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1.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(1): 17-23, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357467

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects almost 30% of the adult population. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the evolution of symptoms in patients diagnosed with AR and septal deviation prior to and following septoplasty (STP). DESIGN AND SETTING: Quasi-experimental study developed in A Coruña University Hospital. METHODS: Patients aged 18-65 years who had been diagnosed with AR and septal deviation were recruited. Obstruction airflow was evaluated before and after surgery, by means of anterior rhinomanometry (RNM). Severity symptoms and quality of life were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the ESPRINT questionnaire, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 50 subjects underwent STP and 42 were included in this study. Their mean age at the time of surgery was 34.16 ± 9.74 years (range 18-64). Significant reductions in mean VAS and ESPRINT were observed after surgery (P < 0.01). These outcomes were considered to represent an overall improvement in quality of life. The RNM results also improved significantly, from mean values of 478.07 ± 165.4 cm3/s before STP to 826.4 ± 175.5 cm3/s afterwards (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The negative correlations of VAS and ESPRINT with RNM, from before and to after STP, demonstrate the efficacy of scales and questionnaires as objective methods for determining obstruction in the absence of rhinomanometry. Patients with allergic rhinitis and septal deviation showed improvements in obstruction severity and medication use after STP.

2.
International Eye Science ; (12): 583-586, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922856

ABSTRACT

@#Diabetes is a disease that leads primarily to microvascular damage. In recent years, with the improvement of living standards, the number of diabetes patients has been increasing. The latest data is shown that about 9.3%(463 million people)globally have diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness among the working-age population. What have been progressively recognized in recent years is hyperglycemia can also lead to tear film instability, corneal nerve dysfunction, corneal sensitivity decreased, and tear osmolarity increased. The etiology and mechanisms of ocular surface dysfunction caused by diabetes are diverse and complex, including hyperglycemia destabilizing the tear film, disturbances in connectivity between dendritic cells and neurons, and inflammatory cytokines inducing damage to the lacrimal glands, leading to impaired tear secretion. This article is intended to review recent progress and mechanisms in diabetic dry eye and the general conditions of patients that ophthalmologists should consider during the diagnosis and treatment of the diabetic dry eye.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922582

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, is a major public health issue. The epidemic is unlikely to be contained until the global launch of safe and effective vaccines that could prevent serious illnesses and provide herd immunity. Although most patients have mild flu-like symptoms, some develop severe illnesses accompanied by multiple organ dysfunction. The identification of pathophysiology and early warning biomarkers of a severe type of COVID-19 contribute to the treatment and prevention of serious complications. Here, we review the pathophysiology, early warning indicators, and effective treatment of Chinese and Western Medicine for patients with a severe type of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
International Eye Science ; (12): 412-415, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920413

ABSTRACT

@#High myopia complicated with fundus lesions is one of irreversible blinding eye diseases. Posterior seleral staphyloma(PSS)is one of the most basic pathologies in a series of complications of high myopia. This article reviews the pathogenesis, examination methods, classification and treatment of PSS in high myopia by sorting out domestic and foreign literature, providing a better understanding of the prevention and control of PSS.

5.
International Eye Science ; (12): 399-402, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920410

ABSTRACT

@#It is estimated that currently, about 46%-64% of patients with diabetes mellitus(DM)suffer from diabetic keratopathy(DK). With the increasing prevalence of DM, DK has gradually been concerned by ophthalmologists. Nevertheless, its pathogenesis is not yet clear. Oxidative stress is a pathological process that causes excessive production of reactive oxygen species(ROS)and reactive nitrogen species(RNS)in the body, which damages tissues and cells. It participates in the occurrence and development of many diseases, including the ocular complications of DM. This study aims to review the research progress of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis and the treatment of diabetic corneal lesions, thus providing references for clinical diagnosis and treatment of DK.

6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(9): 789-794, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345328

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Migraines are headaches caused by changes in the trigeminovascular metabolic pathway. Migraine headache attacks are associated with neurovascular inflammation, but their pathophysiological mechanisms have not been fully explained. Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum vaspin, visfatin, chemerin and interleukin-18 (IL-18) levels and the frequency of attacks in migraine headache. Methods: Three groups were established: migraine with aura (n = 50), migraine without aura (n = 50) and control group (n = 50). The migraine diagnosis was made in accordance with the International Classification of Headache Disorders-III beta diagnostic criteria. The analyses on serum vaspin, visfatin, chemerin and IL-18 levels were performed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results: The serum vaspin, visfatin, chemerin and IL-18 levels were found to be significantly higher in the migraine patients than in the control group (p < 0.01). No statistically significant differences in serum vaspin, visfatin, chemerin and IL-18 levels were found among the migraine patients during attacks or in the interictal period (p>0.05). The serum visfatin and chemerin levels of the migraine patients were positively correlated with their serum IL-18 levels (p < 0.01), while their serum chemerin and visfatin levels were positively correlated with their serum vaspin levels (p < 0.05). Conclusions: This study showed that these biomarkers may be related to migraine pathogenesis. Nonetheless, we believe that more comprehensive studies are needed in order to further understand the role of vaspin, visfatin, chemerin and IL-18 levels in the pathophysiology of migraine headaches.


Resumo Introdução: A migrânea é causada por alterações nas vias metabólicas do sistema trigeminovascular. Crises de migrânea estão associadas à inflamação neurovascular, mas seus mecanismos patofisiológicos ainda não são totalmente explicados. Objetivo: Investigar a relação entre níveis séricos de vaspina, visfatina, quemerina e interleucina-18 (IL-18) e a frequência de crises de migrânea. Métodos: Três grupos foram formados: migrânea com aura (n = 50), migrânea sem aura (n = 50) e grupo controle (n = 50). A migrânea foi diagnosticada de acordo com os critérios da Classificação Internacional das Cefaleias (ICHD-III). As análises dos níveis séricos de vaspina, visfatina, quemerina e IL-18 foram realizadas utilizando-se o método imunoenzimático (ELISA). Resultados: Os níveis séricos de vaspina, visfatina, quemerina e interleucina-18 (IL-18) foram significativamente mais elevados em pacientes com migrânea do que no grupo controle (p < 0.01). Nenhuma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi observada nos níveis séricos de vaspina, visfatina, quemerina e interleucina-18 (IL-18) entre os pacientes com migrânea durante crises ou no período interictal (p>0,05). Os níveis séricos de visfatina e quemerina em pacientes com migrânea se correlacionaram positivamente com os níveis séricos de IL-18 (p < 0,01), ao passo que os níveis séricos de quemerina e visfatina se correlacionaram positivamente com os níveis séricos de vaspina (p < 0,05). Conclusões: Este estudo demonstrou que estes biomarcadores podem estar relacionados à patogênese da migrânea. Contudo, acreditamos que estudos mais abrangentes são necessários a fim de melhor compreendermos o papel dos níveis de vaspina, visfatina, quemerina e IL-18 na fisiopatologia da migrânea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin Resistance , Serpins , Migraine Disorders , Chemokines , Interleukin-18 , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase
7.
Acta biol. colomb ; 26(1): 105-115, ene.-abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152674

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La Transición Epitelio-Mesénquima (EMT) es un proceso de diferenciación altamente conservado en vertebrados. Este ocurre en células epiteliales con la activación progresiva de la pérdida de la polaridad, la adquisición de motilidad individual y la capacidad invasiva a otros tejidos. La EMT es un proceso normal durante el desarrollo; no obstante, en condiciones patológicas está relacionada con la inducción de metástasis, lo cual representa una vía alterna al desarrollo de procesos oncogénicos tempranos. Aunque la EMT es activada principalmente por factores de crecimiento, también se puede desencadenar por infecciones de patógenos intracelulares mediante la activación de rutas moleculares inductoras de este proceso. Por lo tanto, una infección bacteriana o viral pueda generar predisposición al desarrollo de tumores. Nuestro interés está enfocado principalmente en caracterizar la relación virus-hospedero, y en el caso de los virus, varios ya se han descrito como inductores de la EMT. En este artículo de revisión se describen el fenómeno de la plasticidad celular y la ocurrencia detallada del proceso de EMT, los patógenos virales reportados como inductores, los mecanismos moleculares usados para ello y las vías de regulación mediante miRNAs. Por último, se discute cómo esta relación virus-hospedero puede explicar la patogénesis de la enfermedad causada por Dengue virus, favoreciendo la identificación de blancos moleculares para terapia, estrategia conocida como Antivirales dirigidos a blancos celulares o HTA (Host-targeting antivirals).


ABSTRACT Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a highly conserved dedifferentiation process in vertebrates. This process occurs in epithelial cells activating progressive loss of cell polarity, acquisition of individual motility and invasive capacity to other tissues. EMT is a normal process during development process, however, in pathological conditions is related to the induction of metastasis, which represents an alternative path to the development of early oncogenic processes. Although, EMT is mainly activated by growth factors, it can also be triggered by intracellular-pathogen-infections by activating molecular pathways that induce this process. Therefore, a bacterial or viral infection may generate predisposition to the development of tumors. Our interest is mainly focused on characterizing the host-virus relationship, and in the case of viruses, several have already been described as EMT inductors. In this review, phenomenon of cellular plasticity, detailed occurrence of the EMT, viral pathogens reported as inducers, the molecular mechanisms, and the regulatory pathways through miRNAs are described. Finally, we discuss how this host-virus relationship may explain the pathogenesis of the disease caused by Dengue virus, favoring the identification of molecular targets for therapy, a strategy known as Host-Targeting Antivirals (HTA).

8.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 78(1): 41-58, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153238

ABSTRACT

Abstract Coronaviruses (CoV) are enveloped, plus-strand RNA viruses that have the largest known RNA genomes and infect birds and mammals, causing various diseases. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first identified in the mid-1960s and have been known to cause enteric or respiratory infections. In the last two decades, three HCoVs have emerged, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which initiated the ongoing pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 causes a respiratory illness that presents as a mild upper respiratory disease but may result in acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure and can be fatal, especially when underlying comorbidities are present. Children account for a low percentage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, with seemingly less severe disease. Most pediatric patients present mild or moderate symptoms or are asymptomatic. However, some cases may be severe. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 in pediatric patients must be studied in detail. This review describes general features of the molecular biology of CoVs and virus-host interactions that may be implicated in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.


Resumen Los coronavirus son virus envueltos de ARN de polaridad positiva, con los genomas más grandes que se conocen. Infectan aves y mamíferos, y causan una amplia variedad de enfermedades. Los coronavirus humanos se identificaron a mediados de la década de 1960 y se sabe que causan infecciones entéricas y respiratorias. En las últimas dos décadas han emergido tres coronavirus humanos pandémicos, incluido el coronavirus 2 del síndrome agudo respiratorio grave (SARS-CoV-2) que ha causado la pandemia actual. El SARS-CoV-2 produce enfermedad respiratoria que se presenta con padecimientos moderados de las vías respiratorias altas, pero puede resultar en síndrome respiratorio agudo, falla multiorgánica y muerte, en especial en casos con morbilidad subyacente. Los casos de COVID-19 en niños representan un porcentaje bajo y con síntomas menos graves de la enfermedad. La mayoría de los pacientes pediátricos son asintomáticos o presentan enfermedad leve o moderada; sin embargo, también en niños la enfermedad puede ser grave, por lo que la infección con SARS-CoV-2 y la COVID-19 en pacientes pediátricos deben estudiarse con detalle. En esta revisión se describen las características generales de la biología molecular de los coronavirus y de las interacciones virus-hospedero que se conocen para los coronavirus humanos identificados previamente, y que podrían estar implicados en la patogénesis del SARS-CoV-2.

9.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 55(1): 61-77, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355550

ABSTRACT

Resumen En esta segunda parte de la actualización sobre estreptococos del grupo Streptococcus anginosus (EGA) se describen sus factores de virulencia y su sensibilidad a los antibióticos. Los EGA, pertenecientes al grupo de los estreptococos viridans (EGV), son colonizantes habituales de las mucosas orofaríngea, intestinal y genitourinaria, pero, cada vez más frecuentemente, son reconocidos como patógenos humanos. Entre sus factores de virulencia se han descripto enzimas como la hialuronidasa, la condroitín sulfatasa y las nucleasas (DNasas y RNasas). En algunas cepas se han detectado también exoenzimas superantigénicas homólogas a las de Streptococcus pyogenes. Es notable el rol de las hemolisinas (citolisinas), como la estreptolisina O y la intermedilisina, específica de Streptococcus intermedius, una de las tres especies que conforman el grupo. Los EGA presentan bajos porcentajes de no sensibilidad a los beta-lactámicos (penicilina: 0-15%, cefotaxima: 0-3% y carbapenemes: 0-3%) con muy pocas excepciones y muy pocos aislados resistentes. En cambio, son naturalmente resistentes al metronidazol y a los nitrofuranos. Se han informado porcentajes elevados de resistencia a macrólidos, clindamicina y tetraciclina (en algunos casos hasta más de 50%). La resistencia a las fluoroquinolonas es variable, pero muy baja para levofloxacina. Los EGA generalmente son sensibles a vancomicina y/o teicoplanina con concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas (CIM)≤1 μg/mL, aunque es destacable la descripción de unos pocos aislados con sensibilidad disminuida a vancomicina, uno de ellos portador del gen vanG. La resistencia a otros antibióticos se observó solo en forma esporádica.


Abstract This second part of the review about Streptococcus anginosus group streptococci (SAG) describes their virulence factors and their antimicrobial susceptibility. SAG are common colonizers of the oropharyngeal, intestinal, and genitourinary mucosa, but are increasingly recognized as human pathogens. Among their virulence factors, enzymes such as hyaluronidase, chondroitin sulfatase and nucleases (DNases and RNases) have been described. Superantigenic exoenzymes homologous to those of Streptococcus pyogenes have also been detected in some strains. The role of hemolysins (cytolysins) is notable, and specifically that of intermedilysin in Streptococcus intermedius, one of the three species of the group. SAG present low percentages of non-sensitivity to beta-lactams (penicillin: 0-15%, cefotaxime: 0 - 3% and carbapenems: 0-3%) with very few exceptions and very few resistant isolates. Instead, they are naturally resistant to metronidazole and nitrofurans. High percentages of resistance to macrolides, clindamycin and tetracycline have been reported (in some cases up to more than 50%). Fluoroquinolone resistance is variable, but it is very low for levofloxacin. SAG are generally susceptible to vancomycin and/or teicoplanin with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs)≤1 μg/mL, although the isolation of a few isolates with decreased sensitivity to vancomycin, one of them carrying the vanG gene, is notable. Resistance to other antibiotics was observed only sporadically.


Resumo Esta segunda parte da revisão sobre estreptococos do grupo Streptococcus anginosus (EGA) descreve seus fatores de virulência e sensibilidade aos antibióticos. Os EGAs, pertencentes ao grupo dos estreptococos viridans (EGV), são colonizadores comuns das mucosas orofaríngea, intestinal e geniturinária, mas são cada vez mais reconhecidos como patógenos humanos. Entre seus fatores de virulência, foram descritas enzimas como hialuronidase, condroitina sulfatase e nucleases (DNases e RNases). Exoenzimas superantigênicas homólogas às de Streptococcus pyogenes também foram detectadas em algumas cepas. O papel das hemolisinas (citolisinas), como a estreptolisina O e a intermedilisina, específica de Streptococcus intermedius, uma das três espécies que compõem o grupo é notável. Os EGAs apresentam baixo percentual de não sensibilidade aos betalactâmicos (penicilina: 0-15 %, cefotaxima: 0-3% e carbapenemas: 0-3%) com muito poucas exceções e muito poucos isolados resistentes. Em vez disso, são naturalmente resistentes ao metronidazol e aos nitrofuranos. Foram relatados altos percentuais de resistência aos macrólidos, clindamicina e tetraciclina (em alguns casos, até mais de 50%). A resistência às fluoroquinolonas é variável, mas muito baixa para a levofloxacina. Os EGAs são geralmente sensíveis à vancomicina e/ou teicoplanina com concentrações inibitórias mínimas (CIM)≤1 μg/ mL, embora seja notável a descrição de alguns isolados com sensibilidade reduzida à vancomicina, um deles portador do gene vanG. Resistência a outros antibióticos foi observada apenas esporadicamente.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910593

ABSTRACT

The intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) become the focus of clinical study because of the potential malignancy. Based on the latest clinical guidelines and relevant literatures, this review summarized the epidemiologic features, pathological and histological features, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiology examination, therapy and follow-up to better understand the diagnosis and treatment for IPMN.

11.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 507-527, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888744

ABSTRACT

The avian influenza A (H7N9) virus is a zoonotic virus that is closely associated with live poultry markets. It has caused infections in humans in China since 2013. Five waves of the H7N9 influenza epidemic occurred in China between March 2013 and September 2017. H7N9 with low-pathogenicity dominated in the first four waves, whereas highly pathogenic H7N9 influenza emerged in poultry and spread to humans during the fifth wave, causing wide concern. Specialists and officials from China and other countries responded quickly, controlled the epidemic well thus far, and characterized the virus by using new technologies and surveillance tools that were made possible by their preparedness efforts. Here, we review the characteristics of the H7N9 viruses that were identified while controlling the spread of the disease. It was summarized and discussed from the perspectives of molecular epidemiology, clinical features, virulence and pathogenesis, receptor binding, T-cell responses, monoclonal antibody development, vaccine development, and disease burden. These data provide tools for minimizing the future threat of H7N9 and other emerging and re-emerging viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Animals , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Poultry , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879957

ABSTRACT

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory oral mucosal disease with unclear etiology. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) is a type of autoimmune disease characterized by increased thyroid-specific antibodies. In recent years, more and more studies have found that the incidence of AITD is increased in OLP patients. The occurrence and development of OLP and AITD may be related to the expression of thyroid autoantigen in oral keratinocytes, the imbalance of thyroid hormone (Th)1/Th2 and Th17/Treg cell subsets, the abnormal quantity and function of follicular helper T cells and chemokines and the specific killing ability of CD8 T cells to target cells. In this article, the possible immune mechanisms involved in the coexistence of OLP and AITD are reviewed to provide insights for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these two diseases from the perspective of immunology.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Hashimoto Disease , Humans , Lichen Planus, Oral/complications , Mouth Mucosa , Th17 Cells
13.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1021-1024, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909447

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma (asthma) is a complex heterogeneous disease, with a high rate of missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. Repeated attacks of bronchial asthma can cause complications such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema, and pulmonary heart disease. In recent years, mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics has developed rapidly. It can sensitively identify metabolic fluctuations and pathological changes in patients with asthma. By analyzing the molecules produced by various metabolic pathways, it can help us to find relevant biomarkers and provide a better method for early diagnosis and severity assessment of asthma. We reviewed and analyzed the literature of metabolomics technology in disease progression, early diagnosis and severity assessment, so as to provide reference for asthma research.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909323

ABSTRACT

Cancer cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome characterized by muscle wasting, fat decomposition, unplanned weight loss, anorexia and immune dysfunction. Cachexia can significantly reduce the efficacy of antitumor therapies and increase treatment-related toxicity on cancer patients. It increases the symptom burden in patients, affects the quality of their life, ultimately shortens patients' survival. Lucubrating the pathogenesis of cachexia is of great significance to provide rationale treatment guidance. Here we reviewed the research progress on pathogenesis of cancer cachexia, including inflammatory response mediated by TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and STAT-3 and abnormal nutrition metabolism, as well as mitochondrial dysfunction.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908583

ABSTRACT

Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs), one type of the major eye diseases resulting in blindness, can be caused by more than 270 identified causative genes.The most common form of IRDs is retinitis pigmentosa.There is no generally accepted cure for vision impairment due to IRDs.In recent years, the first gene replacement therapy has been approved for the treatment of autosomal recessive IRDs.Because of the variety of pathogenesis, including gain-of-function and dominant-negative effects in addition to a few loss-of-function mutations, gene replacement therapy of autosomal dominant IRDs is not always effective.The clinical manifestations of autosomal dominant IRDs are extremely complex, and there is no appropriate treatment in clinical practice.The latest progresses in pathogenesis, clinical features, treatment strategies and directions of autosomal dominant IRDs globally were reviewed, and the most common genes causing autosomal dominant IRDs were summarized in this article in order to provide a deeper understanding of autosomal dominant IRDs.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908568

ABSTRACT

In adult orbital diseases, thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is of very high incidence rate, and it can seriously affect patients' appearance, eyesight and binocular visual function and so on, and significantly reduce the patients' quality of life.In addition to the common manifestations such as eyelid retraction, exophthalmos and strabismus, some TAO patients may suffer from obviously increased ocular pressure and even visual field damage, which are often ignored or missed in diagnosis and should be paid more attention to.The pathogenesis of elevated intraocular pressure in TAO is mainly related to the elevated episcleral venous pressure and the extraocular muscles.Because the elevated intraocular pressure resulted from TAO is secondary and its pathogenesis is complex, personalized treatment different from primary glaucoma therapy is needed.In this article, the epidemiology, pathogenesis and therapy of elevated intraocular pressure in TAO including medication, surgery, and radiotherapy were reviewed to provide reference for the clinical diagnosis and treatment for TAO.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908474

ABSTRACT

Portopulmonary hypertension is a rare and serious complication of portal hypertension, which is very easy to miss diagnosis in clinic, and relatively difficult to treat. The authors elaborate in depth of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of portopulmonary hypertension.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908050

ABSTRACT

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe developmental delay, intellectual disability, exuberant behavior with happy demeanor, speech impairment, and epileptic seizures.The loss of UBE3A allele on maternal chromosome 15q11-13 is the main cause of AS.However, the pathogenesis and genotype-phenotype of AS is not yet clear.This study aims to review the research progress of AS.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907987

ABSTRACT

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a common and critical complication in children with acute leukemia.Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is the most-common subtype of acute leukemia complica-ted with DIC.Although all-trans retinoic acid plus chemotherapy has significantly improved the overall survival of children with APL, the incidence of DIC-induced early mortality has not been improved.This review summarizes the advances on the pathogenesis and treatment of DIC in children with acute leukemia, aiming to provide evidences for clinical management.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907938

ABSTRACT

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the common causes of community-acquired pneumonia in preschool and school-age children.Although it is self-limited in some children, there are still some cases of refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia(RMPP), which are characterized by various intrapulmonary and extrapulmonary complications, such as the formation of bronchial mucus plugs, necrotizing pneumonia and so on, and even endanger the lives of children.In recent years, with the increase of morbidity of RMPP, some studies have shown that early use of corticosteroids can significantly relieve its clinical symptoms and improve prognosis.Therefore, it is essential to understand the pathogenesis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, identify the high risk factors for predicting RMPP and its associated complications, and then formulate relevant prediction scales.

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