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1.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 22(3): 58-63, jul.-set. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1400151

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Como a frequência de pacientes em uso de anticoagulantes e antiagragantes plaquetários nos consultórios odontológicos é crescente, este trabalho objetivou avaliar através de Revisão de Literatura, qual o melhor manejo desses medicamentos na prática odontológica perioperatória. Metodologia: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, utilizadas as bases de dados Scielo e PubMed. Foram escolhidos os seguintes descritores disponíveis na BVs e PubMed em inglês "Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors", "Oral Surgical Procedures" e "Antigoagulants" no período de 2016 a 2021. Também foram consultados livros e sites de diretrizes do Governo. Foram escolhidos 20 artigos para elaboração da pesquisa. Resultados: doenças cardiovasculares e outras condições clínicas pró-coagulantes tem prevalência crescente e são conhecidos fatores de risco para a ocorrência de fenômenos tromboembólicos graves. A terapia antitrombótica tem papel definido nesses casos. No perioperatorio de cirurgias orais, a decisão por suspender ou manter a terapia deve ser individualizada e pode ser orientada por guidelines. Conclusão: procedimentos orais de baixo risco de sangramento podem ser conduzidos sem a descontinuação da terapia antitrombótica. Cirurgias de moderado a alto risco frequentemente requerem suspensão temporária das medicações para fins de minimizar os riscos de complicações hemorrágicas... (AU)


Objective: As the frequency of patients using anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents in dental offices is increasing, this study aimed to evaluate, through a Literature Review, which is the best management of these medications in dental perioperative practice. Methodology: This is an integrative literature review, being used Scielo and PubMed databases. The following descriptors available in BVs and PubMed "Platelet aggregation inhibitors", "Oral Surgical Procedures" and "Antigoagulants" were used, from 2016 to 2021. In addition, the search was also performed in guideline books and Government websites. Twenty articles were chosen for research elaboration. Results: established cardiovascular disease and other procoagulant clinical conditions have an increasing prevalence, especially among the elderly, and are known risk factors for the occurrence of severe thromboembolic phenomena. Antithrombotic therapy has defined role in these cases. In the perioperative period of oral surgery, the decision to suspend or maintain therapy must be individualized and may be guided by guidelines. Age appears as a clinical criterion in the main ones used. Conclusion: oral procedures with low risk of bleeding can be carried out without discontinuing antithrombotic therapy. Moderate to high-risk surgeries usually require its temporary suspension in order to minimize the risk of bleeding complications... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Coagulants , Oral Surgical Procedures , Anticoagulants , Dental Offices
2.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(1): 29-36, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1368992

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el síndrome de vena cava superior resulta de la obstrucción del flujo sanguíneo a través de este vaso. Casi la totalidad de los casos en la actualidad se asocian con tumores malignos. Existen controversias acerca del manejo apropiado de este cuadro. Actualmente, las terapias endovasculares son consideradas de elección. Materiales y métodos: se recolectaron y describieron, a partir de datos de la historia clínica electrónica, los casos de pacientes mayores de 18 años internados ­de forma consecutiva, que desarrollaron el síndrome­ en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires en 2021. Se constataron las características basales, los tratamientos recibidos y los desenlaces clínicos intrahospitaliarios de cada uno de ellos. Resultados: un total de cinco pacientes fueron incluidos en el presente estudio y seguidos durante su instancia intrahospitalaria. Todos los casos descriptos fueron secundarios a enfermedades oncológicas. La mayoría de los pacientes presentaron un cuadro de moderada gravedad según las escalas utilizadas. En cuatro de cinco pacientes se optó por terapias endovasculares y dos de ellos fallecieron durante la internación. Discusión: existen controversias respecto del tratamiento óptimo del síndrome de vena cava superior, y heterogeneidad en la práctica clínica. Los estudios futuros deberían centrarse en identificar a aquellos pacientes que más probablemente se beneficien de las estrategias terapéuticas endovasculares, anticoagulantes o antiagregantes. (AU)


Introduction: superior vena cava syndrome results from an obstruction of blood flow through this vessel. Currently, almost all cases are associated with malignancies. There are controversies about the optimal management of this syndrome. Endovascular therapies are considered the first-line therapy. Material and methods: we collected clinical, laboratory and pharmacological data from patients admitted at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, between January 1st and November 1st 2021 with a diagnosis o superior vein cava syndrome. Baseline characteristics, treatment strategies and clinical outcomes were recorded. Results: a total of five patients were included in the present study. All cases were malignancy-related. Most of the patientsdeveloped moderate symptoms. Four out of five patients were treated with endovascular therapies and two patients died during hospitalization. Discussion: controversies regarding optimal management of the superior vena cava syndrome remain. Future research should focus on identifying those patients who are most likely to benefit from endovascular, anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapeutic strategies. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome/therapy , Endovascular Procedures , Hospitalization , Neoplasms/complications , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome/etiology , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome/mortality , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stents , Electronic Health Records , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
3.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 88-94, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356309

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are indicated for the prevention of thromboembolic events and reduction of mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation and patients with valvular prostheses. However, their use is associated with bleeding complications and hospitalizations. Predictors of hospital admission for bleeding in these patients are poorly known. Objectives To define the predictors for hospitalization of VKA users who seek emergency care due to bleeding. Methods Single-center, cross-sectional study, with retrospective analysis of electronic medical records from 03/01/2012 to 02/27/2017. Clinical and laboratory variables were compared between patients who were hospitalized and those who were not. A logistic regression model as used, in which the variables were included using the Backward stepwise method, with a p value of 0.05 as the input criterion, a removal value of 0.20 and a confidence interval of 95%. The p-value was considered statistically significant when <0.05. Results A total of 510 patients with bleeding were included, of whom 158 were hospitalized. Predictors of hospitalization were: INR at supratherapeutic levels (OR 3.45; P <0.01; 95% CI 1.58 - 7.51), gastrointestinal bleeding (OR 2.36; P <0.01; CI 95% 1.24 - 4.50), drop in hemoglobin (OR 6.93; P <0.01; 95% CI 3.67 - 13.07), heart failure (OR 1.96; P 0.01; 95% CI 1.16 - 3.30) and need for blood transfusion (OR 8.03; P <0.01; 95% CI 2.98 - 21.64). Conclusion Drop in hemoglobin, heart failure, INR at supratherapeutic levels, gastrointestinal bleeding and need for blood transfusion were associated with hospitalization. Identification of these factors in the initial evaluation would help to define which patients will demand more intensive care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Warfarin , Hemorrhage , Hospitalization , Platelet Aggregation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19562, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394045

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the Coffea arabica Lineu (L.) leaf extract and its effects on platelet aggregation of dyslipidemic rats. The extract was obtained by the percolation of C. arabica L. leaves in hydroethanolic solution 70% (v/v). The mass spectrometry FIA-ESI-MS² suggested the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin acid, and quinic acid. The DPPH• radicals scavenging capacity was demonstrated (IC50 = 0.06 mg/mL). The extract was administered to rats by gavage (300 mg/kg/day) for 56 days. Dyslipidemia was induced by administering Triton WR-1339 (300 mg/kg body weight) on the 54th day. On day 56, blood was collected by puncturing the abdominal aorta artery and the aortic artery was removed. Lipid profile, markers of renal and hepatic injury, lipid peroxidation, and platelet aggregation tests were carried out. The ingestion of extract reduced the lipid peroxidation (aorta and plasma) and platelet aggregation in dyslipidemic rats. The extract did not affect markers of renal and hepatic function as analyzed in this study, suggesting neither impaired liver nor kidney function in these animals. Therefore, our results demonstrate that the extract of leaves of C. arabica L. show antioxidant potential in vitro and in vivo as well as anti-platelet aggregation in dyslipidemic animals


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Leaves/classification , Coffea/adverse effects , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Blood Platelets/classification , Platelet Aggregation , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO7001, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375340

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Low platelet reactivity levels are associated with higher risk of bleeding in patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy relative to patients with optimal platelet blockade. This study set out to evaluate the prevalence of low platelet reactivity in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with ticagrelor and aspirin. Methods: Patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction who were already undergoing dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and ticagrelor were enrolled. Blood samples were collected 1 hour before and 2 hours after the maintenance dose of ticagrelor to investigate trough and the peak effects of the drug respectively. Platelet reactivity was measured by three methods: Multiplate®, PFA-100® with Innovance® PFA-P2Y cartridge and PFA-100® with Collagen/ADP cartridge. Platelet reactivity was assessed in the presence of peak levels of ticagrelor and defined according to previously validated cut-offs for each method (<19 AUC, >299 seconds and >116 seconds respectively). The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Fifty patients were enrolled (44% with ST-elevation). Median duration of DAPT was 3 days (interquartile range, 2-5 days). On average, peak and trough platelet reactivity were markedly low and did not differ between different methods. Low platelet reactivity was common, but varied according to analytic method (PFA-100®/Innovance®PFA-P2Y: 86%; Multiplate®: 74%; PFA-100®/Collagen/ADP: 48%; p<0.001). Conclusion: Low platelet reactivity was very common in patients with acute myocardial infarction submitted to dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor and aspirin. Findings of this study justify the investigation of less intensive platelet inhibition strategies aimed at reducing the risk of bleeding in this population, such as lower dose regimens or monotherapy with P2Y12 inhibitors.

6.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 320-328, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933863

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the effect of anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs on bleeding and cardio-cerebral vascular events in perioperative period of catherization for peritoneal dialysis.Methods:The clinical data of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis catheterization in Peking University Third Hospital from July 1, 2010 to December 31, 2020 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into drugs discontinuation group and drugs continuation group according to whether the anticoagulant drugs or antiplatelet drugs were discontinued or not. Baseline clinical data and bleeding and cardio-cerebral events after surgery were compared between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors for bleeding and cardio-cerebral events.Results:A total of 57 patients were included in the study, with 34 males and 23 females. The age was (67.37±13.93) years old (range from 27 to 97 years old). There were 37 patients in drugs discontinuation group and 20 patients in drugs continuation group. The proportions of acute myocardial infarction events in drugs continuation group were higher than those in drugs discontinuation group in 3 months and 6 months before surgery (10/20 vs 3/37, χ2=10.671, P=0.001; 11/20 vs 3/37, χ2=12.980, P<0.001 respectively). The median drugs discontinuation time was 5.0(2.0, 14.0) d (range from 1 to 30 d) before surgery, and median restore medication time was 4.0(3.0, 7.0) d (range from 1 to 14 d) after surgery in drugs discontinuation group. There was no significant difference in the proportion of bleeding (10/37 vs 8/20, χ2=1.011, P=0.315) and cardio-cerebral events (4/37 vs 0/20, χ2=0.964, P=0.326) between drugs discontinuation group and drugs continuation group within 2 weeks after surgery. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that drugs discontinuation before surgery was not an independent influencing factor for bleeding events ( OR=0.656, 95% CI 0.195-2.206, P=0.496), however combination of aspirin and clopidogrel before surgery was an independent influencing factor for bleeding events ( OR=4.038, 95% CI 1.044-15.626, P=0.043). All cardio-cerebral events (4 cases) happened in drugs discontinuation group, and myocardial angina in 6 months before surgery ( OR=9.764, 95% CI 0.928-102.682, P=0.058) and increased serum calcium concentration ( OR=1.491, 95% CI 0.976-2.278, P=0.065) were related with an elevated trend for cardio-cerebral events. Conclusions:Whether anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs are discontinued before catherization surgery for peritoneal dialysis is not an independent influencing factor for bleeding events after surgery. The risk of postoperative bleeding in patients using combination of aspirin and clopidogrel should be paid attention. Myocardial angina in 6 months before surgery and higher serum calcium are related with an elevated trend for cardio-cerebral events after drugs discontinuation.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931689

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the effects of different doses of ticagrelor on microcirculation, inflammatory factors and cardiac function in older adult patients with coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Methods:A total of 250 older adult patients with coronary heart disease who received PCI in The First People's Hospital of Wenling, China between March 2019 and March 2020 were included in this study. They were randomly assigned into group A and group B, with 125 patients per group. The group A was subjected to staged exercise and oral ticagrelor (45 mg once, twice a day). The group B was given staged exercise and oral ticagrelor (90 mg once, twice a day). Platelet function (maximum platelet aggregation rate, P2Y12 reaction unit), microcirculation (the index of microcirculatory resistance, circulatory flow reserve), inflammatory factor levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6), cardiac function recovery (left ventricular ejection fraction, 6-minute walk test, maximal oxygen consumption), cardiovascular adverse events, and bleeding events were compared between the two groups.Results:After treatment, maximum platelet aggregation rate and P2Y12 reaction unit in group B were (28.79 ± 3.52)% and (132.36 ± 12.16) U, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in group A [(33.45 ± 4.60)%, (146.79 ± 13.52) U, t = 8.99, 8.87, both P < 0.001]. After treatment, the index of microcirculatory resistance in group B was significantly lower than that in group A [(26.43 ± 4.51) vs. (29.68 ± 5.14), t = 5.31, P < 0.001]. Circulatory flow reserve in group B was significantly higher than that in group A [(2.16 ± 0.62) vs. (1.61 ± 0.50), t = 7.72, P < 0.001]. After treatment, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in group B were (39.54 ± 6.74) ng/L, (19.68 ± 4.06) ng/L, (5.98 ± 1.35) mg/L, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in group A [(28.26 ± 6.15) ng/L, (15.33 ± 3.87) ng/L, (4.83 ± 1.28) mg/L, t = 13.82, 8.67, 6.91, all P < 0.001]. After treatment, left ventricular ejection fraction, 6-minute walk test, maximal oxygen consumption in group B were (37.39 ± 5.10)%, (443.28 ± 29.64) m, (19.69 ± 3.57) L/min, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in group A [(34.64 ± 4.86)%, (410.45 ± 25.76) m, (17.33 ± 3.27) L/min, t = 4.36, 9.34, 5.45, all P < 0.001]. There was no significant difference in total incidence of cardiovascular events between the two groups (χ 2 = 0.05, P > 0.05). The incidence of bleeding events in group A was significantly lower than that in group B (4.80% vs. 13.60%, χ 2 = 5.79, P < 0.05). Conclusion:Compared with ticagrelor 90 mg/d, ticagrelor 180 mg/d can more greatly improve platelet function and microcirculation, reduce inflammatory reaction, promote the recovery of cardiac function, and reduce bleeding events in older adult patients with coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929910

ABSTRACT

Stent-assisted coil embolization is a common endovascular treatment for ruptured/unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Stent implantation process can damage vascular endothelium, activate platelet and coagulation cascade, and then increase the risk of thrombosis. In order to reduce the risk of postoperative embolism, antiplatelet therapy is required. Among them, aspirin combined with clopidogrel dual antiplatelet therapy is a commonly used strategy. For patients with low response to clopidogrel, tigrelol or cilostazol can be used as an alternative drug. Although the scheme has been considered to be effective and safe, it is still controversial.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929875

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of the possibility of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) as assessed by the four-variable score on the platelet function and the risk of stroke recurrence in patients with acute ischemic stroke.Methods:Patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to the Department of Neurology, Weihai Municipal Hospital from January 2020 to January 2021 were enrolled prospectively. Main inclusion criteria: admission within 24 h of onset; National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤3; Receiving aspirin + clopidogrel dual antiplatelet therapy. All patients were divided into a high possibility group and a low possibility group of SDB according to the four-variable score. 7±2 d after dual antiplatelet therapy, PL-12 multi-parameter platelet function analyzer was used to detect the maximum aggregation rate (MAR). The patients were followed up for 6 months after discharge and the recurrence of ischemic stroke was observed. The mediating effect model was established with the high possibility of SDB as the independent variable, MAR as the intermediary variable and stroke recurrence as the dependent variable. Firstly, MAR as the dependent variable and high probability of SDB as the independent variable were analyzed by linear regression; then, a binary logistic regression analysis was performed with ischemic stroke recurrence as the dependent variable and the high probability of SDB and MAR as independent variables. Results:A total of 213 patients were enrolled in the study. The average age of the patients was 62.70 ± 10.04 years old. There were 146 male (68.5%) and 121 patients (56.8%) were in the high possibility group (56.8%). During the follow-up period, 24 patients (11.3%) had stroke recurrence. Univariate analysis showed that arachidonic acid (AA) induced MAR (MAR-AA) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) induced the MAR (MAR-ADP) in the high possibility group of SDB were significantly higher than those in the low possibility group (all P<0.05); MAR-AA and MAR-ADP in the recurrent group were significantly higher than those in the non-recurrent group (all P<0.05), and the proportion of high possibility of SDB in the recurrent group was significantly higher ( P=0.008). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that homocysteine (odds ratio 1.132, 95% confidence interval 1.048-1.223; P=0.002) and having high possibility of SDB (odds ratio 6.351, 95% confidence interval 1.134-35.566; P=0.035) were the independent risk factors for stroke recurrence in patients treated with dual antiplatelet therapy. Intermediary effect analysis showed that MAR had a significant intermediary effect on the risk of stroke recurrence in patients with high probability of SDB. Conclusion:The MAR and stroke recurrence rates in the high possibility group of SDB were significantly higher than those in the low possibility group, and its stroke risk was probably mediated by platelet hyperreactivity.

10.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(6): 675-684, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352292

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by progressive narrowing of the arterial lumen, resulting from atherosclerotic plaques. Treatment for PAD aims to control atherosclerosis and improve blood flow. Use of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants has played important roles in helping to prevent occlusions and stenosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews regarding the accuracy, effectiveness and safety of use of anticoagulants and antiplatelets in lower-limb revascularization, in patients with peripheral arterial disease. METHODS: Systematic reviews found through searches in the Cochrane Library were included. Two authors evaluated whether the reviews found were in line with the inclusion criteria for this investigation. A qualitative synthesis of their findings was presented. RESULTS: Three systematic Cochrane reviews were included. Patients who underwent prosthetic bypass surgery probably presented greater benefit from use of antiplatelets, and patients who underwent vein revascularization probably presented greater benefit from use of anticoagulants. Patients who received endovascular treatment benefited from both antiplatelet and anticoagulant treatment. However, the reliability of the results found was impaired because at the time when these reviews were published, there was no mandatory assessment using the GRADE criteria. CONCLUSION: Despite the evidence found, it is necessary for these reviews to be updated in order to evaluate the degree of certainty of the results found.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Peripheral Arterial Disease/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Reproducibility of Results , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(2): e4002, ago. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1290002

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades cardiovasculares representan la primera causa de muerte en el mundo. El manejo de los síndromes coronarios ha avanzado formidablemente en los últimos 50 años, reduciendo el riesgo isquémico, a expensas del consiguiente aumento del riesgo hemorrágico. La Sociedad Europea de Cardiología publicó en el año 2020 la guía sobre el manejo de síndrome coronario agudo sin elevación del segmento ST, donde se destacan cambios en los algoritmos de estratificación de riesgo y la terapia antiplaquetaria y anticoagulante como dos de los aspectos principales. En el presente editorial se resumen las principales novedades publicadas en este documento.


Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. The management of coronary syndromes has advanced dramatically in the last 50 years, reducing ischemic risk, but observing an increase in bleeding risk. The European Society of Cardiology published in 2020 the guideline on the management of acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation, where changes in risk stratification algorithms and antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy are highlighted as two of the main aspects. This editorial summarizes the main developments published in this document.


A doença cardiovascular é a principal causa de morte em todo o mundo. O manejo das síndromes coronarianas avançou dramaticamente nos últimos 50 anos, reduzindo o risco isquêmico, mas observando um aumento no risco de sangramento. A Sociedade Europeia de Cardiologia publicou em 2020 a diretriz sobre o manejo da síndrome coronariana aguda sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST, onde as alterações nos algoritmos de estratificação de risco e na terapia antiplaquetária e anticoagulante são destacadas como dois dos principais aspectos. Este editorial resume os principais desenvolvimentos publicados neste documento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Europe
12.
Rev. argent. cardiol ; 89(3): 217-224, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356877

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Existe información limitada sobre estrategias de tratamiento con inhibidores del receptor P2Y12 (iP2Y12) en síndromes coronarios agudos sin elevación del segmento ST (SCASEST) en la vida real. Objetivos: Determinar la incidencia de eventos cardíacos adversos mayores (MACE)y sangrado BARC ≥2, según la estrategia de tratamiento con iP2Y12 a 6 meses. Material y métodos: Subanálisis preespecificado del registro BUENOS AIRES I (n = 1100). Se estratificó la cohorte según "pretratamiento" con iP2Y12 (antes de conocer la anatomía coronaria), o "tratamiento en sala" (luego de conocer la anatomía coronaria) y se analizó la incidencia de eventos clínicos, según: pretratamiento con clopidogrel/ticagrelor, tratamiento en sala con clopidogrel/ticagrelor. Resultados: La edad media fue 65,4 ± 11,5 años, con 77,2% de sexo masculino. El 79,72% recibió iP2Y12, el 75% como pretratamiento y 25% como tratamiento en sala. Los pacientes con pretratamiento fueron más jóvenes y con más infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM), en comparación con el subgrupo de tratamiento en sala. A los 6 meses, no hubo diferencias significativas en la incidencia de MACE (16,4% vs. 14,4%; p = 0,508), o sangrado BARC ≥2 (14,7% vs. 11,1%; p = 0,205), entre los distintos momentos de administración del iP2Y12. El tratamiento con ticagrelor presentó menos MACE en comparación con el clopidogrel (p = 0,044), sin diferencias en sangrados. No se observaron diferencias en MACE entre ticagrelor en pretratamiento o tratamiento en sala (p = 0,893). Conclusiones: El subgrupo de pacientes seleccionados para recibir pretratamiento con iP2Y12 no presentó diferencias en MACE ni sangrado en relación con los tratados en sala. Los pacientes seleccionados para su tratamiento con ticagrelor en sala presentaron un balance beneficioso entre eventos isquémicos y hemorrágicos.


ABSTRACT Background: There is limited real life information on treatment strategies with P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (P2Y12i) in nonST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS). Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and BARC bleeding ≥2, according to the treatment strategy with P2Y12i at 6 months. Methods: The study used the pre-specified subanalysis of the BUENOS AIRES I registry (n=1100). The cohort was stratified according to P2Y12i "pretreatment" (before knowing the coronary anatomy), or "ward treatment" (after knowing the coronary anatomy), and the incidence of clinical events was analyzed according to pretreatment or ward treatment with clopidogrel/ ticagrelor. Results: Mean age was 65.4 ± 11.5 years and 77.2% were male patients. In 79.72% of cases patients received P2Y12i, 75% as pretreatment and 25% as ward treatment. Pretreatment patients were younger and with greater prevalence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared with the ward treatment subgroup. At 6 months, there were no significant differences in the incidence of MACE (16.4% vs. 14.4%; p = 0.508), or BARC bleeding ≥2 (14.7% vs. 11.1%; p = 0.205), between the different times of P2Y12i administration. Treatment with ticagrelor presented reduced MACE compared with clopidogrel (p = 0.044), with no difference in bleeding. No MACE differences were observed between pretreatment or in ward treatment with ticagrelor (p=0.893). Conclusions: The subgroup of patients selected to receive P2Y12i pretreatment did not present differences in MACE or bleeding relative to those treated in ward. Patients selected for ticagrelor treatment in ward presented a beneficial balance between ischemic and hemorrhagic events.

13.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 69(3): e201, 20210326. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356743

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Sticky platelet syndrome (SPS) is a prothrombotic condition characterized by increased platelet aggregation that causes arterial and venous thrombosis. Its diagnosis is reached by identifying increased aggregation using low concentrations of adenosine diphosphate and epinephrine in platelet aggregation tests. Objectives: To identify common mutations through exome sequencing in two patients from the same family diagnosed with SPS and, thus, contribute to the molecular study of this disease. Materials and methods: Descriptive study. In January 2018, exome sequencing was performed in a 10-year-old patient treated at Fundación HOMI (Bogotá D.C., Colombia), index case, and in one of his adult first-degree relatives, both with a history of thrombotic disease and diagnosed with SPS. Exome sequencing was performed at the Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (Spain) using the SureSelect Clinical Research Exome V2 software by Agilent. Results: Exome sequencing led to detect genetic variants in both cases when compared with the reference sequence. The following variant was identified in the two samples: a cytosine to thymine transition at position c.236 (NM_000174.4) of the glycoprotein (GP)Ib-IX-V complex platelet membrane receptor, which causes a heterozygous transition of the amino acid threonine to isoleucine (i.e., a transition from hydrophilic amino acid to a hydrophobic amino acid) at position p. 79 of the extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain of GPIba subunit of the (GP)Ib-IX complex, involving a conformational change of the main receptor of ligands IB alpha, which might result in platelet hyperaggregation and thrombosis. This variant has not been described in patients with SPS to date. Conclusion: The mutation identified in both samples could be related to SPS considering the importance of glycoprotein IX in platelet function.


Resumen Introducción. El síndrome de plaqueta pegajosa (SPP) es una condición protrombótica caracterizada por un incremento de la agregabilidad plaquetaria que causa trombosis arterial y venosa. Su diagnóstico se realiza al identificar el aumento de la agregabilidad utilizando bajas concentraciones de adenosín difosfato y epinefrina en pruebas de agregación plaquetaria. Objetivos. Identificar mutaciones comunes mediante secuenciación del exoma en dos pacientes de una misma familia con diagnóstico de SPP y, de esta forma, contribuir al estudio molecular de esta enfermedad. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo en el que se realizó secuenciación del exoma en un paciente de 10 años atendido en la Fundación HOMI (Bogotá, Colombia), caso índice, y en uno de sus familiares adultos en primer grado, ambos con antecedente de enfermedad trombótica y diagnosticados con SPP. La secuenciación del exoma se realizó en el Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (España) con el programa SureSelect Clinical Research Exome V2 de Agilent. Resultados. En la secuenciación del exoma se detectaron variantes genéticas en ambos casos en comparación con la secuencia de referencia. En las muestras de ambos pacientes se identificó una variante heterocigota consistente en una transición de citosina a timina en la posición c.236 (NM_000174.4) que provoca el cambio del aminoácido treonina por isoleucina en la posición p.79 del dominio extracelular repetitivo rico en leucina (subunidad GPIba del complejo de la glicoproteína Ib-IX-V) y que podría provocar el cambio conformacional del receptor principal del ligando Ib alfa, así como hiperagregación plaquetaria y trombosis. Esta variante no ha sido descrita previamente en pacientes con SPP. Conclusión. La mutación identificada en las muestras estudiadas podría estar relacionada con el SPP considerando la importancia de la glicoproteína IX en las funciones plaquetarias.

14.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(1): e1230, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251721

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las plaquetas tienen una función clave en la hemostasia primaria a través de cuatro mecanismos fundamentales: adhesión, agregación, secreción y actividad procoagulante, todos controlados genéticamente por más de 50 genes asociados que han sido identificados. Las manifestaciones clínicas en las alteraciones hereditarias de las plaquetas suelen ser variables; aunque estas alteraciones de la coagulación suelen presentarse con una trombocitopenia notoria, también pueden exhibir trombocitopatías, en las cuales la capacidad hemostática de las plaquetas resulta afectada sin variar su número. Por tanto, existen gran variedad de manifestaciones fenotípicas y mutaciones en relación con la función plaquetaria, algunas de las cuales se explicarán más adelante. Objetivo: Realizar revisión práctica sobre mutaciones plaquetarias hereditarias de baja incidencia y destacar la importancia de su conocimiento, correcto diagnóstico, y tratamiento precoz. Métodos: Se realizó revisión literaria en inglés y españolen MEDLINE, EMBASE, Lilacs y ScienceDirect desde mayo 2019 hasta abril 2020, con el uso de combinación de palabras clave y términos MeSH relacionados con trombastenia, genética médica, hemostasis, agregación plaquetaria, trombopoyesis. Se efectuó análisis y resumen de la bibliografía revisada. Conclusión: Entre las alteraciones hereditarias de las plaquetas se pueden encontrar defectos en todos los mecanismos en que participan; sin embargo, la confirmación diagnóstica sigue siendo complicada por el tiempo y el costo que representa lo que ocasiona diagnósticos inadecuados que impactan en el manejo clínico y la evolución(AU)


Introduction: Platelets have a key role in primary hemostasis through four main mechanisms: adhesion, aggregation, secretion and procoagulant activity, all of these controlled by over 50 associated genes that have been identified. Clinical signs of hereditary platelets alterations are usually variable; even though these disorders of hemostasis generally course with a notorious thrombocytopenia, they also might have thrombocytopathies, in which the hemostatic capacity of platelets is affected without altering its number. According to this, there's a great variety of phenotypic manifestations and mutations that affect platelet function, some of these will be explained later on. Objective: To make a practical review of hereditary platelets mutations that have low incidence in population and to highlight the importance of knowing about them, how to diagnose them and early treatment. Methods: A review of literature in both Spanish and English, was done based on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Lilacs and ScienceDirect, during May 2019 and April 2020 using key words and MeSH terms such as thrombasthenia, medical genetics, hemostasis, platelets aggregation, thromopoiesis. Then, an analysis and summary of the reviewed bibliography was carried out. Conclusion: Among the hereditary alterations of platelets, many defects can be found in every mechanism involved; however, diagnostic confirmation is still complicated due to time and cost, causing inaccurate diagnoses that impact on clinic management and evolution(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Coagulation , Blood Platelet Disorders/epidemiology , Platelet Aggregation/immunology , Early Diagnosis , Genetics, Medical , Hemostasis/genetics , Blood Platelet Disorders/prevention & control
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 229-235, fev. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153018

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A dupla antiagregação plaquetária (DAP) é o tratamento fundamental do infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM). Objetivo O presente estudo visou investigar a eficácia e a segurança da tripla antiagregação plaquetária (TAP) em pacientes femininas idosas com diabetes e infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnível do segmento ST (IAMCSST), que foram submetidas à intervenção coronária percutânea ICP. Métodos Trata-se se de um estudo randomizado e mono-cego. O grupo controle A (97 pacientes idosos do sexo masculino com diabetes e STEMI, cujos escores CRUSADE foram < 30) recebeu aspirina, ticagrelor e tirofibana. Um total de 162 pacientes femininas idosas com diabetes e IAMCSST foram divididas aleatoriamente em dois grupos de acordo com o escore CRUSADE. O grupo B (69 pacientes com escore CRUSADE > 31) recebeu aspirina e ticagrelor. O grupo C (93 pacientes com escore CRUSADE < 30) recebeu aspirina, ticagrelor e tirofibana. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados Após a PCI, o fluxo sanguíneo grau 3 Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) e a perfusão miocárdica TIMI grau 3 foram significativamente menos prevalentes no grupo B, em comparação com o grupo A (p < 0,05). Quando comparada aos grupos A e C, a incidência de complicações adversas maiores foi significativamente maior no grupo B (p < 0,05). Conclusão A TAP pode efetivamente reduzir a incidência de complicações maiores em pacientes idosas com diabetes e IAMCSST. No entanto, atenção cuidadosa deve ser dada à hemorragia em pacientes que recebem TAP. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is the cornerstone treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Objective The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of triple antiplatelet therapy (TAPT) in elderly female patients with diabetes and ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods We designed a randomized, single-blind study. Control group A (97 elderly male patients with diabetes and STEMI, whose CRUSADE scores were < 30) received aspirin, ticagrelor, and tirofiban. A total of 162 elderly female patients with diabetes and STEMI were randomly divided into two groups according to CRUSADE score. Group B (69 patients with CRUSADE score > 31) received aspirin and ticagrelor. Group C (93 patients with CRUSADE score < 30) received aspirin, ticagrelor and tirofiban. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Compared to the findings in group A, post-PCI Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grade 3 blood flow and TIMI myocardial perfusion grade 3 were significantly less prevalent in group B (p < 0.05). When compared to groups A and C, the incidence of major adverse complications was significantly higher in group B (p < 0.05). Conclusion TAPT could effectively reduce the incidence of major complications in elderly female patients with diabetes and STEMI. However, close attention should be paid to hemorrhage in patients receiving TAPT. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
16.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 42: 1-14, 20210101.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177731

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The study aimed to determine the effect of coffee intake on AGEs formation and platelet aggregation in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods: Coffee powder samples were used to prepare a 10% beverage. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the animals by administering 2% alloxan. All animal experiments were approved by the ethics committee for animal experiments under N°. 420/2012 and 536/2013. Diabetic and non-diabetic rats were divided into 6 groups treated and untreated with coffee (7.2 mL/Kg body weight) and aminoguanidine (AGE inhibiting agent) (100 mg/Kg body weight) for 50 days. After 50 days, the animals were fasted for 12 h and anesthetized (40 mg/Kg sodium pentobarbital) intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from the abdominal artery puncture. Hematological parameters (red cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and leukocyte) and glycemic and HbA1c levels were measured. AGEs quantification (spectrofluorometric method) and the platelet aggregation test (aggregation of cuvettes in a four-channel platelet aggregometer) were also conducted. The rats' renal function was evaluated by measuring serum urea and creatinine. Results: Data showed that coffee intake had no effect on the hematological parameters. Fasting glucose and HbA1c dosage were significantly higher in diabetic animals compared to non-diabetic animals (confirmed the effectiveness of inducing and maintaining diabetic status). Results showed that coffee reduced AGE formation and platelet aggregation in our animal model, not altering the animals' renal function. Conclusions: These results suggest beneficial effects on vasculopathy, a common complication in diabetic patients.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909158

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of a loading dose of clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate on hemorheology and neurological function in patients with acute progressive cerebral infarction.Methods:A total of 110 patients with acute progressive cerebral infarction who received treatment between January 2018 and January 2019 in the Affiliated Hospital of Shaoxing University, China were included in this study. They were randomly assigned to receive either conventional treatment (control group, n = 55) or treatment with a loading dose of clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate based on conventional treatment (study group, n = 55) for 2 weeks. Hemorheological parameters, National Institute Health of Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and adverse reactions were compared between the study and control groups. Results:After treatment, the levels of hemorheological parameters in both groups were obviously decreased. Plasma viscosity, high-shear whole blood viscosity, low-shear whole blood viscosity, fibrinogen level and hematocrit in the study group were (1.01± 0.37) mPa/s, (4.23 ± 0.35) mPa/s, (8.36 ± 1.64) mPa/s, (1.23 ± 0.28) g/L, (40.08 ± 5.04) %, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the control group [(1.84 ± 0.52) mPa/s, (5.44 ± 0.39) mPa/s, (10.54 ± 1.79) mPa/s, (2.30 ± 0.37) g/L, (44.36 ± 5.12) %, t = 5.485, 8.594, 9.523, 7.789, 11.236, P = 0.019, 0.006, 0.004, 0.007, 0.001]. After treatment, NIHSS scores in the study group were significantly lower than those in the control group [(3.11 ± 1.17) points vs. (6.43 ± 2.25) points, t = 10.416, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between study and control groups [5.45% (3/55) vs. 9.09% (5/55), χ2 = 0.539, P = 0.463). Conclusion:The loading dose of clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate is highly effective in the treatment of acute progressive cerebral infarction and it can greatly improve hemorheological parameters and neurological function.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907973

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the relationship between platelet aggregation function changes in children with sepsis and its prognosis.Methods:This was a prospective observational study involving 53 children with sepsis and platelet count of > 100×10 9/L who were admitted in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of Children′s Hospital Affiliated to the Capital Institute of Pediatrics from January 2017 to December 2018.During the same period, 53 age-matched healthy children were selected as the healthy control group.Platelet aggregation function was detected in each participant, and the differences between the two groups were compared.In addition, 53 children with sepsis were sub-divided into risk group (≤80 grades) and non-risk group (>80 grades) according to pediatric critical illness scores (PCIS). They were further divided into sepsis survival group and sepsis death group according to the prognosis within 24 hours of admission.Platelet aggregation function test was performed on the 1 st and 3 rd day of admission, conventional coagulation function and clinical data were detected as well.Their differences between risk group and non-risk group, and sepsis survival group and sepsis death group were compared, so as to analyze the correlation between platelet aggregation function and clinical prognosis of children with sepsis. Results:No significant differences in the gender and age were found between sepsis group and the healthy control group (all P>0.05). In sepsis group, no significant differences in the gender and age were found between risk group and non-risk group (all P>0.05). There were 44 cases (83%) in sepsis survival group and 9 cases (17%) in sepsis death group.Platelet aggregation function was significantly worse in sepsis death group than in the healthy control group (47.4% vs.79.9%, P<0.001). Compared with non-risk group, platelet aggregation function in risk group significantly decreased (32.5% vs.53.4%, P<0.05). Fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet count in risk group were significantly lower than those of non-risk group (3.28 g/L vs.4.53 g/L and 215×10 9/L vs.346×10 9/L, respectively, all P<0.05). Fibrin degradation products (FDP) in risk group was higher than non-risk group(12.1 mg/L vs.6.0 mg/L, P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and D-Dimer between risk group and non-risk group (all P>0.05). Platelet aggregation function in the death group was significantly lower than that of survival group (11.1% vs.59.7%, P<0.001). On the 1 st and 3 rd day of admission, platelet aggregation function of died children in risk group continued to be low (11.1%, 10.9%), while platelet aggregation function of survival children was relatively high (59.7%, 65.7%). Platelet aggregation function was positively correlated with FIB, Ca 2+ levels and PCIS ( P<0.05, P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that platelet aggregation function was a contributing factor to the mortality of children with sepsis.According to receiver operating characteristic curve of platelet aggregation function in predicting the mortality of children with sepsis, area under curve was 0.889, cut-off value was 18.3%, sensitivity was 88.6%, and specificity was 77.8% ( P<0.001), suggesting that a lower than 18.3% of platelet aggregation function predicted an increased risk of death in children with sepsis. Conclusions:In children with sepsis, there is a decrease in platelet aggregation function, while the platelet count has not decreased.Platelet aggregation function in children with sepsis is correlated with the severity of the disease.In detail, reduced platelet aggregation in early sepsis is an alarm of a poor prognosis in children with sepsis.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907371

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic kidney dysfunction (CKD) have abnormal coagulation function and impaired drug metabolism, resulting in increased bleeding risk and decreased drug clearance. Therefore, while receiving treatment, the prognosis of ischemic stroke patients with CKD is different from that of ischemic stroke patients without CKD. For patients with CKD who need anticoagulant treatment, the use of new anticoagulants without renal metabolism can achieve the same anticoagulant effect as warfarin, and the risk of bleeding is lower. When using antiplatelet drugs, due to the increased risk of bleeding in ischemic stroke patients with CKD, the clinical benefits and bleeding risk should be carefully weighed. Although CKD is not an absolute contraindication of intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke, attention should be paid to the influence of CKD on the increased risk of death in patients with ischemic stroke after treatment.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907357

ABSTRACT

Patients with mild stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) have a high risk of early recurrence or deterioration. Antiplatelet therapy has been recognized to reduce the risk of ischemic vascular events. All guidelines recommend antiplatelet therapy for patients with ischemic stroke. Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) refers to the application of two drugs with different mechanisms to block platelet aggregation and prevent thrombosis. There are many combinations of DAPT, and its safety and effectiveness are still uncertain. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of DAPT in patients with mild stroke and TIA.

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