the rats in each group were observed 24 hours after the administration, the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum were detected by ELISA, the neuronal apoptosis in brain tissue was observed by TUNEL staining, immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6 and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in brain tissue, Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of JNK/ p38 MAPK pathway-related proteins in brain tissue. Results Compared with the blank group, the number of times of scratching the head and climbing the cage of the rats in the model group increased significantly, and the apoptosis rate of neurons increased significantly; the content of 5-HT in serum decreased significantly, and the levels of NO, TNF-α and IL-6 increased significantly; the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6 and CGRP, and the ratios of phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK) / JNK and phosphorylated p38 MAPK(p-p38 MAPK) / p38 MAPK in brain tissue obviously increased (all P<0. 05). Compared with the model group, the number of times of scratching the head and the times of climbing the cage of the rats in the SF-L group and the SF-H group reduced significantly, and the neuron apoptosis rate reduced significantly; the content of 5-HT in serum increased significantly, and the levels of NO, TNF-α and IL-6 decreased significantly; the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6 and CGRP, and the ratios of p-JNK/ JNK and p-p38 MAPK/ p38 MAPK in brain tissue obviously decreased (all P<0. 05). Compared with SF-H group, the protective effect of SF on migraine rats in SF+SP600125 group enhanced significantly; the protective effect of SF on migraine rats in the SF+AN group reversed significantly. Conclusion SF may inhibit the expression of JNK/ p38 MAPK signaling pathway, effectively inhibit neurogenic inflammatory response in migraine rats, reduce neuronal apoptosis, and achieve a protective effect on migraine rats.

9.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 69-76, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953925

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Stemona tuberosa alkaloids (STA) on apoptosis and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK/p38 MAPK) signaling pathways in human lung cancer A549 cells. MethodA549 cells were classified into blank group and STA groups (100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg⋅L-1). Thiazole blue (MTT) assay and colony formation assay were used to evaluate the proliferation of A549 cells. Apoptosis was observed based on Hoechst 33258 staining, flow cytometry, and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Western blot was employed to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 (Caspase-3), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax), and Bcl-2, and the expression of PI3K, phosphorylated (p)-PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, JNK, p-JNK, p38 MAPK, and p-p38 MAPK. ResultCompared with the blank group, STA groups (150, 200, 250, 300 mg⋅L-1) demonstrated the increase in inhibition rate of cell proliferation (P<0.01) and cell clone inhibition rate, and decrease in cell clone formation rate (P<0.01). In comparison with the blank group, STA groups showed typical characteristics of apoptosis, such as chromatin condensation and enhanced fluorescence reaction. The apoptosis rate of STA groups was significantly higher than that of the blank group (P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, STA (150, 200, 250, 300 mg⋅L-1) significantly up-regulated the protein expression of Caspase-3 and Bax (P<0.05, P<0.01) and down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 protein (P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, STA had no significant influence on the total protein expression of PI3K, Akt, JNK, and p38 MAPK. However, STA (150, 200, 250, 300 mg⋅L-1) significantly decreased the levels of p-PI3K and p-Akt (P<0.05, P<0.01) and increased the level of p-p38 MAPK (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, STA (200, 250, 300 mg⋅L-1) significantly raised the level of p-JNK (P<0.05, P<0.01). ConclusionSTA can inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of A549 cells by inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and activating JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

10.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 99-108, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965653

ABSTRACT

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a symptom and/or sign of peripheral nerve dysfunction that occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus when other causes are excluded. DPN, one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus, can lead to disability, foot ulcers, and amputation at a later stage. Its pathogenesis is closely related to high glucose-induced inflammatory damage, oxidative stress, mitochondrial disorders, and apoptosis in neural tissues. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway is a key mechanism mediating the expression of inflammatory factors, oxidative factors, and apoptotic factors of neural tissues in DPN. The inflammatory response, oxidative stress damage, and apoptosis, induced by the activation of p38 MAPK phosphorylation by factors such as high glucose, can cause cell lipid peroxidation, protein modification, and nucleic acid damage, which results in axonal degeneration and demyelination changes. The current treatment of DPN with western medicine has obvious shortcomings such as adverse effects and addictive tendencies. In recent years, the research on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the prevention and treatment of DPN has gradually increased, and the exploration of Chinese medicine intervention in the p38 MAPK pathway transduction to improve DPN has advanced. The present study reviewed the relations of the p38 MAPK pathway with insulin resistance and peripheral neuropathy and summarized the molecular biological mechanisms involved in the pathological process of DPN, such as inflammation regulation, oxidative stress, polyol pathway regulation, and Schwann cell apoptosis in the past 10 years. In addition, the literature on Chinese medicine monomers, Chinese patent medicines, and Chinese medicine compounds in inhibiting inflammatory reactions, oxidative injury, and apoptosis of DPN peripheral nerves based on the p38 MAPK pathway, resisting axonal degeneration and demyelination changes, improving sensory and motor abnormalities, relieving peripheral pain sensitization, and facilitating nerve conduction mechanism to provide references for the development of new drugs for clinical prevention and treatment of DPN.

11.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 222-229, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-973152

ABSTRACT

With the aging of population, osteoporosis has become one of the main diseases endangering the health of the elderly in China. Therefore, the research on osteoporosis has become a hot spot. Since Chinese medicines demonstrate significant therapeutic effects on osteoporosis, this issue is attracting increasing attention from researchers, especially in the deciphering of the molecular mechanism. This paper introduces the mechanism of the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis by Chinese medicines via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for deciphering the mechanism of Chinese medicines in the treatment of osteoporosis and promoting their clinical application. MAPK signaling pathway mainly involves p38 MAPK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5). Studies have shown that these proteins play a role in the progression of osteoporosis by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Chinese medicines as a unique therapy with Chinese characteristics has definite efficacy, high safety, and mild side effects. Researchers have proved by experiments that the extracts or compounds of Chinese medicines can significantly mitigate osteoporosis by regulating the proteins involved in the MAPK signaling pathway. Therefore, this article reviews the relevant studies with focus on these proteins.

12.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 212-223, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-972303

ABSTRACT

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD), a major microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus, serves as the most common cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. The progression of DKD is closely related to oxidative stress, inflammatory response, apoptosis, and fibrosis in renal tissues activated by high glucose. Numerous studies have shown that the transduction of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway is involved in the pathological process of DKD in renal tissues, activating various pathological mechanisms, such as oxidation, inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis. Therefore, blocking the transduction of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway is beneficial to alleviating DKD. At present, the main treatment principles of western medicine are glucose lowering, lipid lowering, and blood pressure lowering, as well as medications with new drugs renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), mineralocorticoid receptor, and endothelin receptor, but the progression of DKD still cannot be stopped. The treatment of DKD by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has the advantages of simplicity, low cost, and convenience, and the symptoms and root causes can be both treated. In recent years, the basic research on Chinese medicine intervention in DKD has greatly advanced, and p38 MAPK is the key factor of Chinese medicine intervention in DKD. The present study searched and reviewed the literature on the Chinese medicine intervention in the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in DKD treatment in the past decade. The results showed that p38 MAPK interacted with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-3 (Caspase-3), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and other factors to activate fibrosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. By acting on p38 MAPK and its upstream and downstream factors, Chinese medicine blocked the pathological processes of DKD and inhibited the pathological injury of DKD and the deterioration of renal function. This study is expected to provide new ideas and directions for the prevention and treatment of DKD with Chinese medicine.

13.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 43-52, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-972284

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the anti-inflammatory effect of Duhuo Jishengtang (DHJST) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model rats and its effect on the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. MethodForty-eight male SD rats were randomly divided into the following six groups (n=8): normal group, model group, methotrexate (MTX) group, low-dose DHJST (DHJST-L) group, medium-dose DHJST (DHJST-M) group, and high-dose DHJST (DHJST-H) group. The CIA model was established by injecting bovine type Ⅱ collagen into the rat tail root with the collagen antibody induction method. After model induction, rats were treated with drugs by gavage. The rats in the MTX group received MTX at 2.0 mg·kg-1, three times a week, and those in the DHJST groups received DHJST at 3.8, 7.6, 15.2 g·kg-1·d-1 for 28 days. The rats in the normal group and the model group were given the same dose of normal saline. The weight of the rats was recorded, and the paw swelling degree was observed. The arthritis index and immune organ index were measured, and the changes in the microcirculation indexes of the rats were detected with a microcirculation detector. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to detect the pathological morphologic changes in rat synovial tissues and the apoptosis rate of synovial cells was detected by flow cytometry to determine the therapeutic effect of DHJST on rheumatoid arthritis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the changes in serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-17A, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The protein expression of TLR2, NF-κB p65, phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (p-NF-κB p65), p38 MAPK, and p-p38 MAPK was detected by Western blot. ResultCompared with the normal group, the model group showed reduced body weight (P<0.01), increased paw swelling degree, arthritis index, and immune organ index (P<0.01), increased comprehensive microvascular score and vascular resistance (P<0.01), significant hyperplasia of synovial tissues and massive infiltration of inflammatory cells as revealed by pathological sections, and up-regulated expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17A, and IFN-γ in serum, and TLR2, p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65 and p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK in synovial tissues (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the DHJST groups showed increased body weight of rats (P<0.01), decreased paw swelling degree, arthritis index, and immune organ index (P<0.05, P<0.01), reduced comprehensive microvascular score and vascular resistance (P<0.05, P<0.01), improved synovial histopathological injury, increased apoptosis rate of synovial cells (P<0.01), and down-regulated levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17A, and IFN-γ in serum (P<0.05, P<0.01) and TLR2, p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65 and p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK in synovial tissues (P<0.05, P<0.01). ConclusionDHJST may alleviate the inflammatory reaction in CIA rats by regulating the TLR2/p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway, thus exerting its anti-rheumatoid arthritis effect.

14.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1339-1342, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994114

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect of Activin-A on spinal inflammatory response in rats with incisional pain and the relationship with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway.Methods:Forty-eight SPF healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 1 month, weighing 100-150 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n=12 each) by the random number table method: sham operation group (S group), incisional pain group (I group), sham operation + antagonist group (SA group) and incisional pain + antagonist group (IA group). The rat model of incisional pain was prepared in group I and group IA.At the first 30 min of model preparation, the antagonist follicle statin 5 μg/kg was intraperitoneally injected in SA and IA groups, and the normal saline 5 μg/kg was intraperitoneally injected in S and I groups.At 24 h before model preparation (T 0) and 2, 6 and 24 h after model preparation (T 1-3), 3 rats in each group were randomly selected to measure the thermal paw withdrawal latency (TWL). Then 3 rats in each group were randomly sacrificed, and the spinal cord L 4-6 segments were taken for determination of the expression of Activin-A and p38 MAPK mRNA (by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) and contents of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Results:Compared with group S, the TWL was significantly shortened, the contents of TNF-α and IL-1β were increased, and the expression of Activin-A and p38 MAPK mRNA was up-regulated at T 1-3 in I and IA groups ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in each parameter in group SA ( P>0.05). Compared with group SA, the TWL was significantly shortened, the contents of TNF-α and IL-1β were increased, and the expression of Activin-A and p38 MAPK mRNA was up-regulated at T 1-3 in I and IA groups ( P<0.05). Compared with group I, the TWL was significantly prolonged, the contents of TNF-α and IL-1β were decreased, and the expression of Activin-A and p38 MAPK mRNA was down-regulated at T 1-3 in group IA ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Activin-A is involved in spinal inflammatory response through activating the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in rats with incisional pain.

15.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 191-202, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the imp rovement effects of total flavonoids of Psidium guajava leaves on myocardial hypertrophy in hypertensive model rats. METHODS Ten rats were randomly selected from 60 healthy SD rats as the normal group ; other 50 rats established hypertensive model ,and 44 rats with successful modeling were randomly divided into model group , anisomycin group [p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)activator,1 mg/kg],total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves+ anisomycin group (200 mg/kg total flavonoids+ 1 mg/kg anisomycin )and total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves group (200 mg/kg) by random volume mass ranking method ,with 11 rats in each group. Rats in normal group and model group were given 3% hydroxymethylcellulose sodium solution ,and other groups were given relevant solution intragastrically ,once a day ,for consecutive 6 weeks. Blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ,diastolic blood pressure ,mean arterial pressure ),cardiac index and left ventricular index were measured. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),interleukin-1β(IL-1β)and IL- 6 in myocardial tissue were detected. The pathomorphological changes of myocardial tissue were observed. The expression of p 38 MAPK, phosphorylated p 38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK),extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2),phosphorylated ERK 1/2 (p-ERK1/2),c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK)in myocardial tissue were detected. RESULTS Compared with normal group ,the systolic blood pressure ,diastolic blood pressure ,mean arterial pressure ,cardiac index ,left ventricular index as well as the levels of TNF-α,IL-1β and IL-6 and protein expression of p-p 38 MAPK,p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK in myocardial tissue were increased significantly in anisomycin group and model group (P<0.05);it was also found that hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes ,disorder of myocardial fibers ,looseness,edema and proliferation of connective tissue between myocardial fibers,increased infiltration of inflammatory cells ,etc. Compared with anisomycin group and model group ,the le vels of above indexes in total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves+ anisomycin group and total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves group were decreased significantly (P<0.05); cardiomyocytes were 163.com slightly larger and arranged reasonably ;the degree of myocardial hypertrophy,looseness,edema and proliferation of connective tissue were relieved ,and the improvement effect of total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves group was more significant (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS The total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves can reduce blood pressure and improve myocardial hypertrophy in hypertensive model rats. Its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of p38 MAPK signal pathway activity and the expression of inflammatory factors.

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Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 947-951, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-956082

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the protective effect of Lindera aggregata on acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice and its possible mechanism.Methods:Forty C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into sham operation group, ARDS model group, low-dose Lindera aggregata (L-LA) group and high-dose Lindera aggregata (H-LA) group, with 10 mice in each group. ARDS model was established by injecting 5 mg/kg LPS through the trachea. The L-LA group and H-LA group were orally administrated 1 g/kg and 5 g/kg of the Lindera aggregate extract once a day, respectively, while the ARDS model group was given the same volume of normal saline, the sham group received no treatment. The Lindera aggregata was preadministered for 3 days before modeling, and continued for 2 days after modeling, then the animals were sacrificed, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were collected. The pathological changes of lung tissue in each group of mice were observed under the microscope and the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) of the lung were measured. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to examine the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in mice serum and BALF, and flow cytometry was used to detect the expression rate of CD40 on the surface of BALF macrophages. The phosphorylation levels of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) proteins in lung tissue were measured by Western blotting.Results:Lung histopathology under light microscope showed that the damage of alveolar structure, thickening of alveolar septum and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the H-LA group were less severe than those in the ARDS model group, while the pathological characteristics of ARDS in the L-LA group were not significantly different from those in the ARDS model group. Compared with the sham operation group, the lung W/D ratio, TNF-α and IL-6 protein contents in serum and BALF, BALF macrophage CD40 expression rate and lung tissue p38 and ERK1/2 protein phosphorylation levels were significantly increased in ARDS model group. The W/D ratio, the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in serum and BALF, the expression rate of CD40 in BALF macrophages, and the phosphorylation levels of p38 and ERK1/2 protein in lung tissue in the L-LA group were not significantly different from those in the ARDS model group. The above indexes in the H-LA group were significantly lower than those in the ARDS model group and the L-LA group [W/D ratio: 5.70±0.19 vs. 6.20±0.31, 6.01±0.17; serum TNF-α (ng/L): 83.63±15.04 vs. 111.75±18.45, 108.12±13.98; serum IL-6 (ng/L): 111.38±8.75 vs. 244.13±26.85, 227.50±9.37; BALF TNF-α (ng/L): 36.25±2.82 vs. 51.13±5.44, 47.50±5.78; BALF IL-6 (ng/L): 35.63±2.20 vs. 49.63±4.90, 46.38±3.50; CD40 expression rate (%): 23.28±2.45 vs. 30.32±2.40, 28.17±1.98; p-p38/p38: 0.50±0.04 vs. 0.74±0.07, 0.69±0.04; p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2: 0.47±0.07 vs. 0.72±0.07, 0.68±0.05; all P < 0.01]. Conclusions:Lindera aggregata can inhibit LPS-induced lung inflammation and alleviate lung injury in ARDS mice. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of the activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase/ERK (p38MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway.

17.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 19-28, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940756

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThis study aims to investigate the efficacy and underlying mechanism of Da Chaihutang (DCHT) in treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro and in vivo. MethodWe employed methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and crystal violet staining to observe the proliferation of Hepa1-6 liver cancer cells treated with DCHT at different doses (0, 125, 250, 500, 1 000 mg·L-1) for different time periods (1, 2, 4, 8 days). The orthotopic liver cancer model was established by injection of 1×106 Hepa1-6 cells into mouse, and then the model mice were randomly assigned into six groups: blank, model, DCHT (0.21, 0.625, 1.875 g·kg-1, ig, qd), and positive control (5-fluorouracil, 25 mg·kg-1, ip, qod). After 14 days of administration, the mice were sacrificed, and the liver samples were collected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), Cytoscape 3.7.2, STRING, and DAVID were used for the searching of the key targets of DCHT in treating HCC, the construction of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to determine the mRNA level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in Hepa1-6 cells and liver tissue. Western blotting was employed to measure the protein levels of the proteins involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathways. ResultDCHT (500, 1 000 mg·L-1) treatment for 4 and 8 days inhibited the proliferation of Hepa1-6 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.05). The in vivo assay showed that DCHT (high dose, 1.875 g·kg-1) treatment for 14 days led to high differentiation and unobvious heterogeneity of HCC cells and small necrotic area compared with the model group. Network pharmacology analysis predicted that the potential targets of DCHT in the treatment of HCC were mainly the inflammation cytokines such as IL-6, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in HCC microenvironment. The potential signaling pathways involved in the treatment were mainly associated with HCC growth and differentiation, including MAPK and STAT3 signaling pathways. Compared with the blank group, DCHT (1 000 mg·L-1) treatment for 1, 2, 4, and 8 days down-regulated the mRNA level of IL-6 in Hepa1-6 cells (P<0.05). Similar results were observed in the livers of mice treated with DCHT (0.625, 1.875 g·kg-1). The in vitro assay demonstrated that DCHT (1 000 mg·L-1) treatment for 4 and 8 days and DCHT (500, 1 000 mg·L-1) treatment inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK), p38 MAPK, and STAT3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.05). The in vivo assay showed that DCHT (0.625 and 1.875 g·kg-1) treatment only inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and STAT3 (P<0.05). ConclusionThe present study indicates that DCHT can inhibit liver cancer cell proliferation by regulating p38 MAPK/IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.

18.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 79-86, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940589

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effects and mechanism of baicalin (BA) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in rats. MethodEighty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into the control group, model group, low-dose BA (BA-L) group, medium-dose BA (BA-M) group, high-dose BA (BA-H) group, dexamethasone (DEX) group, SB203580 group, and BA + SB203580 group, with 10 rats in each group. The rats in the BA-L, BA-M, and BA-H groups were injected intraperitoneally with different doses (10, 50, 100 mg·kg-1) of BA solution, the ones in the DEX group with 5 mg·kg-1 DEX solution, the ones in the SB203580 group with 0.5 mg·kg-1 SB203580 solution, the ones in the BA + SB203580 group with 100 mg·kg-1 BA solution and 0.5 mg·kg-1 SB203580, and those in both the control group and model group with the same volume of normal saline, once per day, for seven successive days. One hour after the last administration, rats in all groups except for the control group were given 5 mg·kg-1 LPS via intratracheal instillation for inducing the acute lung injury, whereas those in the control group received the same volume of normal saline solution. Twelve hours later, the lung tissues were sampled and stained with htoxylin-eosin (HE) for observing the pathological changes, followed by the counting of the total number of cells and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The wet/dry weight ratio of the lung tissue and the contents of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. The activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lung tissue was detected by immunofluorescence and the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-18 (IL-18), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in BALF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted to determine the relative expression of p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Western blotting was carried out to detect the protein expression levels of p-p38 MAPK, thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), and cysteinyl aspartate specific protease-1 (Caspase-1) in the lung tissue. ResultCompared with the control group, the model group displayed inflammatory pathological changes in lung tissue, elevated wet/dry weight ratio, total number of cells and neutrophils in BALF, and ROS and MDA levels (P<0.01), decreased SOD activity (P<0.01), and up-regulated IL-1, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, p-p38 MAPK, NLRP3, and Caspase-1 expression (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, BA at different doses, SB203580, and BA + SB203580 all effectively alleviated the pathological changes in lung tissue induced by LPS, reduce the lung wet/dry weight ratio, the total number of cells and neutrophils in BALF, and ROS and MDA levels (P<0.05,P<0.01), enhanced the activity of SOD (P<0.05,P<0.01), and down-regulated the expression of IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6,TNF-α, p-p38 MAPK, NLRP3, and Caspase-1 in lung tissue (P<0.05,P<0.01). ConclusionBA has a protective effect against LPS-induced acute lung injury, which may be related to its inhibition of p38MAPK/NLRP3 signaling pathway and the improvement of inflammatory response.

19.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 108-115, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940393

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the therapeutic effects of the combined therapy of lung and intestine, a common treatment for pulmonary diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), on bronchial asthma mice, and further detect the changes of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway-related proteins which are closely related to the pathogenesis of asthma, in order to elucidate the mechanism of the combined therapy of lung and intestine in the treatment of bronchial asthma. MethodA total of 60 Kunming mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, dexamethasone group (0.5 mg·kg-1·d-1), TCM group (2.73 g·kg-1·d-1), and lung-intestine treatment group (6.825 g·kg-1·d-1), 12 mice in each group. All mice except the normal group were sensitized by ovalbumin to induce bronchial asthma. After 30 days of intragastric administration, serum and lung tissue samples were obtained. The content of VIP, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum of mice in each group was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and p38 MAPK in lung tissues of mice were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR), and the protein levels of TNF-α, IL-6, p38 MAPK, and phosphorylated p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK) in lung tissues of mice were assayed by Western blot (WB). ResultCompared with the normal group, the model group showed decreased content of serum VIP (P<0.05), increased content of TNF-α and IL-6 (P<0.05), up-regulated mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and p38 MAPK, and elevated protein levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK in lung tissues (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the treatment groups exhibited increased content of serum VIP, TNF-α, and IL-6 (P<0.05), down-regulated mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and p38 MAPK, and lower protein levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK in lung tissues (P<0.05). As compared with the lung-intestine treatment group, the serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the dexamethasone group were increased (P<0.05), and the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in lung tissues were down-regulated (P<0.05), while the levels of p38 MAPK, VIP mRNA, and p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK protein in lung tissues were up-regulated (P<0.05). The serum VIP, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels in the TCM group were decreased (P<0.05), and the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6, p38 MAPK and protein levels of TNF-α, IL-6, p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK in lung tissues were up-regulated (P<0.05), while the level of VIP mRNA in lung tissues was down-regulated (P<0.05). ConclusionThrough increasing endogenous VIP and inhibiting the excessive activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway, the combined therapy of lung and intestine can reduce the release of inflammatory factors, inhibit pulmonary inflammation response, and treat bronchial asthma.

20.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 88-96, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940356

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the nephroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of Fufang Shelong capsules (FFSL) in rats with membranous nephropathy (MN), and the role of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. MethodMale SD rats of SPF grade were divided into a normal group and an experimental group. The MN model was induced by tail vein injection of cationized bovine serum albumin in the experimental group. After screening, the eligible model rats were included and divided into a positive control group (tripterygium glycosides tablets) and low-, medium-, and high-dose FFSL groups (0.375, 0.75, 1.5g·kg-1). The rats were treated correspondingly for eight weeks, and urine protein was detected during drug intervention. Renal function and inflammation-related indicators were detected after drug intervention. The changes in 24-hour urine total protein (24 h UP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), and total cholesterol (TC) were detected. Flow cytometry was used to detect CD4+/CD8+ changes. Kidney tissues were collected to observe pathological changes under a light microscope and an electron microscope. The protein expression of p38 MAPK and phosphorylated p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK) in kidney tissues was detected by Western blot. ResultCompared with the normal group, the model group showed increased 24 h UP (P<0.01), elevated serum Cr, BUN, TC, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α (P<0.05,P<0.01), decreased serum Alb and TP levels (P<0.05,P<0.01), increased CD4+/CD8+ in the peripheral blood (P<0.01), and up-regulated protein expression of p38 MAPK and p-p38 MAPK in kidney tissues (P<0.05). Additionally, in the model group, immune complex deposition and foot process fusion, accompanied by infiltration of inflammatory cells, were observed on the epithelial side of the basement membrane in the pathological kidney tissues. Compared with the model group, the groups with drug intervention showed declining 24 h UP levels at six weeks (P<0.05,P<0.01), decreased serum Cr, BUN, TC, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α (P<0.05,P<0.01), increased serum Alb and TP levels (P<0.05,P<0.01), reduced CD4+/CD8+ in the peripheral blood (P<0.01), improved renal pathological damage, and down-regulated p38 MAPK and p-p38 MAPK in kidney tissues (P<0.05,P<0.01). ConclusionFFSL can decrease the expression of inflammatory factors, reduce proteinuria, delay kidney damage, and protect kidney function by inhibiting the expression of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

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