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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821965

ABSTRACT

@#In recent years, due to precise control of the amorphous mineral precursor in the demineralization of dentine collagen fibers in orderly deposition, forming apatite crystals similar to the natural mineralized dentin, the bottom-up remineralization approach which does not depend on the existence of seed crystallites, dentin biomimetic mineralization techniques gradually become a hotspot in the research field of restoration of demineralized dentin caused by dental caries. This paper reviews the changing concepts and practices of the remineralization of demineralized dentin, emphasizing biomimetic remineralization studies. The results of the literature review show that the traditional dentin remineralization method is usually a disordered mixture of demineralized dentin and minerals, so mineralized dentin is not comparable to natural mineralized dentin in terms of the morphological characteristics and mechanical properties. With its gradual increase in recent years, dentine biomimetic mineralization technology perfectly resembles the minerals in the dentin overlapping sequence arranged with the dentine collagen fiber structure characteristics, leading to greatly improved microstructural, physical and chemical properties. As a result, dentine biomimetic mineralization technology is expected to achieve new breakthroughs in the fields of resin-dentin bonding mixing layers and the decay of dentin. At present, the technical obstacles that need to be overcome in the clinical application of the biomimetic remineralization of dentin are how to continuously supplement all the active ingredients needed for mineralization in the process of remineralization and how to keep the mechanical properties of the parent material unchanged while slowly releasing all ingredients. Researchers have successively proposed three-step transportation of the biomimetic remineralization of raw materials, as well as the preparation of mineralization precursors stabilized by polymers in advance and the reuse of mesoporous silicon nanomaterials for the transportation of the mineralized ingredient system. The concept described above provides the preliminary in vitro experimental basis for the transformation of the biomimetic remineralization strategy of dentin in clinical applications.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775007

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticles are considered to be a powerful approach for the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. One of the main challenges is developing an appropriate method for preparation of drug nanoparticles. As a simple, rapid and scalable method, the flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) has been widely used to fabricate these drug nanoparticles, including pure drug nanocrystals, polymeric micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, and polyelectrolyte complexes. This review introduces the application of FNP to produce poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles by controllable mixing devices, such as confined impinging jets mixer (CIJM), multi-inlet vortex mixer (MIVM) and many other microfluidic mixer systems. The formation mechanisms and processes of drug nanoparticles by FNP are described in detail. Then, the controlling of supersaturation level and mixing rate during the FNP process to tailor the ultrafine drug nanoparticles as well as the influence of drugs, solvent, anti-solvent, stabilizers and temperature on the fabrication are discussed. The ultrafine and uniform nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles prepared by CIJM, MIVM and microfluidic mixer systems are reviewed briefly. We believe that the application of microfluidic mixing devices in laboratory with continuous process control and good reproducibility will be benefit for industrial formulation scale-up.

3.
Br J Med Med Res ; 2014 May; 4(14): 2661-2683
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-175208

ABSTRACT

Aims: The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize the poly (acrylic acid) or PAA with different molecular architectures, use these polymers to formulate the cements with glass fillers, and evaluate the mechanical strengths of the formed cements. Materials and Methods: The novel poly (acrylic acid)s with different molecular architectures were synthesized via ATRP technique. The reaction kinetics was studied. The formed cements were evaluated using compression, diametral compression, and 3- point bending, fracture toughness, knoop hardness, and wear resistance tests. The experimental cement was also evaluated for its in vitro biocompatibility. Results: The results showed that either hyperbranched or star-hyperbranched polymer synthesis proceeds more slowly at the early stage but accelerates more quickly at the later stage than the star-shaped polymer synthesis. The higher the arm number and initiator concentration, the faster the ATRP reaction. It was also found that the higher the arm number and branching that the polymer had, the lower the viscosity of the polymer aqueous solution and the lower the mechanical strengths of the formed cement exhibited. The mechanical strengths of all three experimental glass-ionomer cements were very similar to each other but much higher than those of Fuji II LC. The aging study showed that all the experimental cements increased their CS continuously during 30 days, unlike Fuji II LC. This novel cement system was proven to be in vitro biocompatible because it showed no any noticeable cytotoxicity to human dental pulp cells and mouse 3T3 mouse fibroblasts.

4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 53(3): 623-628, May-June 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-548583

ABSTRACT

The antimicrobial activity of chitosan and water soluble interpolyelectrolyte complexes of poly(acrylic acid)-chitosan was studied. Chitosans of two different molecular weights were tested at different concentration for 0.5 to 5 g·L-1 as antimicrobial agents against P. aeruginosa and P. oleovorans. In both cases, the best microbial inhibition was obtained with the concentration of 5 g·L-1. However, the interpolyelectrolyte complexes of poly(acrylic acid)-chitosan with composition φ =2 produced higher antibacterial activity than the two chitosans at the concentration of 0.5 g·L-1. The NPEC2 complex was more effective than chitosans. This could be attributed to the number of moles of the amino groups of chitosan and the carboxylic acid groups of the interpolyelectrolyte complexes poly(acrylic acid).


A atividade antimicrobiana de quitosana e complexos interpolieletrolíticos hidrossoluvéis de poli(ácido acrílico)-quitosana foi estudada. Quitosanas de dois diferentes pesos moleculares foram testados em diferentes concentrações, 0,5 a 5 g • L-1, como agentes antimicrobianos nas P. aeruginosa e P. oleovorans. Em ambos os casos, obteu-se a melhor inibição microbiana com a concentração de 5 g • L-1, no entanto os complexos interpolieletrolíticos de poli (ácido acrílico)-quitosana com composição φ = 2 apresentaram maior atividade antibacteriana do que os dois quitosans na concentração de 0,5 g • L-1. O complexo NPEC2 foi mais eficaz do que as quitosanas, sendo que o resultado pode ser atribuído ao número de moles dos grupos aminos da quitosana e aos grupos carboxílicos dos complexos de poli(ácido acrílico).

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