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1.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 477-482, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920917

ABSTRACT

Primary intrahepatic stones (PIS) is a refractory disease with a high incidence rate in southwest China, and some patients still require surgery again or even more times after initial treatment. Many studies in recent years have shown that some specific flora can colonize in the intrahepatic bile duct, leading to chronic infection and inflammation of the biliary system, and these specific types of flora, called "stone-causing flora", can produce metabolites such as β-glucuronidase and play an important role in the formation of pigmented stones. This article analyzes the role of stone-causing flora in the pathogenesis of PIS, so as to provide more treatment options for PIS patients.

2.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 206-209, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913144

ABSTRACT

Sulforaphane is a phytochemical with a variety of biological activities that exists widely in Cruciferae plants. This article summarizes the recent experimental studies of sulforaphane in the treatment of various types of liver injury in China and globally and reviews the role and mechanism of sulforaphane in protecting against liver injury. Based on the experimental animal models of liver injury, this article summarizes the therapeutic effect of sulforaphane on the models of chemical liver injury, drug-induced liver injury, alcoholic liver injury, immunological liver injury, and ischemia/reperfusion liver injury and analyzes the mechanism of action of sulforaphane in improving experimental liver injury, so as to provide a reference for in-depth research on sulforaphane in protecting against liver injury.

3.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 201-205, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913143

ABSTRACT

The incidence rate of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing year by year, with limited treatment methods, and its pathogenesis is a research hotspot at present. In order to better clarify its pathogenesis, it is urgent to develop advanced, safe, and effective in vitro or in vivo models to understand and develop treatment strategies for this disease. This article reviews the in vitro models commonly used in the preclinical study of NAFLD and discusses their advantages and disadvantages, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the pathogenesis and treatment of NAFLD.

4.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 187-190, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913139

ABSTRACT

Liver cirrhosis is a liver disease caused by various factors and is characterized by diffuse fibrous hyperplasia, lobular structural damage, and pseudolobule formation. Bile duct proliferation has been observed in a variety of animal models of liver cirrhosis and patients with liver cirrhosis caused by different etiologies, and it is regulated by signaling pathways with the involvement of multiple regulatory factors such as neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, and hormones. Moreover, the proliferated bile ducts promote the formation of liver fibrosis by mediating the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells. This article summarizes the changes of the intrahepatic bile duct system in liver cirrhosis and its influence on the process of liver fibrosis, various signaling pathways associated with cholangiocyte proliferation and liver fibrosis, and the value of the dynamic evolution of bile duct structure in predicting the degree of liver fibrosis. It is pointed out that bile duct proliferation may become a potential target for the intervention of liver fibrosis, which provides new ideas and methods for early treatment and reversal of liver fibrosis.

5.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2177-2181, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942683

ABSTRACT

Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is a secreted glycoprotein originally purified from mouse kidney cells infected with simian virus 40 and plays a key role in the control of cellular homeostasis during inflammation and the response to cellular stress or injury, and it is considered a potential biomarker for rheumatic diseases, cancer, liver diseases, and inflammatory diseases. Studies have shown that LCN2 is expressed in hepatic parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells and is secreted into the bloodstream, and it is closely associated with the development and progression of acute liver injury, liver cirrhosis, viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. This article summarizes the animal experiments and clinical studies on the association of LCN2 with the pathogenesis of liver diseases, in order to provide new ideas and therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of liver diseases.

6.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2125-2129, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942673

ABSTRACT

Exosomes (EXOs) are formed by intracellular multivesicular bodies and carry a variety of biomacromolecules such as lipids, proteins, encoding and non-coding RNAs, and mitochondrial DNA. EXOs can be released in vivo by different cell types, including hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, and immune cells and play the role of intercellular communication. More and more studies have shown that EXOs are involved in the development, progression, and prognosis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and are expected to become potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of HBV-related HCC. This article reviews the role of EXOs in the host infection process of HBV and the importance of EXOs in the development, progression, and prognosis of CHB and HCC, in order to provide new ideas for the basic and clinical research in this field.

7.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 446-449, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933559

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of rosacea has not been fully elucidated. It is currently believed that genetic factors, local skin immune imbalance, neuroimmune and neurovascular dysfunction, skin barrier function abnormalities, microbiota imbalance, etc., are all involved in the occurrence and development of rosacea. This review summarizes research progress in the pathophysiological pathogenesis of rosacea.

8.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 196-199, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933536

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze clinical and pathological features of childhood perforating pilomatricoma, and to explore its pathogenesis.Methods:A retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical and histopathological data from 29 children with perforating pilomatricoma in Department of Dermatology, Beijing Children′s Hospital from 2014 to 2020.Results:Among the 29 patients, 11 were males, and 18 were females, with a male-to-female ratio of 1∶1.64. Their age at onset ranged from 3 months to 14 years and 10 months, and the median age at onset was 4.58 years. The disease duration ranged from 2 months to 2 years, with an average of 8.72 months. The perforation occurred 2 days to 1 year and 6 months after the onset of pilomatricoma, with an average of 1.85 months. Ulceration occurred in 1 patient after the treatment with ichthammol, as well as in 3 patients after local scratching or bumping, and spontaneous ulceration without definite precipitating factors occurred in the remaining 25 patients. The average duration from the onset of disease to tumor perforation was 6.87 months. Skin lesions occurred on the face in 15 cases, on the lateral neck in 8, on the upper limb in 4, as well as on the scalp in 2. Perforating pilomatricoma clinically manifested as indurated subcutaneous nodules with crusts or ulcers, and was classified into 3 subtypes: ulcerative type (19 cases) , horny type (8 cases) , and crusted type (2 cases) . The tumor diameter ranged from 0.3 to 2.5 cm, with an average of 1.2 cm. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor was located in the superficial to middle dermis, and mainly consisted of basophils and ghost cells; in 19 cases, the tumor mass was extruded onto the skin surface through a perforated epidermal channel, and the epidermis around the perforation site was hyperplastic and invaginated into the dermis, forming epithelial tunnels surrounding the tumor; in 4 cases, the skin on the tumor surface was thinned and ruptured; in 6 cases, the perforation site could not be observed due to surgical separation of the epidermis and tumor. All lesions were resected, and no infection or recurrence was observed during the postoperative follow-up.Conclusions:Childhood perforating pilomatricoma mostly occurs on the face and neck, usually with rapid progress, and can be classified into ulcerative type, horny type and crusted type. Histological findings suggest that transepithelial elimination is an important mechanism underlying the occurrence of perforation in pilomatricoma.

9.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 110-115, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933520

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate clinicopathological features of hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF) and hypopigmented interface T-cell dyscrasia (HITCD) .Methods:A total of 41 patients with cutaneous hypopigmented lymphoproliferative diseases, who had complete clinicopathological data, were collected from Department of Dermatology, the Third People′s Hospital of Hangzhou from January 2015 to September 2020, and the clinicopathological and immunophenotypic features were analyzed. Comparisons of normally distributed measurement data were carried out using t test, comparisons of categorical data using Chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test, and comparisons of ranked data between 2 groups using rank-sum test. Results:All of the 41 patients clinically presented with irregular hypopigmentation, some of which was accompanied by erythema or furfuraceous scales. In terms of pathological features, 21 patients showed infiltration and aggregation of atypical lymphoid cells in the epidermis, which was consistent with typical pathological features of mycosis fungoides, and they were diagnosed with HMF; 20 patients showed vacuolar degeneration of the basal layer, accompanied by infiltration of lymphoid cells and mild epidermotropism, and they were diagnosed with HITCD. All immune cells expressed T-cell phenotype, and epidermal lymphocytes expressed a CD8-dominated phenotype in 14 (67%) cases of HMF and 13 (65%) of HITCD. In the epidermis, the total number of lymphocytes was significantly higher in the HMF group than in the HITCD group ( t= 1.81, P= 0.012) ; in the dermis, the number of CD4 + lymphocytes and CD8 + lymphocytes, and the total number of lymphocytes were all significantly higher in the HMF group than in the HITCD group ( t= 2.64, 1.51, 2.60, P= 0.012, 0.002, 0.001, respectively) . All patients were treated with narrow-band ultraviolet B radiation. Among 34 patients who completed the follow-up, 30 achieved complete clearance of skin lesions without recurrence, including all patients with HITCD, and 4 with HMF achieved partial regression of the lesions. Conclusions:Compared with HMF, HITCD presents different pathological characteristics and benign biological behaviors. Thus, HITCD should be distinguished from HMF as an independent disease. Phototherapy alone is effective for the treatment of HITCD.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933506

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate clinicopathological features and prognosis of transformed mycosis fungoides (TMF) .Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed on clinicopathological data collected from 24 patients with TMF, as well as on flow cytometry results of 16 peripheral blood samples obtained from 11 of the 24 patients, who visited Hospital of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences between 2014 and 2020.Results:Among the 24 patients, 11 were males and 13 were females. Their average age at diagnosis of TMF was 50.0 years (range: 18 - 77 years), and patients with early-stage TMF (9 cases) and tumor-stage TMF (15 cases) were aged 44.8 and 52.6 years on average, respectively. The average time interval from diagnosis of MF to large cell transformation was 3.7 years, and 8 patients were diagnosed with TMF at the initial visit. Histopathologically, large cells infiltrated in a diffuse pattern in 20 cases, as well as in a multifocal pattern in 4, and the proportion of large cells in 7 cases was greater than 75%. Immunohistochemically, 18 patients showed positive staining for CD30, and the proportion of CD30-positive large cells was greater than 75% in 9; negative staining for CD30 was observed in 6. Flow cytometry of 16 peripheral blood samples showed the presence of cell subsets expressing clonal T cell receptor (TCR) -vβ in 2 of 4 patients with early-stage TMF and 10 of 12 with tumor-stage TMF, and tumor cells with higher forward scatter than normal lymphocytes were detected in 16 samples. During the follow-up, among the patients with early-stage TMF, 3 progressed to tumor-stage TMF 3.3 years on average after large cell transformation, 1 progressed to erythrodermic MF in stage IIIA, and the other 4 still showed an indolent course; among the patients with tumor-stage TMF, 1 progressed to stage-IV TMF, and 5 died 3.3 (1.5 - 6) years after large cell transformation.Conclusion:Large cell transformation may occur in patients with MF in any stage, some patients have poor prognosis, so close follow-up is needed for patients with TMF.

11.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 951-955, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923316

ABSTRACT

The incidence and mortality rates of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) are increasing constantly, and it is of great importance to explore new therapeutic targets. Ferroptosis, a unique pattern of cell death caused by iron-dependent cellular oxidative injury, is closely associated with iron metabolism and oxidative stress imbalance in cancer and has become a research hotspot in the field of tumor. This article introduces the mechanism of ferroptosis and the research advances in ferroptosis involved in the development and progression of CCA, and it is pointed out that the regulatory mechanism of ferroptosis has an important clinical value in the malignant progression of CCA.

12.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 927-930, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923311

ABSTRACT

Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), as one of the main components of atmospheric particulate matter, has become an important factor affecting people's health; however, there are relatively few studies on the association of PM2.5 with the development and progression of liver cancer. This article reviews the epidemiological study of PM2.5 and liver cancer, summarizes the mechanisms of PM2.5 causing liver cancer (including changing enzyme activity, affecting gene expression, inducing endoplasmic mesh stress, causing liver fat degeneration, and leading to liver fibrosis), and discusses the influence of PM2.5 exposure on the prognosis of liver cancer.

13.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 865-871, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923294

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of Yipi Yanggan prescription on the malignant transformation of liver stem cells in liver precancerous lesion induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and its possible molecular mechanism. Methods A total of 35 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control group (blank group), DEN model group (model group), DEN+Yipi Yanggan prescription group (Yipi Yanggan prescription group), and DEN+Hugan tablet group (Hugan tablet group), with 5 rats in the blank group and 10 rats in the other three groups. Intraperitoneal injection of DEN was performed to establish a model of liver precancerous lesion, the rats were sacrificed after 16 weeks of administration. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and albumin (Alb) were measured; liver tissue was collected to observe the changes in size and appearance and calculate liver weight ratio (liver index); HE staining and Sirius Red staining were used to observe the pathological and morphological changes of rat liver tissue; immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expression of OV6 and glutathione S-transferase-Pi (GST-Pi); RT-PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of EpCAM, CD133, and CD90, and Western blot was used to measure the protein expression of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR and their phosphorylation level. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups, and the least significant difference t -test was used for further comparison between two groups. Results Compared with the model group, the Yipi Yanggan prescription group and the Hugan tablet group had significant improvements in liver pathology and morphology, significant reductions in liver index and the levels of ALT and AST, and a significant increase in the level of Alb (all P < 0.05), as well as significant reductions in the protein expression levels of GST-Pi, OV6, p-PI3K, p-Akt, and p-mTOR and the mRNA expression levels of EpCAM, CD133, and CD90 (all P < 0.05). Compared with the Hugan tablet group, the Yipi Yanggan prescription group showed a more significant protective effect on the liver, with significant reductions in liver index and the levels of ALT and AST, and a significant increase in the level of Alb (all P < 0.05), as well as significant reductions in the protein expression levels of GST-Pi, OV6, p-PI3K, p-Akt, and p-mTOR and the mRNA expression levels of EpCAM, CD133, and CD90 (all P < 0.05). Conclusion Yipi Yanggan prescription can improve liver precancerous lesion induced by DEN in rats by inhibiting the malignant transformation of liver stem cells, and its mechanism of action may be associated with the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

14.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 754-758, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923272

ABSTRACT

The etiology and pathogenesis of autoimmune liver diseases has always been a hot area of research. Pathogen infections can elicit an autoimmune response and often become the key pathogenic factor of immune diseases. Based on the literature data and the author's clinical experience, this review will briefly introduce the role and influence of pathogen infections in the development and progression of autoimmune liver diseases from the aspects such as molecular mimicry mechanism, in order to further understand the pathogenesis of autoimmune liver diseases.

15.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 743-747, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923270

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an immune-mediated liver disease with hepatocytes as the main target cells. It is characterized by the high immunoglobulin G level and the presence of autoantibodies, and histological observation shows interface hepatitis at the portal area caused by a large amount of lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. The pathogenesis of AIH has not been fully elucidated. At present, glucocorticoid combined with azathioprine is mainly used as non-specific immunosuppressive therapy, and most patients tend to have good response; however, rebound or relapse is often observed during dose reduction or after drug withdrawal, so most patients need long-term maintenance therapy. This article briefly reviews the advances in the pathogenesis of AIH and the potential new targets for clinical intervention, in order to provide a reference for clinical translational research.

16.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 671-675, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922978

ABSTRACT

Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) is an increase in pulmonary artery pressure that occurs on the basis of portal hypertension. As a member of the BMP family, bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) not only has the osteogenic activity, but can also protect endothelial integrity and maintain vascular homeostasis. This article reviews the pathogenesis of POPH, the physiological expression and role of BMP9, and related research advances in the BMP9 signaling pathway and its involvement in pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling, thereby exploring the possibility of BMP9 as a new biomarker for POPH to assist in the diagnosis of POPH.

17.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 660-665, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922976

ABSTRACT

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of childbearing age, with the clinical manifestations of oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism, and anovulatory infertility, and it is often accompanied by metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. Women with PCOS often have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and other metabolic-associated diseases, and PCOS and NAFLD are related in terms of pathogenesis and treatment. This article reviews the research advances in PCOS with NAFLD in recent years.

18.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1208-1211., 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876670

ABSTRACT

With the development of genetics and molecular biology, the research on acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) has been gradually deepened, and its complication hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has attracted more and more attention. This article mainly summarizes the research advances in the pathogenesis and prevention of HCC in AIP. The pathogenesis of AIP with HCC is associated with oxidative stress, p53 mutation, downregulation of Bcl-2, increase in inflammatory cytokines, and iron overload, and its prevention strategies include the use of statins, strict management, liver transplantation, gene therapy, and enzyme replacement therapy. This article reviews the latest advances in the pathogenesis and prevention of AIP with HCC.

19.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 962-964, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875913

ABSTRACT

Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (PA-HSOS) is a type of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome mainly caused by the intake of Chinese herbal medicine or food containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This article reviews the recent research advances in the mechanism of action of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their metabolites in disease development and progression from the aspects of drug factors, host factors, and influencing factors. It is pointed out that PA-HSOS has complex pathogenesis and various influencing factors, and some patients tend to have a poor prognosis; its pathogenesis remains unclear and needs further in-depth studies.

20.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 765-769 (in Chinese), 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875884

ABSTRACT

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a type of severe clinical syndrome which occurs on the basis of chronic liver diseases and has the main clinical features of acute liver decompensation, extrahepatic organ damage, and high short-term mortality rate. The underlying diseases of chronic liver diseases are mainly alcoholic hepatitis and chronic hepatitis C in Western countries, while chronic hepatitis B is the main underlying disease of chronic liver diseases in China and the Asia-Pacific region. Although there are differences in underlying liver diseases between the East and the West, the common pathological basis of most ACLF patients is usually liver fibrosis or cirrhosis caused by long-term chronic liver injury. At present, the research on ACLF has been widely carried out all over the world; however, due to the differences in region, population, and disease triggers, no consensus has been reached on the definition, diagnostic criteria, and disease management of ACLF between the East and the West. This article elaborates on the definition, pathogenesis, and management of ACLF, in order to provide clinicians with new therapeutic strategies that would improve the prognosis of ACLF.

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