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1.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 61-66, mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362698

ABSTRACT

Los inhibidores de la bomba de protones (IBP) se encuentran entre los medicamentos más utilizados en el mundo por su bajo costo, extensa prescripción y efectividad. Sin embargo, su uso a largo plazo no es inocuo y aún hay vacíos en el conocimiento del empleo adecuado de estos medicamentos. Por lo tanto, en esta revisión se expone, además de sus propiedades generales, sus verdaderas indicaciones, el uso recomendado a largo plazo y las estrategias para lograr la deprescripción, con el fin de evitar el uso indiscriminado.


Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely used drugs in the world, due to their low cost, extensive prescription and effectiveness. However, its long-term use is not safe and there are still certain gaps in the knowledge of the proper use of these drugs. Therefore, this review aims to expose their general properties as well as their true indications, the appropriate long-term use and strategies to achieve adequate deprescription of these drugs, seeking to avoid indiscriminate use.


Os inibidores da bomba de prótons (IBP) se encontram entre os medicamentos mais utilizados no mundo pelo seu baixo custo, extensa prescrição e efetividade. Embora, seu uso a longo prazo não é inócuo e ainda há vazios no conhecimento do uso adequado destes medicamentos. Por tanto, nesta revisão se expõe, além das suas propriedades gerais, suas verdadeiras indicações, o uso recomendado ao longo prazo e as estratégias para conseguir a deprescrição, com o fim de evitar o uso indiscriminado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Effectiveness , Prescriptions , Deprescriptions
2.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 44(1): 15-20, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360183

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare plasma concentrations of cannabidiol (CBD) following oral administration of two formulations of the drug (powder and dissolved in oil), and to evaluate the effects of these distinct formulations on responses to emotional stimuli in healthy human volunteers. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design, 45 healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups of 15 subjects that received either 150 mg of CBD powder; 150 mg of CBD dissolved in corn oil; or placebo. Blood samples were collected at different times after administration, and a facial emotion recognition task was completed after 150 min. Results: There were no significant differences across groups in the subjective and physiological measures, nor in the facial emotion recognition task. However, groups that received the drug showed statistically significant differences in baseline measures of plasma CBD, with a significantly greater difference in favor of the oil formulation. Conclusion: When administered as a single 150-mg dose, neither formulation of oral CBD altered responses to emotional stimuli in healthy subjects. The oil-based CBD formulation resulted in more rapid achievement of peak plasma level, with an approximate fourfold increase in oral bioavailability.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 159-168, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913182

ABSTRACT

The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) was first found to be a membrane protein that maternal antibodies transmitted to fetuses and newborns, and also expressed in multiple organs and tissues for whole life in adults. It plays a significant role to central regulate the lifespan of immunoglobulin G and serum albumin, as well as its involvement in innate and adaptive immune responses. In modern biopharmaceuticals, FcRn is a great potential drug delivery target and a highlighted subject for current research. This paper briefly describes the basic biological properties and action mechanism of FcRn, as well as the commonly used drug carrier design strategies of FcRn, especially the functional applications of prolonging half-life, targeted drug delivery, transmembrane and antigen presentation and so on. We propose that these distribution in different tissues and the diverse biological activities may have significant implications of targeting FcRn for novel drug delivery systems and immunotherapy.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 480-483, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922908

ABSTRACT

Recombinant humanized anti-ricin monoclonal antibody (MIL50) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody targeting ricin. In this study, an ELISA method was used to establish a method for the determination of MIL50 in macaque serum, and a cross design method was used. Twelve rhesus monkeys were intravenously injected 1 mg·kg-1 test preparation (MIL50 freeze-died powder injection) and reference preparation (MIL50 liquid preparation) to determine the plasma concentration of MIL50 at different time points, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of MIL50 liquid preparation and freeze-died powder injection in rhesus monkeys. Animal welfare and experimental procedures follow the regulations of the Animal Ethics Committee of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Use of Laboratory Animals and the regulations derived by the Animal Care and Welfare Committee of the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Academy of Military Medical Sciences (IACUC-DWZX-2020-503). The results showed that there was no significant difference between Cmax and AUC0-5d in the two groups. The liquid preparation was the reference preparation, with Cmax ratio of 101.6% and AUC0-5d ratio of 101.9%, the 90% confidence interval of Cmax was 79.42%-129.92%, and the 90% confidence interval of AUC0-5d was 85.72%-121.18%. These results suggested that different dosage forms of MIL50 had certain differences in the changes of blood drug concentration in rhesus monkeys.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 446-452, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922907

ABSTRACT

As one of the "Three Drugs Three Prescriptions" anti-COVID-19 traditional Chinese medicine, Jinhua Qinggan granules (JHQG) has been proved to have clear clinical effects. With complex medicinal flavors and ingredients, there is no systematic research report on chemical composition in vivo or in vitro. An ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) method was developed in this study to identify the components of the anti-COVID-19 traditional Chinese medicine JHQG granules. Analyze the collected rat plasma samples after administration and explore the exposed components in rats within 8 hours after intragastric administration. Preliminary pharmacokinetic analysis was then performed on this basis. Through UPLC-QTOF/MS analysis and verification by standard products, a total of 77 chemical components in JHQG formula have been identified, among which 22 compounds were highly exposed in vivo, mainly derived from three medicinal materials of honeysuckle, scutellaria and forsythia. Through the assessment of the blood drug concentration by the compartment model, 6 PK parameters of 4 high-exposure chemical components have been obtained, clarifying the metabolic characteristics of the main exposed components in JHQG briefly. The method is simple, efficient, sensitive and accurate and provides research basis to the clarification of the pharmacodynamics material basis and mechanism of JHQG, which has certain reference significance for the basics and applications research of the traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions in fighting the SARS-CoV-2.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 615-626, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922898

ABSTRACT

The rational medication in pregnant women is a clinical issue that clinicians and pharmacists must take seriously. Most tissues and organs undergo anatomical and physiological changes during pregnancy that affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs in vivo, which ultimately lead to changes in bioavailability. In order to achieve an effective therapeutic concentration, dose adjustment might be required during this period. In the past ten years, the application of modeling and simulation methods in the field of drug development and clinical therapy has continued to expand, for instance, using population pharmacokinetic (PPK) and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to adjust dosage regimen in special populations. Rigorously designed and validated models will effectively make up for the deficiencies of clinical trials, provide valuable references for the design of clinical research, and even replace part of them. This article will introduce the physiological changes that affect the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug during pregnancy and review the progress in the application of PBPK modeling in pharmacokinetic studies in pregnant women.

7.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 635-640, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920737

ABSTRACT

Caspofungin is the firs t echinocandin antifungal drug approved for serious fungal infections caused by Candida or Aspergillus. Currently ,caspofungin has been recommended as the first-line treatment for invasive Candida and the second-line treatment for invasive Aspergillus,for its safety and tolerability. However ,there are still probability of pharmacokinetic variability and the risk of low exposure in different populations. Herein the population pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics studies of caspofungin in children and adults were reviewed. The results indicate that the body surface area was the main factor affecting the distribution and clearance of caspofungin in pediatric patients. In adults ,the two-compartment model fits the caspofungin behavior best in vivo with the primary covariates of body weight and albumin level. The efficacy of caspofungin might be related to pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics parameters ,such as the ratio of area under blood concentration time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC),the ratio of peak concentration to minimum effective concentration (cmax/MEC).

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920650

ABSTRACT

@#In this study, the formulation and preparation process of curcumin nanocrystalline injection were optimized to improve curcumin dissolution rate and bioavailability in vivo.Media grinding method was used to prepare curcumin nanocrystals, and the particle size was used as the evaluation index.The Box-Behnken experimental design was used to optimize its formulation and preparation process, and to characterize its physical and chemical properties.In addition, the dissolution of nanocrystal with different particle sizes was investigated by the paddle method, and the pharmacokinetics in rats were studied.The experimental results showed that the optimal formula and process were obtained through Box-Behnken experimental design, and that uniform curcumin nanocrystals with an average particle size of 223.1 nm were obtained.The results of X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the crystal form was stable during the preparation of nanocrystals. In vitro dissolution experiments with different particle sizes showed that the dissolution rate and the degree of dissolution would increase if the particle size was smaller.Pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed that cmax and AUC0-∞ of curcumin nanocrystal injection were 4.9 and 4.1 times that of curcumin raw materials, respectively.In summary, the curcumin nanocrystal injection developed in this research have a stable preparation process and can significantly improve the dissolution rate and bioavailability of the drug, which provides some ideas for the research on curcumin preparation.

9.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e1284, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357315

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (por la COVID-19) es en la actualidad la primera causa de muerte en el Perú, por lo que se requiere de fármacos eficaces y seguros para mitigar la enfermedad. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en SciELO y PubMed/ Medline; se seleccionaron 37 de 58 artículos sobre el tema. Objetivos: Revisar e integrar la información sobre las interacciones farmacocinéticas de la azitromicina que se prescriben en el tratamiento ambulatorio de la COVID-19 en el Perú, y evaluar su implicación clínica. Desarrollo: La azitromicina es usada en la COVID-19, por su actividad antiinflamatoria, al inhibir a las interleucinas (IL1, 6, 8 y TNF-α), y a las moléculas de adhesión intracelular 1 (ICAM1); y por inducir la producción de interferón tipo I (IFN-α, IFN-β) y III (IFN-λ) en células de pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. Los estudios de tres brazos, aleatorizado y abierto, indican que la azitromicina no genera cambios en los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la ivermectina, sildenafilo, rupatadina y desloratadina; los estudios de un solo centro, abierto, sin ayuno y de dos períodos, evidencian que la azitromicina influye en los parámetros farmacocinéticos de venetoclax y de los psicotrópicos. Conclusiones: Basado en la evidencia de los estudios clínicos revisados e integrados, se concluye que estas son limitadas y de poca relevancia clínica, sin embargo, se propone usar el antibiótico bajo el criterio científico del médico, para evitar las interacciones farmacocinéticas y las reacciones adversas de los fármacos(AU)


Introduction: The severe acute respiratory syndrome (due to COVID-19) is currently the leading cause of death in Peru, so effective and safe drugs are required to mitigate the disease. A bibliographic search was carried out in SciELO and PubMed/Medline; 37 of 58 articles on the topic were selected. Objectives: Review and integrate the information on the pharmacokinetic interactions of azithromycin that are prescribed in the outpatient treatment of COVID-19 in Peru, and evaluate their clinical implication. Development: Azithromycin is used in COVID-19, due to its anti-inflammatory activity, by inhibiting interleukins (IL1, 6, 8 and TNF-α), and intracellular adhesion molecules 1 (ICAM1); and by inducing the production of type I interferon (IFN-α, IFN-β) and III (IFN-λ) in cells of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The three-arm, randomized and open-label studies indicate that azithromycin does not cause changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of ivermectin, sildenafil, rupatadine, and desloratadine; single-center, open-label, non-fasting, and two-period studies show that azithromycin influences the pharmacokinetic parameters of venetoclax and psychotropics. Conclusions: Based on the evidence from the reviewed and integrated clinical studies, it is concluded that these are limited and of little clinical relevance, however, it is proposed to use the antibiotic under the scientific criteria of the doctor, to avoid pharmacokinetic interactions and adverse reactions of drugs(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , COVID-19/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cause of Death
10.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(3): 1-14, 2021-08-11. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363261

ABSTRACT

Background: Milk-derived biopeptides have reported in vitro dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibition, suggesting a glycemic-regulatory effect in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Nonetheless, the therapeutic application of these nutraceuticals is limited by the scarcity of knowledge regarding their pharmacokinetic profile. Objective: This study aimed to characterize and assess the pharmacokinetics of milk-derived biopeptides. Through an in silico comparative analysis with gliptins, we expected to identify enhanced properties in food-hydrolysates and suitable DPP-IV inhibiting peptides as candidates for T2DM therapy. Methods: A comparison between gliptins and biopeptides was conducted based on in silico evaluation of drug-likeness, physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, and synthetic accessibility. Suitable target proteins for gastrointestinal-absorbable biopeptides were determined as well. Data collection was performed on SwissADME, ADMETlab, DrugBank, SwissTargetPrediction, ChemDes, and BIOPEP-UWM platforms. Statistical analysis was carried out using a one-way ANOVA test. Results: Drug-likeness compliance showed no significant difference between gliptins and biopeptides (p>0.05) in three out of nine assessed rules, though gastrointestinal-absorbable biopeptides exhibited no significant difference with gliptins in five drug-likeness guidelines. The physicochemical evaluation revealed a significant difference (p<0.05) between both groups, with peptides exhibiting enhanced solubility, flexibility, and polarity. Nine out of thirty-six assessed biopeptides reported being likely gastrointestinal-absorbable molecules, from which six displayed ≥30% predicted bioavailability, two reported CYP450 interactions, and all were determined to be blood confined. Biopeptides showed a slightly lower clearance than gliptins yet counteracted by a significantly lower half-life. Moreover, synthetic accessibility scores indicated higher synthetic ease for biopeptides. In addition, absorbable bioactive peptides reported a considerable binding affinity to DPP-IV and Calpain-I. Conclusions: Compared to gliptins, gastrointestinal-absorbable biopeptides exhibit superior physicochemical properties (higher solubility, flexibility, and polarity), lesser CYP450 interactions, higher synthetic ease, and some reported an important affinity for DPP-IV and Calpain-I. Only a small fraction of milk-derived biopeptides are suitable drug-like compounds and feasible candidates for T2DM therapy; yet, testing their therapeutic potency remains subject to further studies


Antecedentes: Los biopéptidos derivados de la leche han mostrado inhibir la dipeptidil-peptidasa IV (DPP-IV) en ensayos in vitro, lo que sugiere una regulación de la glicemia en la Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 (DM2). Sin embargo, su uso terapéutico está limitado por el escaso conocimiento de sus propiedades farmacológicas. Objetivo: Caracterizar y evaluar el perfil farmacocinético de los biopéptidos derivados de la leche. Por medio de un análisis comparativo in silico, se buscó identificar propiedades de carácter superior a las gliptinas en los biopéptidos inhibidores de DPP-IV, así como posibles candidatos a agentes terapéuticos en la DMT2. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo una comparación entre las Gliptinas y los biopéptidos basada en la evaluación in silicode las características "d r ug - li ke", propiedades fisicoquímicas, farmacocinética y accesibilidad sintética. Adicionalmente, se determinaron posibles proteínas diana para los biopéptidos de alta probabilidad de absorción gastrointestinal. Los datos se obtuvieron en SwissADME, ADMETlab, DrugBank, SwissTargetPrediction, ChemDes y BIOPEP-UWM. El análisis estadístico se basó en un análisis de varianza (one-way ANOVA test). Resultados: El cumplimiento de las reglas de "drug-likeness" no mostró diferencias significativas entre las gliptinas y los biopéptidos (p>0.05) en tres de las nueve normas evaluadas, empero, los biopéptidos absorbibles no mostraron diferencias significativas con las gliptinas en cinco de estas. La evaluación fisicoquímica reveló una diferencia significativa (p>0.05) entre ambos grupos y una mayor solubilidad, flexibilidad y polaridad para los biopéptidos. Nueve de los treinta y seis biopéptidos estudiados reportaron alta probabilidad de absorción gastrointestinal, de los cuales seis presentaron una biodisponibilidad predicha ≥30%, dos reportaron interacciones con el CYP450, y todos mostraron permanecer confinados en sangre. Los biopéptidos mostraron una tasa de aclaramiento inferior a las gliptinas, sin embargo, contrarrestado por una vida-media significativamente menor. Los valores de accesibilidad sintética indicaron una mayor facilidad de síntesis para los biopéptidos. Por último, los biopéptidos absorbibles mostraron una considerable afinidad por la DPP-IV y la Calpaína-I. Conclusiones: Frente a las gliptinas, los biopéptidos absorbibles presentan: propiedades fisicoquímicas superiores (mayor solubilidad, flexibilidad y polaridad), menores interacciones con el CYP450, mayor facilidad de síntesis y algunos una importante afinidad por la DPP-IV y la Calpaína-I. Una mínima fracción de biopéptidos derivados de la leche son candidatos viables para la terapia de DM2; sin embargo, la determinación de su efectividad terapéutica permanece sujeta a futuros estudios


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacokinetics , Peptides , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors
11.
Radiol. bras ; 54(4): 232-237, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287747

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine whether technetium-99m-labeled tropane derivative single-photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT) provides results comparable to those of the less widely available, less accessible tool fluorine-18-labeled fluorodopa positron-emission tomography (18F-FDOPA PET) in the setting of a movement disorders clinic. Materials and Methods: In this prospective pilot study, eight subjects with a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease were randomly selected from among patients under treatment at a movement disorders clinic and submitted to 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT and 18F-FDOPA PET. The results were read by two experienced observers, and a semiquantitative analysis was performed. Results: The visual and semiquantitative analyses were concordant for all studies, showing that radiotracer uptake in the contralateral striatum on the most affected side was lower when 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT was employed. The semiquantitative analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between 18F-FDOPA PET and 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT (r = 0.73; p < 0.01). Conclusion: It appears that 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT is a valid option for the study of dopaminergic function in a clinical setting.


Resumo Objetivo: Determinar se a 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT fornece resultados comparáveis aos da 18F-FDOPA PET, ferramenta menos acessível e menos amplamente disponível, no contexto de uma clínica de distúrbios do movimento. Materiais e Métodos: Neste estudo prospectivo, oito indivíduos com diagnóstico clínico de doença de Parkinson foram selecionados aleatoriamente entre pacientes em tratamento em uma clínica de distúrbios do movimento e submetidos a 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT e 18F-FDOPA PET. Os resultados foram lidos por dois observadores experientes e uma análise semiquantitativa foi realizada. Resultados: As análises visual e semiquantitativa foram concordantes para todos os estudos, mostrando que a captação do radiotraçador no estriado contralateral do lado mais afetado foi menor quando a 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT foi empregada. A análise semiquantitativa demonstrou uma correlação significativa entre 18F-FDOPA PET e 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT (r = 0,73; p < 0,01). Conclusão: A 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT parece ser uma opção válida para o estudo da função dopaminérgica em um ambiente clínico.

12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(1): 150-155, Jan. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287779

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To review the main physiological and pharmacological changes related to prematurity, to promote the evidence-based clinical practice. METHODS: This is a narrative review whose research was carried out in the ScienceDirect and Medline databases via PubMed, searching for articles in any language from January 2000 to February 2020. RESULTS: Premature newborns are born before completing the maturation process that prepares them for extrauterine life, which occurs especially in the last weeks of pregnancy. Therefore, they have their own characteristics in development. Several physiological peculiarities stand out, such as disturbances in glucose regulation, adrenal function, thermoregulation, immunity, in addition to changes in liver, renal and respiratory functions. Pharmacological aspects were also highlighted, involving pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the recent advances in prematurity, it is still an area with many uncertainties, since several changes occur quickly and there are ethical issues that make studies difficult. Thus, it is clear that the therapeutic management of premature infants is still very much based on clinical practice.

13.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1304-1308, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877318

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the tolerance, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of coblopasvir hydrochloride capsules in patients with hepatitis C. MethodsA total of 36 patients with hepatitis C who were admitted to The First Hospital of Jilin University from November 2016 to January 2017 were enrolled as subjects, and four dose groups (30 mg, 60 mg, 90 mg, and 120 mg) and one placebo group were established. The subjects were administered once daily for 3 consecutive days; tolerance was evaluated on D2 and D6, and follow-up was performed on D8 and D10. The subjects were enrolled based on single dose escalation, and a multiple-dose study was conducted under the premise of good tolerance to single dose. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the plasma concentration of coblopasvir hydrochloride in human body, and WinNonlin 6.4 software was used to calculate main pharmacokinetic parameters. HCV RNA load was used to evaluate antiviral activity at different time points; a one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups, and the LSD t-test was used for further comparison between two groups. ResultsAfter coblopasvir hydrochloride capsules were administered orally once a day at a dose of 30-120 mg, the plasma concentration and exposure of coblopasvir hydrochloride increased with the increase in dose. There were no significant differences in plasma concentration and exposure between multiple-dose administration and single-dose administration in a fasting state, without accumulation in human body. After the oral administration of coblopasvir hydrochloride capsules once a day, the subjects with HCV genotype 1b had a reduction in HCV RNA load since baseline, with the lowest level at 120 hours, and there was a significant difference in antiviral activity between different dose groups (F=14.621, P<0.000 1), among which the 60 mg group had a significantly greater reduction than the 30 mg group (P=0.025), while there was no significant difference between the 60 mg group and the 90/120 mg group (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in HCV RNA load between different groups of patients with HCV genotype 2a (P>0.05). Of all 36 subjects, 20 reported 34 cases of treatment-emergent adverse events, among which 19 cases were associated with coblopasvir hydrochloride, and no significant adverse events or serious adverse events were observed. ConclusionOral administration of coblopasvir hydrochloride capsules in a fasting state at a dose of 30-120 mg/d (for 3 consecutive days) has good safety and antiviral activity. Therefore, it has good application prospect in the treatment of HCV infection and provides a basis for dose selection in phrase 2 study.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 476-486, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873766

ABSTRACT

Compared with normal tissues and cells, the tumor microenvironment has significant differences. For example, glutathione-related metabolic enzymes and reactive oxygen species are highly expressed in different subcellular structures, resulting in an unbalanced redox state. Aiming at the specific redox state in tumor tissues and cells, a series of small molecule prodrug self-assembled nanoparticles can be designed and connected by intelligent response linkers including disulfide bonds, sulfide bonds, and selenium bonds, thioketal bonds, etc. The in vitro and in vivo efficiency and metabolic mode of these nanoparticles are related to the type of linker. This review will summarize the tumor redox microenvironment, the design of intelligent responsive small molecule prodrug nanoparticles, and the metabolic pathways of small molecule prodrug nanoparticles with different connecting linkers and their relationship with drug efficacy.

15.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 601-607, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of rabepr azole on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of clopidogrel and its active metabolite in healthy volunteers with different CYP2C19 genotypes. METHODS :Healthy volunteers were selected as subjects,and then randomly divided into extensive metabolizer (EM)group,intermediate metabolizer (IM)group,and poor metabolizer(PM)group with 8 subjects in each group ,according to their CYP2C19 genotypes by random number table. In single-dose,randomized,open,two-cycle-crossover design ,each group was given Clopidogrel bisulfate tablets 300 mg or Clopidogrel bisulfate tablets 300 mg+Rabeprazole sodium enteric-coated tablets 20 mg. UPLC-MS/MS method was adopted to detect the concentration of clopidogrel and its active metabolite derivative (MP-H4). The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and compared by DAS 2.0 software. RESULTS :There was no statistical significance in clinical data as age ,height, body weight ,liver enzymes and serum creatinine among 3 kinds of metabolism subjects (P>0.05). Compared with subjects receiving clopidogrel alone ,cmax and AUC 0-t of clopidogrel of subjects combined with rabeprazole in EM group were increased by 36% and 27%,while those of MP-H 4 were decreased by 34% and 28%(P<0.01);cmax and AUC 0-t of clopidogrel of subjects combined with rabeprazole in IM group were increased by 19% and 18%,while those of MP-H 4 were decreased by 19% and 16% (P<0.05 or P<0.01);there was no statistical significance in cmax and AUC 0-t of clopidogrel and MP-H 4 in PM group after receiving rabeprazole additionally as well as tmax of clopidogrel and MP-H 4 in all metablism subjects ,compared with clopidogrel alone(P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS :Among CYP2C19 EM and IM subjects ,combined use of rabeprazole can significantly increase the exposure of clopidogrel and decrease the exposure of its active metabolite MP-H 4,but has no significant impact on clopidogrel and its active metabolite in CYP2C19 PM subjects.

16.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 412-417, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873480

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To study the effects of rat intestinal flora on the pharmacokinetic parameters of pyrazinamide and its active metabolite pyrazinoic acid. METHODS :Totally 16 SD rats were randomly divided into trial group and control group ,with 8 rats in each group. Trial group was given mixed antibiotics (streptomycin sulfate+neomycin sulfate )intragastrically to construct pseudoaseptic rat model. After modeling ,both groups were given pyrazinamide intragastrically (150 mg/kg). Before and 0.167, 0.333,0.667,1,1.5,2,3,4,6,9 h after administration ,0.1 mL blood sample was collected from orbital venous plexus ,and 0.3 mL blood sample was collected from orbital venous plexus 12,24 h after administration. Using phenacetin as internal standard , LC-MS/MS method was adopted to determine the plasma concentration of pyrazinamide and pyrazinoic acid. The determination was performed on Agilent ZORBAX SB-Aq column with mobile phase consisted of 0.2% formic acid (containing 8 mmol/L ammonium acetate)-methanol(gradient elution )at the flow rate of 1 mL/min. The column temperature was set at 30 ℃,and sample size was 10 μL. The ion source was ESI and the temperature of ion source was 500 ℃. The collision gas was nitrogen and the pressure was 10 psi. The temperature of mass transfer interface was 100 ℃. The mass spectrum monitoring mode was multi reaction monitoring , and the collection mode was positive ion mode. The monitoring transition ion-pairs were m/z 124.0→79.0(pyrazinamide),m/z 125.1→79.1(pyrazinic acid )and m/z 180.0→110.2(internal standard ). The de-clustering potential and collision voltage were 55, 26 and 85 V,24,23 and 28 V,respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and compared by using DAS 2.1.1 software. RESULTS :The linear ranges of pyrazinamide and pyrazinoic acid were 25-5 000 ng/mL(r=0.997 6)and 100-12 500 ng/mL(r=0.999 0). The lower limits of quantification were 25 and 100 ng/mL,respectively. Intra-batch and inter-batch accuracy were 92.93%-100.50%,and RSDs of intra-batch and inter-batch precision and matrix effect tests were all lower than or equal to 8.42%(n=6 or n=3). Compared with control group ,tmax of pyrazinamide in trial group was prolonged significantly (P<0.01); there was no statistical significance in other pharmacokinetic parameters between 2 groups(P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS :The absorption of single dose pyrazinamide is delayed with the change of intestinal flora in rats.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888087

ABSTRACT

Coumarins are the main active components in Psoraleae Fructus. To study the multi-component pharmacokinetics of Psoraleae Fructus, this study established a sensitive and rapid ultra-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of psoralen, isopsoralen, psoralenoside, and isopsoralenoside in rat plasma. After validation, the method was applied to the investigation of pharmacokinetics of psoralen, isopsoralen, psoralenoside, and isopso-ralenoside in rats after single and multiple administration of Psoraleae Fructus extract. The results revealed that the exposure of psoralen and isopsoralen in rat plasma was high after a single intragastric administration of Psoraleae Fructus extract, with an AUC_(0-∞) of 443 619-582 680 and 167 314-276 903 ng·mL~(-1)·h~(-1), respectively. Compared with these two compounds, the exposure of psoralenoside and isopsoralenoside was lower with marked gender difference. After 7-day administration of Psoraleae Fructus extract to rats, the AUC_(0-∞) of psoralen and isopsoralen was 29 701-81 783 and 39 234-89 914 ng·mL~(-1)·h~(-1), respectively, which was significantly lower than that at the first day(P<0.05), and that of psoralenoside and isopsoralenoside was 7 360-19 342 and 8 823-45 501 ng·mL~(-1)·h~(-1), respectively. There was no significant gender difference in exposure of psoralenoside and isopsoralenoside in male and female rats. However, the exposure of psoralenoside and isopsoralenoside in male rats was reduced(P<0.05), and the t_(1/2) and mean residence time(MRT) were shortened, suggesting that the removal of these two compounds from the body was accelerated.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Benzofurans , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ficusin , Furocoumarins/analysis , Glycosides , Psoralea , Rats , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888054

ABSTRACT

The effect of intestinal flora changes on the pharmacokinetics of astragaloside Ⅳ in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus was explored in this study. The rat model in preliminary experiment was established by high-sugar and high-fat diet combined with the intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin(STZ). Rats were divided into model group, astragaloside Ⅳ group, berberine group and combination group(five rats in each group). After two weeks of gavage, the rats' feces was taken for 16 S rRNA sequencing of intestinal flora. Pharmacokinetic experiments were performed on astragaloside Ⅳ in the four groups one day after the preliminary experiment. Plasma samples were precipitated in methanol with ginsenoside Rb_1 as an internal standard, and the plasma concentrations of astragaloside Ⅳ at different time points were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH-C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) via gradient elution. The mobile phase was acetonitrile(A) and 5 mmol·L~(-1) ammonium formate solution with 0.2% formic acid(B). The flow rate was 0.4 mL·min~(-1), the injection volume 5 μL and the column temperature 40 ℃. The mass spectrometry was carried out with electrospray ionization source(ESI) in multiple reaction monitoring and positive ion modes. The specificity, linearity range, accuracy, precision, stability and dilution effect of the method all met the requirements for the determination of astragaloside Ⅳ in plasma. Plasma concentration-time curves were plotted and relevant pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 3.2.8. The results showed that the concentration of absorbed astragaloside Ⅳ increased within 0-3.95 h and began to decline since 3.95 h. After 36 h, the metabolism was complete. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve(AUC_(0-t)) and the peak concentration(C_(max)) of astragaloside Ⅳ were increased in the three administration groups compared with the model group, but without significant difference, which suggested that the pharmacokinetic characteristics of saponin components would not necessarily change after the drug-induced alteration of intestinal flora.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Saponins , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Triterpenes
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888022

ABSTRACT

A LC-MS/MS method was developed for the rapid and simultaneous determination of genipin-1-β-D-gentiobioside,geniposide,naringin,hesperidin and neohesperidin in SD rat plasma.The linear relationships of these five constituents in rats were validated,and the specificity,accuracy,precision and stability met the requirements.Their pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 3.2.2,and the results showed that the metabolic process in vivo of the five constituents accorded with the characteristics of noncompartmental model.Their main pharmacokinetic parameters were listed as follows:(1) genipin-1-β-D-gentiobioside:t_(1/2)(3.20±0.51)h,C_(max)(403.15±96.93)μg·L~(-1)and AUC_(0-t)(612.56±148.50)μg·L~(-1)·h for the model group,while t_(1/2)(3.07±0.75) h,C_(max)(229.50±60.63)μg·L~(-1)and AUC_(0-t)(413.14±76.37)μg·L~(-1)·h for the normal group;(2) geniposide:t_(1/2)(3.24±0.68) h,C_(max)(2 961.40±688.02)μg·L~(-1),and AUC_(0-t)(10 972.87±1 992.96)μg·L~(-1)·h for the model group,while t_(1/2)(4.56±0.96) h,C_(max)(1 833.27±558.13)μg·L~(-1),and AUC_(0-t)(8 996.27±3 053.48)μg·L~(-1)·h for the normal group;(3) naringin:t_(1/2)(1.64±0.59) h,C_(max)(415.13±259.54)μg·L~(-1),and AUC_(0-t)(608.62±289.05)μg·L~(-1)·h for the model group,while t_(1/2)(1.02±0.25) h,C_(max)(355.08±180.00)μg·L~(-1),and AUC_(0-t)(501.07±242.68)μg·L~(-1)·h for the normal group;(4) hesperidin:t_(1/2)(0.86±0.29) h,C_(max)(95.17±22.80)μg·L~(-1)and AUC_(0-t)(141.19±54.63)μg·L~(-1)·h for the model group,while t_(1/2)(0.95±0.31) h,C_(max)(46.48±18.33)μg·L~(-1)and AUC_(0-t)(69.51±14.73)μg·L~(-1)·h for the normal group;(5) neohesperidin:t_(1/2)(0.89±0.29) h,C_(max)(828.78±361.56)μg·L~(-1)and AUC_(0-t)(1 292.29±553.73)μg·L~(-1)·h for the model group,while t_(1/2)(0.90±0.31) h,C_(max)(314.68±172.45)μg·L~(-1)and AUC_(0-t)(385.99±138.55)μg·L~(-1)·h for the normal group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887976

ABSTRACT

The multi-component pharmacokinetic study of Chinese herbal extracts elaborates the in vivo processes,including absorption,distribution,metabolism,and excretion,of multiple bioactive components,which is of significance in revealing pharmacodynamic material basis of Chinese herbal medicine. In recent years,with the innovation in ideas,and development of techniques and methods on traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) research,the pharmacokinetic studies of Chinese herbal extracts were extensively performed,and notable progress has been made. This paper reviewed the advancement of multi-component pharmacokinetics of Chinese herbal extracts in recent five years from analysis technology of biological sample,the pharmacokinetic characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine with complex system,and the impacts of processing and pathological state on pharmacokinetics of Chinese herbal extracts,aiming to provide a reference for quality control,product development and rational medication of Chinese herbal extracts.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control
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