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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e234413, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249269

ABSTRACT

Abstract The viscera and other residues from fish processing are commonly discarded by the fishing industry. These by-products can be a source of digestive enzymes with industrial and biotechnological potential. In this study, we aimed at the extraction, characterization, and application of acidic proteases from the stomach of Carangoides bartholomaei (Cuvier, 1833). A crude extract from the stomachs was obtained and submitted to a partial purification process by salting-out, which obtained a Purified Extract (PE) with a specific proteolytic activity of 54.0 U⋅mg-1. A purification of 1.9 fold and a yield of 41% were obtained. The PE presents two isoforms of acidic proteases and a maximum proteolytic activity at 45 °C and pH 2.0. The PE acidic proteolytic activity was stable in the pH range of 1.5 to 7.0 and temperature from 25 °C to 50 °C. Purified Extract kept 35% of its proteolytic activity at the presence of NaCl 15% (m/v) but was totally inhibited by pepstatin A. Purified Extract aspartic proteases presented high activity in the presence of heavy metals such as Cd2+, Hg2+, Pb2+, Al3+, and Cu2+. The utilization of PE as an enzymatic addictive in the collagen extraction from Nile tilapia scales has doubled the process yield. The results indicate the potential of these aspartic proteases for industrial and biotechnological applications.


Resumo As vísceras e outros resíduos do processamento de peixes são geralmente descartados pela indústria pesqueira. Esses resíduos podem ser uma fonte de enzimas digestivas com potencial industrial e biotecnológico. Neste estudo, objetivamos a extração, caracterização e aplicação de proteases aspárticas do estômago de Carangoides bartholomaei (Cuvier, 1833). Um extrato bruto do estômago foi obtido e submetido a um processo de purificação parcial, que obteve um Extrato Purificado (EP) com uma atividade proteolítica específica de 54,0 U⋅mg-1. Foi obtida uma purificação de 1,9 vezes e um rendimento de 41%. O EP apresenta duas isoformas de proteases ácidas e atividade proteolítica máxima a 45 °C e pH 2,0. A atividade proteolítica do EP foi estável na faixa de pH de 1,5 a 7,0 e temperatura de 25 °C a 50 °C. O EP manteve 35% de sua atividade proteolítica na presença de NaCl a 15% (m/v), mas foi totalmente inibida pela pepstatina A. As proteases ácidas do EP apresentaram alta atividade na presença de metais pesados como o Cd2+, Hg2+, Pb2+, Al3+ e Cu2+. A utilização de EP como aditivo enzimático na extração de colágeno a partir de escamas de tilápia do Nilo dobrou o rendimento do processo. Os resultados indicam um potencial dessas proteases para aplicações industriais e biotecnológicas


Subject(s)
Peptide Hydrolases , Stomach , Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
2.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 25(2): 273-278, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286747

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Twenty-four-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance with double probe pH monitoring (MII-pH), though considered the most sensitive tool for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is invasive, time consuming, not widely available, and unable to detect non-acid reflux. In contrast, the presence of pepsin in the saliva would act as a marker for reflux, considering that pepsin is only produced in the stomach. Objective To evaluate the predictive value of salivary pepsin in diagnosing laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) as suggested by the results of reflux symptom index (RSI > 13), reflux finding score (RFS > 7), and positive response to treatment with a 4-week course of proton-pump inhibitors. Methods This prospective study was done at a tertiary care hospital on 120 adult patients attending ENT OPD with clinical diagnosis of LPR. The presence of pepsin in their pharyngeal secretions and saliva using a lateral flow device, the Peptest, was compared with RSI, RFS, and with the response to medical treatment using the Chi-squared test. Results Salivary pepsin was found to be positive in 68% of the patients, with 87.5% of them showing positive response to treatment. Chi-squared analysis showed a significant association between positive salivary pepsin and RFS > 7, RSI >13, a combination of RFS > 7 and RSI > 13 as well as with response to treatment (p < 0.0001). Conclusion When considered along with the clinical indicators of RFS and RSI of more than 7 and 13, respectively, and/or with a response to treatment, a positive salivary pepsin test indicates statistically significant chance of presence of LPR.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1453-1459, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887086

ABSTRACT

Galli Gigerii Endothelium Corneum (GGEC) represents digestion-promoting medicines with measurable effects and extensive clinical application. However, its effective components are not clear. The quality control index in the current edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia is rather elementary and does not reflect its clinical efficacy. In this study, a bioassay method based on pepsin activity was proposed as a novel quality control method. With pepsin activity as the evaluation index, the extraction of GGEC was optimized and a method for the determination of biological potency was established by using the qualitative reaction parallel line method. The biological potency and consistency of 20 batches of GGEC were investigated. To provide scientific evidence in support of this bioassay method, two validation experiments were designed. One was to study the viscosity-reducing activity of a nutritional semi-solid paste after adding GGEC samples with differing potency. The other was to correlate the gastric residual rate in mice and pepsin activity with the alcohol soluble extract content. The results showed that the optimal preparation method was to dilute crude powder of GGEC with 50 volumes of water and subject to ultrasonic extraction at 300 W and 40 kHz for 0.5 h. The shape of the dose-response curve was similar to that of the positive control drug multienzyme tablets and the precision, intermediate precision and repeatability met the methodology requirements. The results showed that the potency of 20 batches of samples ranged from 13.49 to 34.69 U·mg-1, with an average value of 22.21 U·mg-1. The validation experiment demonstrated that the effect of reducing the viscosity of the nutrient paste became more significant as GGEC sample potency increased. The correlation coefficient R of gastric residual rate with pepsin potency and alcohol soluble extract content was 0.867 and 0.518, respectively, which indicated that the pepsin potency was highly correlated with in vivo activity. This study shows that a bioassay method based on pepsin activity is reliable and reproducible for GGEC and could provide reference method for the quality evaluation of other digestant herbs.

4.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 51(4): e20200560, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153881

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) application on whey protein concentrate was evaluated both before (pre-treatment - PT) and during (hydrolysis assisted - HA) hydrolysis processes. A factorial design 22 with 3 central points was used with pressure (100, 250, 400 MPa) and time (5, 20 and 35 minutes) as independent variables. The hydrolysis was evaluated and monitored by soluble protein, aromatic amino acid contents and RP-HPLC. ABTS and ORAC tests were used to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant capacity. The reduction of soluble protein content was approximately 20% for conventional hydrolysis and for all PT treatments up to 4 h of reaction, while HHP assisted hydrolysis at 100 MPa showed a 35% protein reduction after 35 minutes of reaction. In addition, pressurization favored peptic hydrolysis of β-lactoglobulin by up to 98% and also improved the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the hydrolysates, which increased from 34.25 to 60.89 μmoles TE g-1 of protein in the best treatment. The results suggest that the use of HHP assisted hydrolysis favored the peptic hydrolysis, with a reduction in hydrolysis time and increased antioxidant activity.


RESUMO: Neste estudo, o efeito da aplicação de alta pressão hidrostática (HHP) sobre o concentrado proteico de soro de leite foi avaliado antes (pré-tratamento - PT) e durante os processos de hidrólise (assistida por hidrólise - HA). Utilizou-se o delineamento fatorial 22 com três pontos centrais, onde as variáveis independentes foram pressão (100, 250, 400 MPa) e tempo (5, 20 e 35 minutos). A hidrólise foi avaliada pelo conteúdo de proteínas solúveis e aminoácidos aromáticos, além do perfil peptídico por RP-HPLC. As análises de ABTS e ORAC foram utilizadas para avaliar a capacidade antioxidante in vitro. A redução do teor de proteína solúvel foi de aproximadamente 20% para a hidrólise convencional e para todos os pontos de PT até 4h de reação, enquanto a hidrólise assistida por HHP a 100 MPa mostrou uma redução de 35% de proteína em 35 minutos de reação. Além disso, a pressurização favoreceu a hidrólise péptica da β-lactoglobulina em até 98% e também melhorou a capacidade antioxidante in vitro dos hidrolisados, que aumentaram de 34,25 para 60,89 μmoles de TE g-1 de proteína no melhor tratamento. Os resultados sugerem que o uso da hidrólise assistida por HHP favoreceu a hidrólise péptica, com redução no tempo de hidrólise e aumento da atividade antioxidante.

5.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 393-401, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826969

ABSTRACT

Intraoperative aspiration is a common pulmonary complication in the surgery, anesthesia and position were main factors leading to the operative aspiration. In recent years, perioperative lung protection has attracted wide attention of thoracic surgeons and anesthetist; how to accelerate the process of postoperative rehabilitation, reduce the incidence of related complications and significantly improve the prognosis of patients, these have become a chief goal of surgical treatment. This article will center on operative aspiration and summarize it from anatomy, pathophysiology, manifestation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

6.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 50(4): e20190577, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101077

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Essential oils of plants whose main compound is citral showed beneficial effects when added to fish feed. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the dietary effect of the addition of citral on zootechnical parameters and digestive enzyme activities of Centropomus undecimalis. Juveniles were fed for 45 days with diets containing different amounts of citral (0.0 - control, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mL per kg of diet). The water quality parameters were kept stable during the experiment and no mortality was observed. At the end of the experimental period, the treatment 0.5 mL citral per kg of diet had the lowest weight gain and specific growth rate, and the highest feed conversion, while the same parameters did not differ between the other treatments. Pepsin activity was higher in the stomach of fish fed with 0.5 mL citral per kg of diet and amylase activity was higher in the intestine of fish fed with 0.5 and 2.0 mL citral per kg of diet compared to the control group. Intestinal lipase activity was higher in all groups that were fed with citral compared to the control group. Chymotrypsin and trypsin activities showed no difference between groups. Consequently, dietary addition of citral at any of the levels tested is not recommended for common snook.


RESUMO: Óleos essenciais de plantas, cujo composto majoritário é o citral, mostraram efeitos benéficos quando adicionados à ração para peixes. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da adição de citral sobre os parâmetros zootécnicos e atividades das enzimas digestivas de Centropomus undecimalis. Os juvenis foram alimentados por 45 dias com dietas contendo diferentes quantidades de citral (0,0 - controle, 0,5, 1,0 e 2,0 mL por kg de ração). Os parâmetros de qualidade da água foram mantidos estáveis ​​durante o experimento e nenhuma mortalidade foi observada. Ao final do período experimental, o tratamento 0,5 mL citral por kg de ração teve o menor ganho de peso e taxa de crescimento específico e a maior conversão alimentar, enquanto os mesmos parâmetros não diferiram entre os demais tratamentos. A atividade da pepsina foi maior no estômago de peixes alimentados com 0,5 mL de citral por kg de ração e a atividade de amilase foi maior no intestino de peixes alimentados com 0,5 e 2,0 mL citral por kg de ração comparado ao grupo controle. A atividade da lipase intestinal foi maior em todos os grupos que foram alimentados com citral, em comparação ao grupo controle. As atividades de quimotripsina e tripsina não mostraram diferença entre os grupos. Consequentemente, a adição de citral na ração em qualquer um dos níveis testados não é recomendada para robalo flecha.

7.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 946-950, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the protective effect and mechanism of Miao medicine Liangjiang weiyang capsule on gastric ulcer model rats. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into normal group (normal saline), model group (normal saline), positive control group (omeprazole, 0.02 g/kg) and Liangjiang weiyang capsule low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose groups (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 g/kg), with 12 rats in each group. All rats were intragastrically administered once a day for consecutive one week. 1 h after last administration, all rats except those in normal group were given the absolute ethanol to induce gastric ulcer model. 1 h after modeling, gastric juice volume, gastric juice pH, pepsin activity, gastric ulcer area and inhibitory rate of gastric ulcer were recorded in each group. Histopathological changes of gastric mucosa in rats of each group were observed by HE staining. The serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were determined by ELISA. The expression of nuclear factor-κB pathway related protein (p-NF-κB p65, p-IκBα) in gastric tissue of rats were determined by Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with normal group, gastric juice volume, pepsin activity, gastric ulcer area, TNF-α and IL-6 levels in serum, p-NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα levels in the gastric tissue were significantly increased/rised (P<0.05), while gastric juice pH was significantly decreased (P<0.01); there were gastric mucosal hyperemia and redness, obvious defect of mucosal epithelial cells, destruction of gland structure and incomplete cell structure. Compared with model group, gastric juice volume, pepsin activity, gastric ulcer area and the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were reduced/decreased significantly in positive control group, Liangjiang weiyang capsule medium-dose and high-dose groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while pH value of gastric juice was increased significantly (P<0.05); gastric mucosa was normal, gland destruction was alleviated and cell structure was intact. The levels of p-NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα in gastric tissue were significantly decreased in Liangjiang weiyang capsule high-dose groups (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Liangjiang weiyang capsule play a role to protect gastric ulcer by increasing gastric juice pH, inhibiting pepsin activity, reducing the release of inflammatory factors as TNF-α, IL-6 and inhibiting the expression of NF-κB pathway related protein.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800402

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To establish a New Zealand rabbit animal model of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD) using esophageal balloon together with metal internal stent dilation and to investigate the changes of mucosa.@*Methods@#20 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into experimental group and control group, with 10 in each group. Balloon dilatation and metal internal stent dilation were carried out in experimental group to reproduce the animal model of LPRD.The middle of balloon was placed at the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) while the stent was placed at the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). The guide wire was placed in the control group, but the balloon was not expanded and the stent was not placed. The general condition, pH value of hypopharynx, laryngeal histopathology and changes of pepsin content of New Zealand rabbits were observed regularly. The difference between experimental group and control group was compared.@*Results@#The 24-hour Dx-pH monitoring results showed that the number of reflux episodes(20.0[9.5, 35.0], 13.0[6.5, 22.0]), and the percent time below pH 5.5 (1.36%[0.60%, 4.57%], 1.36%[0.43%, 2.77%]) in the experimental group at the 2nd and 4th week were significantly different from those in the control group (0[0,3.0], 1.0[0.5, 3.8]; 0[0, 0.01%], 0[0, 0], respectively, all P<0.01), suggesting that the experimental group New Zealand rabbits developed LPRD. Compared with the control group under microscope, lymphocytes infiltration and submucosal gland hyperplasia increased in the mucosa of the throat of the experimental group. The results of pepsin immunohistochemical staining between the two groups were statistically significant (P=0.014).@*Conclusion@#The use of balloon dilatation of the LES combined with metal stent dilatation of the UES can successfully establish a laryngopharyngeal reflux model, and lesions in the throat tissue can be observed.

9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180107, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975878

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to compare two in vitro erosion protocols, in which one simulates in vivo conditions experienced by patients with gastroesophageal disorders or bulimia (HCl-pepsin protocol), and the other simulates the diet of an individual who consumes a high volume of erosive beverages (citric acid protocol). In addition, the mechanical properties and surface gloss of eroded human dentin were compared with those of sound human dentin. Materials and Methods Blocks of cervical dentin were used: sound human dentin (n=10), human dentin with erosive lesions (n=10), and bovine dentin (n=30). Twenty bovine blocks were subjected to either of two erosion protocols (n=10/protocol). In the first protocol, samples were demineralized using HCl-pepsin solution, then treated with trypsin solution. In the second protocol, samples were demineralized with 2% citric acid. Toothbrushing was performed in both protocols using a toothbrushing machine (15 s with a 150 g load). Ten bovine dentin blocks were not subjected to any erosive treatment. All samples of bovine and human dentin were analyzed to obtain Martens hardness values (MH), elastic modulus (Eit*) and surface gloss. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were performed to analyze the data (α=0.05). Results Sound human and eroded human dentin groups showed similar MH and Eit* values (p>0.05); however, sound human dentin showed a higher surface gloss value when compared to eroded human dentin (p<0.05). Sound bovine dentin and HCl-pepsin-treated bovine dentin treatments resulted in similar values for both MH and Eit* (p>0.05), but HCl-pepsin-treated bovine dentin and citric acid-treated bovine dentin resulted in lower surface gloss than sound bovine dentin (p<0.05). Conclusions The HCl-pepsin protocol modified bovine dentin properties that could be similar to those that occur on human dentin surfaces with erosive lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Dentin/drug effects , Reference Values , Surface Properties/drug effects , Tooth Erosion/etiology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Pepsin A/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Citric Acid/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Elastic Modulus , Hardness Tests
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the content of pepsin in salivary, and to assess the laryngophargeal lesions based on the reflux founding score (RFS) scale in asymptomatic volunteers, in order to provide a reference for the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux.@*METHODS@#A total of 91 asymptomatic subjects were recruited in this study. Participants provided a fasting saliva specimen for pepsin measurement using enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay, completed the reflux symptom index (RSI) assessment and underwent laryngostroboscopic examination using a rigid endoscope. Their RFS were graded according to the laryngeal findings.@*RESULTS@#The median concentration of pepsin in 91 asymptomatic volunteers was 55.5 μg/L (range 3.53-191.64 μg/L). The mean individuals RSI was 2.24±2.34, and the mean individuals RFS was 5.78±1.74.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our data demonstrate that certain concentration of pepsin was detected and showed a higher RFS score in asymptomatic volunteers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux , Diagnosis , Laryngoscopy , Pepsin A , Saliva , Chemistry , Volunteers
11.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 408-411, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-700843

ABSTRACT

Objective At present,there are relatively few studies on the application of pepsin in the diagnosis of laryngopha -ryngeal reflux disease(LPRD)in China.This paper aimed to evaluate the application value of Peptest in the diagnosis of LPRD by measuring saliva/sputum pepsin in patients with chronic pharyngitis. Methods From January to June 2017,35 patients with chronic pharyngitis treated in our department were selected to undertake electronic laryngoscopy and evaluated by reflux finding score(RFS) and reflux symptom index(RSI)scoring.The patients'saliva/sputum samples were collected three times for pepsin concentration de-tection(PEPTEST).The first collection was before mouthwash in the morning,the second was 1h after lunch,and the third was the time of evident symptoms.Comparative research was carried out on the above results. Results The average RSI score and RFS score were11.31±6.21 and 5.97±1.98.The pepsin content in morning saliva/sputum[26.80(0,109.80)ng/mL]was significantly lower than that at 1 h after lunch[89.00(16.0,254.8)ng/mL]and that at the time of obvious symptoms[105.70(34.3,254.8)ng/mL](P<0.05).The area under ROC of Peptest in the morning[0.759(0.602, 0.917)],1h after lunch[0.824(0.670,0.978)], at the time of ob-vious symptoms were all greater than the combination of RSI and RFS, representing significant statistical differences(P<0.05). Conclusion Compared with traditional method(a combination of RSI and RFS),Peptest has more important clinical value in the diag-nosis of LPRD.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-696440

ABSTRACT

Laryngopharyngeal reflux is an independent disease that affects the quality of life in children,but its pathogenesis is not clear and its diagnostic criteria is not unified.With the reports of laryngopharyngeal reflux continuing to emerge in recent years,this study aims to review the progress in pathogenesis,diagnosis and treatment of laryngopharyngeal reflux in children.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-693716

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the clinical effect of Futongning Granules for the treatment of functional abdominal pain in children. Methods A total of 187 children with functional abdominal pain were randomized into treatment group(N = 122)and control group(N = 65). The treatment group was treated with Futongning Granules and the control group was treated with Compound Pepsin Powder. The gastrointestinal syndrome scores of the two groups were observed, and the short-term and long-term clinical efficacy of the two groups was evaluated after treatment. Results (1)The total effective rate and the effective rate for syndromes of abdominal internal cold, spleen-stomach deficiency cold, indigestion induced by milk and food stagnation, liver-Qi stagnation, blood collateral obstruction, gastrointestinal heat stagnation in the treatment group were 92.3%, 92.9%, 95.0%, 95.2%, 90.3%, 85.7%, 90.0%, and those in the control group were 71.0%, 69.2%, 69.2%, 86.7%, 66.7%, 50.0%, 60.0%, respectively. The total effective rate and the effective rate for various syndromes in the treatment group were superior to those of the control group (P < 0.05). (2) After treatment, gastrointestinal syndrome scores of various syndromes and overall scores in the two groups were obviously decreased(P<0.05 or P<0.01 compared with those before treatment), and the decrease in the treatment group was superior to that in the control group (P < 0.05). (3) The results of 6-month follow-up showed that the clinical efficacy during the follow-up in the treatment group was better than that in the control group(P < 0.05), and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Futongning Granules exert certain effect for the treatment of functional abdominal pain in children, and are effective for significantly relieving clinical symptoms and reducing the recurrence of disease.

14.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 16(4)out. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-964154

ABSTRACT

Digestive proteases were partially characterized in sheepshead juveniles, using biochemical and electrophoretic techniques. Results showed higher activity level of the stomach proteases (2.39 ± 0.02 U mg protein-1) compared to the intestinal proteases (1.6 ± 0.1 U mg protein-1). The activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, leucine aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase A was also recorded. The optimum temperature of the stomach proteases was recorded at 45 °C, while for intestinal proteases was recorded at 55 °C. Stomach proteases showed less stability to temperature changes than intestinal proteases. An optimum pH of 2 was recorded for stomach proteases with high stability under acidic conditions, while an optimum pH of 9 was recorded for intestinal proteases showing high stability under alkaline conditions. Stomach proteases were inhibited around 78% with Pepstatin A, indicating the presence of pepsin as the main protease. The stomach proteases zymogam revealed one active band with Rf of 0.49, this enzyme was completely inhibited by Pepstatin A. The intestinal proteases zymogram revealed four active proteases (51.3, 34.9, 27.8 and 21.2 kDa) that were inhibited by TLCK, which mainly represent a trypsin-like serine proteases. It can be conclude that digestion in sheepshead can be considered as a carnivorous species with an omnivorous tendency.(AU)


Se caracterizaron parcialmente las proteasas digestivas de juveniles del sargo, utilizando técnicas bioquímicas y electroforéticas. Los resultados muestran mayores niveles de actividad en las proteasas estomacales (2.39 ± 0.02 U mg proteina-1) comparados con los de las proteasas intestinales (1.6 ± 0.1 U mg protein-1), también se registró la actividad de tripsina, quimotripsina, leucina aminopeptidasa y carboxipeptidasa A. La temperatura óptima de las proteasas estomacales fue de 45 °C, mientras que la de las proteasas intestinales fue de 55 °C. El pH óptimo fue de 2 para las proteasas estomacales con alta estabilidad a condiciones ácidas, mientras que el pH óptimo para las proteasas intestinales fue de 9, mostrando una alta estabilidad en condiciones alcalinas. Las actividades de las proteasas estomacales fue inhibida en un 78% con Pepstatina A, lo que indica la presencia de pepsina, como principal proteasa. El zimograma de proteasas estomacales reveló una sola banda con actividad proteasa, con Rf de 0.49, completamente inhibida por Pepstatina A. El zimograma de proteasas intestinales reveló cuatro bandas (51.3, 34.9, 27.8 y 21.2 kDa). Todas las bandas se inhibieron con TLCK, lo que muestra la presencia principalmente de serina proteasas tipo tripsina. Se concluye que la digestión del sargo puede ser considerada como la de una especie carnívora con tendencia al omnivorismo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peptide Hydrolases/classification , Perciformes/classification , Aquaculture , Enzyme Precursors/classification
15.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 48(3): e20170649, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045075

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Enzymatic hydrolysis (pepsin) assisted with or without ultrasound in the functional properties of hydrolyzates from different collagens were analyzed. Degree of hydrolysis, antioxidant activity (DPPH) and antimicrobial activity (MIC) were assessed. The treatment that resulted in greater antioxidant activity for the fiber sample was with the use of 4% of enzyme and concomitant ultrasound (40.7%), leading to a degree of hydrolysis of 21.7%. For the powdered fiber sample the hydrolysis treatment with use of 4% of enzyme resulted in lower protein content (6.97mg/mL), higher degree of hydrolysis (19.9%) and greater antioxidant activity (38.6%). The hydrolyzates showed inhibitory capacity against gram-negative bacteria Salmonella choleraesuis and gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. It can be concluded that enzymatic hydrolysis concomitant or not with the use of ultrasound increased the functionality of the fiber and powdered fiber samples, for the other samples its use as supplementary treatment was not productive, due to the worse results of antioxidant activity (DPPH) reported. However, it provided greater hydrolysis degree.


RESUMO: Foram avaliados os efeitos da hidrólise enzimática (pepsina) assistida com ou sem ultrassom nas propriedades funcionais de hidrolisados de diferentes colágenos. Foi analisado o grau de hidrólise, a atividade antioxidante (DPPH) e a atividade antimicrobiana (MIC). O tratamento que possibilitou maior atividade antioxidante para a amostra fibra foi com a utilização de 4% de enzima e ultrassom concomitante (40,7%), levando a um grau de hidrólise de 21,7%. Para a amostra fibra pó o tratamento de hidrólise com uso de 4% de enzima resultou em menor teor de proteína (6,97mg/mL), maior grau de hidrólise (19,9%) e maior atividade antioxidante (38,6%). Os hidrolisados mostraram capacidade inibitória contra a bactéria gram-negativa Salmonella choleraesuis e gram-positiva Staphylococcus aureus. Pode-se concluir que a hidrólise enzimática concomitante, ou não, ao uso do ultrassom apresentou aumento da funcionalidade das amostras fibra e fibra pó. Para as demais amostras, sua utilização como tratamento complementar, a hidrólise não foi interessante, devido aos piores resultados de atividade antioxidante (DPPH) encontrados. Porém, proporcionou maior grau de hidrólise.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-651303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To compare the simple spitting method and the Salivette® method of collecting saliva for detecting pepsin in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD). SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Thirty-two patients diagnosed with LPRD by 24 hour multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring were enrolled prospectively. The amounts of pepsin in saliva determined by the simple spitting method and the Salivette® method were compared. RESULTS: Simple spitting showed higher sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. There was no statistically significant difference between the amount of pepsin detected by simple spitting (10.07±11.68 ng/mL) versus that detected using the Salivette® method (7.09±7.27 ng/mL) (p=0.258). CONCLUSIONS: The simple spitting method has higher sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than the Salivette® method for detecting pepsin in patients with LPRD.


Subject(s)
Electric Impedance , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux , Methods , Pepsin A , Prospective Studies , Saliva , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809016

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To discuss the relationship between lingual tonsil hypertrophy and laryngopharyngeal reflux.@*Methods@#Ninety-two patients who received throat surgery in Nanfang Hospital between October 2015 and October 2016 were enrolled. Twenty-six healthy volunteers were recruited as normal controls. All participants were assessed with the reflux finding score(RFS) and the size of lingual tonsils were evaluated using a clinical grading system proposed by Friedman under electronic laryngoscope. The score of reflux symptom index(RSI), personal history and medical history were gathered. Biopsy specimens of lingual tonsils were taken from all participants for the immunohistochemical stain of pepsin.SPSS 19.0 software was used for statistical analysis.@*Results@#There were 46.2% (12/26) pepsin-positive and 53.8% (14/26) pepsin-negative volunteers in normal controls. There were 87.0% (80/92) pepsin-positive and 13.0% (12/92) pepsin-negative patients in study group. The severity of lingual tonsil hypertrophy and expression intensity of pepsin in patients were significantly higher in volunteers (Z=-3.636, Z=-5.273, P<0.01). The severity of lingual tonsil hypertrophy was positively associated with the pepsin level in patients (r=0.556, P<0.01). The patients with pepsin-positive expression showed significant correlation between lingual tonsil hypertrophy and the positive rate of RSI and RFS (r=0.258, r=0.225, P<0.05). Analysis of correlated factors indicated that lingual tonsil hypertrophy was associated with smoking (χ2=8.502, P<0.05).@*Conclusions@#The expression of pepsin can be detected in lingual tonsil tissues. The lingual tonsil hypertrophy is closely related to laryngopharyngeal reflux.

18.
Chinese Traditional Patent Medicine ; (12): 2454-2461, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-666026

ABSTRACT

AIM To explore the protective effects of Hericium Tablets on the injury of gastric mucosa and to investigate its possible mechanism.METHODS The rats were orally given doses of Hericium Tablets (0.25,0.5,1.0 g/kg) once a day for seven days.One hour after the last doses,the rats were orally given a dose of anhydrous ethanol (5 mL/kg).In one hour,the degree of gastric mucosal injury and pathological changes were observed.Gastric juice pH and pepsin activity were detected by absorbing the gastric juice.The contents of amino hexose,PGE2 and IL-1β were detected by scraping gastric mucosa.RESULTS Hericium Tablets can obviously alleviate the damage degree of gastric mucosa,reduce the gastric mucosal hyperemia,bleeding,edema and necrosis,as well as against the decrease of pepsin activity in gastric juice,and the decrease of the content of amino hexose in gastric mucosal layer was inhibited,but there was no significant effect on the contents of PGE2 and IL-1 β and the increasement of pH value of gastric juice.CONCLUSION The effects of Hericium Tablets on gastric mucosal injury are obvious,and its mechanism is related to the decrease of the contents of gastric mucosa.

19.
China Pharmacist ; (12): 2131-2135, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-663927

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the pharmacological effects of Leshibao chewable tablets for juvenile rats with anorexia. Methods:The rats were divided into 6 groups with 10 ones in each and fed with special forage for 4 weeks to establish the anorexia model of ju-venile rats. After the model establishment, from the 8th day, the treatment groups received Leshibao chewable tablets respectively at the dose of 0. 60, 0. 30 and 0. 15 g·kg-1 ·d-1 for three weeks. The general situation was observed, and the appetite and body weight were recorded during the treatment. At the end of experiment, the gastric juice amount, free gastric acidity, total gastric acidity and pepsin activity were determined, TP, ALB, TCHO, MTL and GAS were determined by kit methods. Additionally, the mice were given Leshibao chewable tablets at different doses (0. 80, 0. 40, 0. 20 g·kg-1 ·d-1 ) for 7 days, the effects of Leshibao chewable tablets on gastric emptying and intestinal propulsive function were observed. Results: Leshibao chewable tablets could significantly increase the body weight, appetite (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01), gastric juice amount, free gastric acidity , total gastric acidity and pepsin secretion (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01), significantly reduce TP, ALB and TCHO in serum (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01), significantly increase MTL and GAS contents (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01), and significantly promote gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion in mice (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01). Conclusion:Leshibao chewable tablets can significantly increase body weight and appetite, and improve digestive function re-markably, which exhibit excellent therapeutic effect in the anorexia model of juvenile rats.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Increased salivary pepsin could indicate an increase in gastro-esophageal reflux, however, previous studies failed to demonstrate a correlation between salivary pepsin concentrations and 24-hour esophageal acid exposure. This study aims to detect the salivary pepsin and to evaluate the relationship between salivary pepsin concentrations and intercellular spaces (IS) in different gastroesophageal reflux disease phenotypes in patients. METHODS: A total of 45 patients and 11 healthy volunteers were included in this study. All subjects underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 24-hour ambulatory multichannel impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring, and salivary sampling at 3-time points during the 24-hour MII-pH monitoring. IS were measured by transmission electron microscopy, and salivary pepsin concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The IS measurements were greater in the esophagitis (EE), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and hypersensitive esophagus (HO) groups than in the functional heartburn (FH) and healthy volunteer groups, and significant differences were indicated. Patients with NERD and HO had higher average pepsin concentrations compared with FH patients. A weak correlation was determined between IS and salivary pepsin among patients with NERD (r = 0.669, P = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed the presence of a higher level of salivary pepsin in patients with NERD than in patients with FH. Salivary pepsin concentrations correlated with severity of mucosal integrity impairment in the NERD group. We suggest that in patients with NERD, low levels of salivary pepsin can help identify patients with FH, in addition the higher the pepsin concentration, the more likely the severity of dilated IS.


Subject(s)
Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Esophagitis , Esophagus , Extracellular Space , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Healthy Volunteers , Heartburn , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Pepsin A , Phenotype
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