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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(1): 61-65, Jan. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-990233

ABSTRACT

The establishment of parameters for tear production in different species is important for better understanding eye´s health and is one of the components of the ophthalmic semiological technique. Particularities derived from the anatomophysiology of non-domestic species induce the search for more reliable methodologies. The aim was to evaluate and compare tear production of white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris) and Brazilian common opossum (Didelphis aurita) by three different methods. Fifteen individuals of each species, juveniles, healthy, of both sexes, with 60 to 90 days of life, were physically restrained. Phenol red thread test (PRTT), endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPPTT) and modified -Schirmer tear test (mSTT) were performed. PRTT was the most difficult to perform because of the wire malleability, while EAPPTT was more feasible for both species. The median ± semi-quartile range for PRTT were 19.79±2.61mm/15 "and 5.22±2.92mm/15", for EAPPTT were 16.25±1.82mm/min and 10.9±3.04mm/min, and for STTm were 0±1.63mm/min and 0±1.63mm/min for white-eared opossum and Brazilian common opossum respectively. There was no difference between the right and left eye neither sex. A significant difference was obtained for the same test to different species. No significant correlation was found between the tests for both species. The description of tear production parameters for juvenile white-eared opossum and Brazilian common opossum may be used as a tool, which will allow the early diagnosis of ocular diseases.(AU)


O estabelecimento do parâmetro de produção lacrimal nas diferentes espécies é importante para o entendimento da saúde do olho e é um dos componentes da semiotécnica oftálmica. Particularidades derivadas da anatomofisiologia das espécies não domésticas induzem a busca de metodologias que sejam mais fidedignas aos parâmetros. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar e comparar a produção lacrimal de gambás-de-orelha-branca (Didelphis albiventris) e gambás-de-orelha-preta (Didelphis aurita) por três diferentes métodos. Quinze indivíduos de cada espécie, juvenis, hígidos, de ambos os sexos, com 60 a 90 dias de vida, foram contidos fisicamente para realização do teste lacrimal do vermelho de fenol (TLVF), da ponta de papel absorvente estéril e do teste lacrimal de Schirmer modificado (TLSm). O TLVF foi o mais difícil de ser executado devido à maleabilidade do fio, enquanto a TEPA se mostrou mais exequível para ambas as espécies. A mediana ± intervalo semi-interquartil para o TLVF foi de 19,79±2,61mm/15" e 5,22±2,92mm/15", para a TEPA foram de 16,25±1,82mm/min e 10,93±3,04mm/min, e para o TLSm foram de 0±1,63mm/min e 0±1,63mm/min, para gambás-de-orelha-branca e gambás-de-orelha-preta, respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre o olho direito e esquerdo e nem quanto ao sexo. Obteve-se diferença significativa para um mesmo teste entre as espécies. Não foi encontrada correlação significativa entre os testes para ambas as espécies. A quantificação da porção aquosa da lágrima poderá auxiliar no diagnóstico precoce de doenças oculares nas espécies estudadas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Opossums/physiology , Tears/metabolism , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological/veterinary , Phenolsulfonphthalein
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350151

ABSTRACT

To validate in situ rats intestinal single pass perfusion model based on P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Firstly, phenol red perfusion was carried out to verify the close connection structure of intestinal epithelial cells, and the integrity of the intestinal epithelium, with a gravimetric method for correcting water flux. The level of phenol red was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) both before and after perfusion. Secondly, the positive drug digoxin specified by FDA was used to validate the model. After different mass concentrations of verapamil were given in the rats, the absorption parameters of digoxin in ileum of rats were observed and compared. The results showed that the phenol red was absorbed in rats ileum segment, with an effective permeability coefficient of (1.09±0.62)×10 ⁻⁶ cm•s ⁻¹. The experiment results indicated that the close connection structure of intestinal epithelial cells was normal, and the integrity of the intestinal epithelium was maintained well. In digoxin perfusion experiment, in case no verapamil was given, digoxin showed certain degree of absorption in rat ileum, with an effective permeability coefficient (Peff) of (1.07±0.59)×10 ⁻⁵ cm•s ⁻¹; after mass concentrations of 0.01,0.1 mmol•L ⁻¹ verapamil were given, the absorption of digoxin was on the rise in rat ileum, with an effective permeability coefficient Peff of (1.58±0.69)×10 ⁻⁵, (3.28±0.95)×10 ⁻⁵ cm•s ⁻¹ respectively (P<0.05). Digoxin perfusion experiment verified that P-gp expression in small intestine epithelium was intact and can be used in the research of P-gp efflux transporter.

3.
Br J Med Med Res ; 2015; 10(1): 1-11
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-181692

ABSTRACT

Background: Polyscias fruticosa is been used in Ghanaian folkloric medicine for the management of asthma and its related complications. Aim: This study evaluated the muco-suppressant, anti-tussive, and safety profile of an ethanolic leaf extract of Polyscias fruticosa in its use as an anti-asthmatic. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana and the School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape-Coast, Cape-Coast, Ghana; between December, 2013 and May, 2014. Methodology: Preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out on the extract. Ammonium chloride-induced tracheal mucus phenol red secretion in ICR mice and the suppression of citric acid-induced cough in Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were determined after treatment of experimental animals with 100 mg/kg sodium cromoglycate, or 20 mg/kg dihydrocodeine respectively, as well as with 100, 250, or 500 mg/kg of the extract. A 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg dose of the extract was administered daily for 28 days to groups of guinea pigs to establish a safety profile in a sub-chronic toxicity study. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins and cyanogenetic glycosides, alkaloids, and sterols. The extract significantly inhibited (P ≤ .01 - 0.001) tracheal mucus phenol red secretion, and suppression of citric acid-induced cough. There were no significant changes in body weight, haematological profile, as well as liver and kidney functions in the sub-chronic toxicity study. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the ethanolic leaf extract of Polyscias fruticosa has muco-suppressant and anti-tussive properties, and is safe to use; hence a suitable adjunct/remedy for the management of asthma.

4.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158892

ABSTRACT

Management of allergic conjunctivitis with conventional anti-allergic drugs usually cause the discomfort of dry eyes. This study, therefore, sought to evaluate the effect of Pistia stratiotes, a herbal remedy with anti-allergic properties, on tear secretion and tear film stability. ICR mice were grouped and treated with 5 mg/kg cetirizine, 10 mg/kg prednisolone, 100 mg/ kg leaf extract of P. stratiotes (LEPS), or 2 ml/kg normal saline per os for 7 consecutive days. With the phenol red thread test and the determination of fluorescein tear film break-up time, tear secretion and tear film stability before and after drug interventions were determined. Results recorded indicated that tear secretion and tear film stability declined significantly with cetirizine treatment (1.188 ± 0.4369 mm; P ≤ 0.05, and 2.688 ± 0.6185 s; P ≤ 0.001 respectively), while only tear secretion reduced significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in mice treated with prednisolone (0.9380 ± 0.4422 mm). Treatment with LEPS showed no significant effect (P > 0.05) on tear secretion and tear film stability (0.7050 ± 0.4236 mm, and 0.9790 ± 0.6145 s respectively); comparable to normal saline treatment. Per the findings, Pistia stratiotes does not affect tear secretion and tear film stability and hence is not likely to exhibit the adverse effect of dry eyes, as conventional anti-allergic drugs do, in the management of allergic conjunctivitis.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-448221

ABSTRACT

Objective In order to screen effective traditional Chinese medicine compounds to prevent and control porcine respiratory disease syndrome ( PRDC) , seven compound preparations of traditional Chinese medicine were tested and to analyze their antitussive and expectorant effects in mice .Methods Two hundred 6-week old ICR mice ( male∶fe-male=1∶1) were used in this study .Dextromethorphan and ammonium chloride were used as positive control drugs , and physiological saline was used as blank control .The antitussive and expectorant effects of the seven Chinese medicine com-pounds (groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) were observed by ammonia-induced cough model and tracheal phenol red secretion method in mice .Results The results showed that compounds 7 and 5 significantly prolonged the cough incubation period (P <0.05), and reduced the cough times within 5 min (P <0.05).Except for the group 4, tracheal phenol red excre-tion in the other groups was significantly lower than that of blank control group (P <0.05), and phenol red excretion in the mice of groups 7, 5 and ammonium chloride group was significantly lower than that in other treatment groups ( P <0.05).Conclusions The Chinese medicine compounds 5 and 7 show most evident expectorant effects , and worthy of fur-ther validation of them as a drug in the treatment of porcine respiratory disease syndrome .

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118098

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of the phenol red thread test as a diagnostic tool of dry eye by comparing the phenol red thread test, Schirmer's test and tear break-up time. METHODS: The present study included 30 dry eye patients belonging to dry eye workshop grade 1 or 2 and 25 normal subjects. Phenol red thread test, Schirmer's test, and tear break-up time were performed on each subject's right eye. The sensitivity, specificity and repeatability of each test were compared, and the correlations between the 3 tests were also analyzed. RESULTS: Tear break-up time was superior to the other tests in terms of sensitivity and repeatability. The phenol red thread test was better than Schirmer's test in terms of specificity and repeatability. In all 55 patients including dry eye patients and normal subjects, the phenol red thread test showed a greater correlation with tear break-up time than did Schirmer's test. In addition, in 25 dry eye patients, the correlation between the phenol red thread test and Schirmer's test increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The phenol red thread test is less irritating and requires a shorter testing time than Schirmer's test. Additionally, the phenol red thread test is superior to Schirmer's test in terms of specificity, repeatability, and relation to tear break-up time. In addition, the correlation between the phenol red thread test and Schirmer's test significantly increases in dry eye patients. Therefore, the phenol red thread test is a good substitute option for Schirmer's test in diagnosing dry eye.


Subject(s)
Eye , Humans , Phenol , Phenolsulfonphthalein , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tears
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The 13C-urea breath test (UBT) is a semiquantitative test for measuring Helicobacter pylori infection loading. H. pylori produces ammonia, which elevates the pH of the gastric mucosa and is detectable via endoscopy using a phenol red indicator. We evaluated whether this test could be used to diagnose H. pylori infection and whether phenol red staining was correlated with 13C-UBT results. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-three patients participated. The UBT was performed after ingestion of a capsule containing urea. A change in 13C-UBT >2 ppt was selected as the cutoff value for diagnosing infection. After spraying evenly with a 0.1% phenol red solution, the pH of the gastric mucosal surface was measured using an antimony electrode through the biopsy channel. RESULTS: The pH of stained mucosa (6.9+/-0.4) was significantly higher than that of unstained mucosa (1.9+/-0.8; p<0.001), and the H. pylori detection rate confirmed via histology was higher in stained versus unstained mucosa (p<0.01). Extensive mucosal staining resulted in a higher detection rate (p<0.001). The UBT produced results were very similar to those obtained via histological detection in stained mucosa (p<0.001). The extent of staining, expressed as a staining score, was positively correlated with the change in 13C-UBT (r=0.426, p<0.001). A significant correlation was also observed between the histologically determined H. pylori density and 13C-UBT results (r=0.674, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori infection elevates gastric mucosal surface pH, and endoscopic phenol red staining may be an alternative method for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Breath Tests , Clinical Enzyme Tests , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Esophageal pH Monitoring , Female , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenolsulfonphthalein , Urease
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29368

ABSTRACT

We measured the tear secretion rate in normal and dry eyes by using a cotton thread method. This new method measures basal tears by means of a yellow colored cotton thread(Hamano fiber) impregnated with phenol red. The 3mm bent end of a 70mm long thread is placed in the inferior conjunctival sac on the temporal side of the eye for 30 seconds. The length of the thread that is wet by the tears changes color soon from yellow to red as a result of the change in pH. We obtained the following results by using of Hamano thread test, as a modified Schirmer test. 1. The proper test time of this test was 30 seconds in view of the analysis of the amount of tear secretion with time. 2. Average wet lengths of normal male was 16.6mm, that of female was 15.7mm from 30 seconds test. 3. Distribution of wet lengths in 300 normal eyes were ranged from 4.0mm to 34.0mm and most of them(61%) were within 10 to 20mm. 4. Wet lengths with and without anesthesia showed no statistical significance(paired t-test, p>0.05). 5. Reproducibility of Hamano fiber test that was tested 3 times in same eye represented significance in statatics(paired t-tast, p<0.05).


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Female , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Male , Phenolsulfonphthalein , Tears
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