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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226252, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1366526

ABSTRACT

Universal health coverage is a global target included in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals agenda for 2030. Healthcare in Brazil has universal coverage through the Unified Health System (SUS), which guarantees health as basic right to the Brazilian population. Considering the principles of SUS, public oral healthcare management is a huge challenge. Aim: To identify good management practices for quality care adopted by local public oral healthcare managers and teams around Brazil. Methods: This study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017051639). Five databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus and Lilacs) as well as the reference lists and citations of the included publications were searched according to PRISMA guidelines. Results:A total of 30,895 references were initially found, which were evaluated according to the defined eligibility criteria. Twenty qualitative studies, eight surveys and two mixed-model studies were selected. The practices (codes) were organized into three main groups (families), and the Frequency of the Effect Size (FES) of each code was calculated. Among the 20 codes identified, the most relevant ones were: Diagnosis and Health Planning (FES=80%) and Family Health Strategy(FES=66,7). The Intensity of the Effect Size of each study was also calculated to demonstrate the individual contribution of each study to the conclusions. Conclusion: The evidence emerging from this review showed that healthcare diagnosis, planning, and performance based on the family health strategy principles were the most relevant practices adopted by public oral healthcare managers in Brazil. The widespread adoption of these practices could lead to improved oral healthcare provision and management in Brazil


Subject(s)
Humans , Unified Health System , Dental Care , Health Management , Health Policy , Brazil
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(3): 871-879, mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364690

ABSTRACT

Resumen A través de una etnografía basada en la observación, entrevistas a profesionales y el vaciado de documentación, en este artículo describo y analizo cómo, en la práctica clínica del Chagas, la infección es tratada como un riesgo latente. Sugiero que la gestión que se hace de este riesgo ha posibilitado la práctica clínica entre las personas clasificadas en la etapa indeterminada, añadiendo una dimensión de posibilidad (¿va a pasar?) y de potencialidad (¿cuándo y dónde?) que permite tomar acciones tales como la administración de un medicamento o una monitorización permanente. La reificación del riesgo latente como fenómeno gestionable a través de un proceso de medicalización se articula, a su vez, con otras concepciones y experiencias concretas del riesgo entre los grupos afectados. Situar la práctica clínica de dicho riesgo como objeto de estudio es un primer paso para poderlas describir e incluir como realidades en la organización del sistema de salud.


Abstract Drawing on observation-based ethnography, interviews of health personnel and document review, this article describes and examines how, in clinical handling of Chagas disease, infection is treated as latent risk. It suggests that how this risk is managed has enabled a clinical practice to be conducted among people classified as at the indeterminate stage, by adding a dimension of possibility (Is it going to happen?) and potentiality (When and where?). This allows measures to be taken, including administration of medication or permanent monitoring. The reification of latent risk as a phenomenon that is manageable through a process of medicalisation engages, in turn, with other conceptions and specific experiences of risk among the affected groups. Framing the clinical practices deployed to address this risk as objects of study is a first step towards being able to describe and include them concretely in health system organisation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anthropology, Cultural
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(1): 183-192, jan. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356032

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo desta pesquisa qualitativa foi investigar as concepções teóricas dos trabalhadores sobre o grupo bem como analisar os fatores impulsores e restritivos da prática terapêutica grupal nos Centros de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS). Participaram do estudo 66 trabalhadores de CAPS e ambulatórios da Rede de Atenção Psicossocial (RAPS) de 23 municípios do estado de Goiás. A coleta de dados se deu por meio de questionário estruturado e entrevista grupal registrada em gravação de áudio e fotografias. Da análise temática dos dados emergiram o conceito do que o grupo é e do que o grupo não é. Tanto no eixo das forças impulsoras, quanto das forças restritivas, as categorias foram organizadas em três blocos de análise: aspectos relacionados ao serviço, aos profissionais e aos usuários. Aspectos relacionais, estruturais, terapêuticos e a competência profissional para a coordenação de grupo se integram de modo antagônico, complementar e indissociável para apreensão da realidade estudada. Conclui-se que evidenciar os aspectos restritivos que precisam ser reconhecidos e aprimorados bem como os impulsores que precisam ser mantidos e potencializados pode contribuir ativamente para ampliar a capacidade terapêutica do uso da tecnologia grupal no contexto da saúde mental.


Abstract This qualitative research aimed to investigate workers' theoretical conceptions regarding group work and analyze the driving and restrictive factors of group therapeutic practice in Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS). Sixty-six workers from CAPS and outpatient clinics from the Psychosocial Care Network from twenty-three municipalities in the State of Goiás participated in the study. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire and a group interview audio-recorded and documented with photographs. The concept of what the group is and is not emerged from the thematic analysis of the data. The categories were organized into three analysis blocks concerning driving and restrictive forces: service-related, professional-related, and user-related. Relational, structural, and therapeutic aspects and professional competence for group coordination are integrated in an antagonistic, complementary, and inseparable way to apprehend the studied reality. We conclude that highlighting the restrictive aspects that must be recognized and improved and the drivers that must be maintained and enhanced can actively contribute to expanding the therapeutic capacity related to the use of group technology in mental health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Group Practice , Mental Health Services , Mental Health , Qualitative Research
4.
Odontol. sanmarquina (Impr.) ; 25(1): e20982, ene.-mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish, English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358548

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El presente artículo resume las recomendaciones basadas en evidencias de la guía de práctica clínica (GPC) para el tratamiento de los pacientes con infecciones odontogénicas (absceso dentoalveolar, celulitis facial y absceso cervicofacial) en el Seguro Social de Salud del Perú (EsSalud). Objetivo. Brindar recomendaciones clínicas basadas en evidencia para el tratamiento de pacientes con infecciones odontogénicas en EsSalud. Métodos. Se conformó un grupo elaborador de la guía (GEG) que incluyó cirujanos dentistas, especialistas y metodólogos. El GEG formuló cuatro preguntas clínicas a ser respondidas en la presente GPC. Se realizó búsquedas sistemáticas de revisiones sistemáticas y cuando fue considerado pertinente­ estudios primarios en PubMed y CENTRAL durante el año 2019. Se seleccionó la evidencia para responder cada una de las preguntas clínicas planteadas. La certeza de la evidencia fue evaluada usando la metodología Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). En reuniones de trabajo periódicas, el GEG usó la metodología GRADE para revisar la evidencia y formular las recomendaciones, los puntos de buena práctica clínica y el flujo- grama de tratamiento. Finalmente, la GPC fue aprobada con Resolución N° 067­IET- SI-ESSALUD-2020. Resultados. La presente GPC abordó cuatro preguntas clínicas, divididas en dos temas: manejo farmacológico y manejo quirúrgico de las infecciones odontogénicas. En base a dichas preguntas se formularon seis recomendaciones fuertes, dos recomendaciones condicionales, 11 puntos de buena práctica clínica, y un flujograma. Conclusión. El presente artículo resume la metodología y las conclusiones basadas en evidencias de la GPC para tratamiento de las infecciones odontogénicas (absceso dentoalveolar, celulitis facial y absceso cervicofacial) en EsSalud.


Introduction. This article summarizes the evidence-based recommendations of the clinical practice guide (CPG) for the treatment of patients with odontogenic infections (dentoalveolar abscess, facial cellulitis and cervicofacial abscess) in the Social Security of Health of Peru (EsSalud). Objective. To provide evidence-based clinical recommendations for the treatment of patients with odontogenic infections in EsSalud. Methods. A guideline development group (GEG) was formed that included dental surgeons, specialists, and methodologists. The GEG formulated four clinical questions to be answered in this CPG. We conducted systematic searches for systematic reviews and when deemed relevant - primary studies in PubMed and CENTRAL during 2019. The evidence was selected to answer each of the clinical questions posed. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. In periodic work meetings, the GEG used the GRADE methodology to review the evidence and formulate the recommendations, the points of good clinical practice and the treatment flow chart. Finally, the CPG was approved with Resolution No. 067 ­ IETSI-ESSALUD-2020. Results. This CPG addressed four clinical questions, divided into two topics: pharmacological management and surgical management of odontogenic infections. Based on these questions, six strong recommen- dations were formulated, two conditional recommendations, 11 points of good clinical practice, and a flow chart. Conclusion. This article summarizes the methodology and evidence-based conclusions of the CPG for the treatment of odontogenic infections (dentoalveolar abscess, facial cellulitis and cervicofacial abscess) in EsSalud.

5.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 21(supl.1): e20226535, 14 janeiro 2022. ilus
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1359929

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Mapear os instrumentos validados disponíveis na literatura para avaliação de conhecimentos e atitudes de estudantes de graduação na área da saúde sobre segurança do paciente. MÉTODO: Revisão de escopo conduzida a partir da metodologia Joanna Briggs Institute, com utilização da extensão do checklist PRISMA-ScR, nas seguintes fontes de informação: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, MEDLINE via Pubmed, COCHRANE, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science e Google Scholar. Serão considerados elegíveis estudos que respondam à pergunta de pesquisa, publicados em inglês, português e espanhol e que apresentem a descrição do instrumento utilizado. A seleção ocorrerá de maneira independente por dois revisores, a partir do software Rayyan. Divergências serão apreciadas por um terceiro revisor. Síntese e extração dos dados serão executadas considerando os itens de um formulário elaborado pelos autores. Os resultados serão apresentados por meio de quadro resumo, fluxograma e discussão narrativa. Registro da revisão no Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/wak7f.


OBJECTIVE: To map the validated instruments available in the literature to assess the knowledge and attitudes of undergraduate students in the health area about patient safety. METHOD: A scoping review conducted based on the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology, using the PRISMA-ScR checklist extension, in the following information sources: Virtual Health Library, MEDLINE via Pubmed, COCHRANE, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Studies that answer the research question, published in English, Portuguese and Spanish and that present a description of the instrument used will be considered eligible. Selection will take place independently by two reviewers, based on the Rayyan software. Disagreements will be appreciated by a third reviewer. Data synthesis and extraction will be performed considering the items of a form prepared by the authors. The results will be presented through a summary chart, flowchart and narrative discussion. Review record in the Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/wak7f.


OBJETIVO: Mapear los instrumentos validados disponibles en la literatura para evaluar el conocimiento y las actitudes que poseen los estudiantes universitarios del área de la salud sobre la seguridad del paciente. MÉTODO: Revisión de alcance realizada según la metodología del Joanna Briggs Institute, utilizando la extensión de la checklist PRISMA-ScR, en las siguientes fuentes de información: Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, MEDLINE a través de Pubmed, COCHRANE, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science y Google Scholar. Se considerarán elegibles los estudios que respondan a la pregunta de investigación, publicados en inglés, portugués y español y que presenten una descripción del instrumento utilizado. La selección se llevará a cabo de forma independiente por dos revisores mediante el software Rayyan. Un tercer revisor evaluará los desacuerdos. La síntesis y extracción de los datos se realizará considerando los ítems de un formulario elaborado por los autores. Los resultados se presentarán a través de cuadro resumen, diagrama de flujo y discusión narrativa. La revisión fue registrada en Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/wak7f.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Health Occupations , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Patient Safety
7.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 43(1): 51-74, jan./jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354417

ABSTRACT

A educação médica passou por transformações constantes ao longo da História e no Brasil assume características específicas. Recentemente, entre outros aspectos, têm-se debatido sobre a importância da variedade de cenários de ensino e de uma abordagem integral e generalista para o desenho de um perfil de egresso mais próximo às necessidades de saúde da população. Este estudo apresenta uma avaliação qualitativa e quantitativa da experiência de acadêmicos de Medicina, professores e profissionais de saúde envolvidos no internato médico rural em Medicina de Família e Comunidade da Universidade de Caxias do Sul, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Perfis dos participantes, motivadores de estágio, influências sobre opções de trabalho futuro, impacto nas equipes de saúde e aspectos positivos e negativos da experiência são apresentados e discutidos à luz da literatura internacional no tema. O internato rural aparece como uma experiência positiva na formação médica, com potencial agregador qualitativo para os envolvidos e influência na opção futura de trabalho, ajudando a reduzir a defasagem de recursos humanos em áreas rurais. O diálogo entre as comunidades, equipes de saúde, universidade e gestores locais é essencial para a superação dos desafios cotidianos e para a manutenção das atividades, assim como o suporte institucional aos alunos e qualificação do corpo docente. Sugestões de futuras linhas de pesquisa na área são apresentadas.


Medical education has undergone constant transformations throughout history and in Brazil it takes on specific characteristics. Recently, among other aspects, there has been debate about the importance of the variety of teaching scenarios and of an integral and generalist approach to the design of an egress profile closer to the population's health needs. This study presents a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the experience of medical students, professors and health professionals involved in the rural medical internship in Family and Community Medicine at the Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Profile of participants, internship motivators, influences on work options future, impact on health teams and positive and negative aspects of the experience are presented and discussed in the light of international literature on the subject. The rural internship appears as a positive experience in medical training, with qualitative aggregating potential for those involved and influence on the future work option, helping to reduce the gap in human resources in rural areas. Dialogue between communities, health teams, universities and local managers is essential to overcome daily challenges and to maintain activities, as well as institutional support for students and qualification of the teaching staff. Suggestions for future lines of research in the area are presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health , Family Practice , Health Policy , Internship and Residency , Rural Areas , Health Personnel , Community Medicine , Education, Medical , Faculty , Population Health
8.
Health SA Gesondheid (Print) ; 27(NA): 1-8, 2022.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1359074

ABSTRACT

Relational practice is characterised by genuine interaction between families and healthcare professionals that promotes trust and empowerment. Positive clinical outcomes have been associated with relational practice. To assess and examine in-hospital interventions designed to promote relational practice with families in acute care settings of emergency departments, intensive care units and high care units. The preferred reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines informed the design of this scoping review. To identify relevant studies, databases (Academic Search Complete; CINAHL; PubMed; PsyInfo) and the search engine Google Scholar were searched using terms for core elements of relational practice and family engagement. Of the 117 articles retrieved, eight interventional studies met the search criteria. The interventions focused on relational practice elements of collaborating with and creating safe environments for families, whilst only one addressed healthcare professionals being respectful of families' needs and differences. In relation to the nature of engagement of families in interventions, the focus was mainly on improving family functioning. Family engagement in the interventions was focused on involving families in decision-making. The scoping review revealed a limited number of in-hospital interventions designed to promote relational practice with families in acute care settings. Further research is encouraged to develop such interventions. Contribution: The scoping review has highlighted specific elements of relational practice that have been overlooked in the mapped interventions. This provides guidance on where future interventional research may be focused.


Subject(s)
Professional-Family Relations , Professional-Patient Relations , Acute Disease , Intensive Care Units , Decision Making
9.
Niger. J. Dent. Res. (Online) ; 7(1): 20-28, 2022.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1354557

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 remains a major public health threat globally, and has challenged healthcare systems and services including oral health Objective: This study examines the key public health challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic in low resource settings. While healthcare services are learning to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, dental care services, in particular restorative dental practice have been adversely impacted because of the closeness of caregivers to the patient's mouth as well as the generation of aerosols during most restorative procedures. This presents a challenge for low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) such as Nigeria where weak and poor governance structures characterize healthcare systems in addition to paucity of economic resources. Another challenge in the form of COVID-19 conspiracy theories has threatened to undermine public health efforts designed to control the pandemic. Conclusion: The implementation of optimal guidelines and safety protocols for effective COVID -19 infection prevention and control is a major challenge for restorative dental care practice in low resource settings owing to paucity of key material resources and inappropriate behaviour associated with lingering doubts about COVID-19 reality among the majority of the populace. The Safer Aerosol-Free Emergent Dentistry concept offers a viable practical approach for restorative dental practice in LMICs during and in the post COVID-19 pandemic era. There is a need to deploy all resources, human and material, in the education and enlightenment of the populace regarding the reality of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Exposure , Dental Care , Developing Countries , COVID-19 , Public Health , Dentists , General Practice, Dental
10.
Afr. j. disabil. (Online) ; 11(NA): 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1367591

ABSTRACT

Background: When the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic manifested in South Africa, rehabilitation services were seriously affected. The consequences of these were wide-ranging: affecting service users, their families and caregivers, rehabilitation practices and practitioners as well as the integrity and sustainability of rehabilitation systems. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the nature and consequences of disruption caused by the pandemic, based on the experience of rehabilitation clinicians who were working in public healthcare facilities in Gauteng. Methods: This was a phenomenology study that used critical reflection method. Trained and experienced in reflecting on barriers and enablers that affect their practices, a multidisciplinary group of rehabilitation clinicians captured their experience of working during the time of COVID-19. Data construction extended over 6 months during 2020. An inductive thematic analysis was performed using Taguette: an open-source qualitative data analysis tool. Results: The main themes captured the disorder and confusion with its resultant impact on rehabilitation services and those offering these services that came about at the beginning of the pandemic. The importance of teamwork and leadership in rehabilitation also emerged as themes. Other themes related to having to approach work differently, working beyond professional scopes of practice and pandemic fatigue. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the way rehabilitation was being performed, creating an opportunity to reconceptualise, strengthen and improve rehabilitation services offered at public healthcare. The presence of effective leadership with clear communication, dependable multidisciplinary teams and clinicians with robust personal resources were strategies that supported rehabilitation clinicians whilst working during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Disabled Persons , Pandemics , Occupational Therapists , COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Personal Protective Equipment
11.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 519-523, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920718

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To provide policy referen ce for local marketing authorization holder (MAH)to implement their main responsibility of drug life cycle supervision and the Guiding Principles of Pharmacovigilance Inspection to be officially released. METHODS Taking 15 MAH in Shanghai who recently underwent pharmacovigilance inspection as the research objects ,the social network analysis was used to explore the logical relationship between MAHs ’enterprise attributes and inspection problems , summarize the problems found ,analyze the causes ,and put forward corresponding countermeasures. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS The problems found in this pharmacovigilance inspection were mainly in aspects of organization ,personnel management ,quality management system ,report quality and so on. The reasons for these problems included light punishment ,which lead to the enterprise management ’s lack of attention to the pharmacovigilance system ,unclear problem handling and risk control mechanism , imperfect quality management system documents ,inadequate personnel training ,etc. MAH needs to pay more attention to pharmacovigilance,allocate corresponding human and resources ,constantly improve the pharmacovigilance quality management system,and improve the enforceability and effectiveness of the pharmacovigilance system. At the same time ,it is suggested that government departments should strengthen policy guidance , publicity and implementation , and combine with third-party institutional platforms such as industry associations to promote the smooth implementation of Good Validation Practice .

12.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 208-212, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920626

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practice of AIDS control knowledge among students in a university in Hangzhou City, so as to provide the evidence for evaluating the effectiveness of AIDS control in universities.@*Methods@#The knowledge, attitudes and practice towards AIDS control were investigated among students in a university in Hangzhou City using self-designed questionnaires in 2020, and were descriptively analyzed.@*Results@#Totally 6 300 questionnaires were allocated, and 6 164 valid ones were recovered, with an effective recovery rate of 97.84%. The respondents included 2 837 male students ( 46.03% ) and 3 327 female students ( 53.97% ), and had a mean age of ( 18.20±0.76 ) years. The overall awareness of AIDS control knowledge was 73.49%. The awareness rates of “The rights of marriage, employment and school admission are protected among HIV-infected individuals by Chinese laws” ( 61.11% ) and “Homosexual contact in men is the current main transmission pattern among young students in China” ( 66.37% ) were relatively low. There were 768 university students with a history of sexual behaviors ( 12.46% ), and regular sex partners were the predominant sex partners at the first sexual contact ( 679 students, 90.78% ) and at the sexual behaviors during the past one year ( 402 students, 71.91% ). There were 515 students (67.14%) using condoms during the first sexual contact, and there were 300 ( 63.83% ) and 16 students ( 40.00% ) using condoms with regular and casual sex partners during the past one year, respectively. Among 20 men who had sex with men, only 5 students ( 25.00% ) used condoms at each sexual contact. Of students with sexual behaviors, there were 355 (46.22%) and 354 ( 46.09% ) students that considered to be infected with AIDS and other sex-transmitted diseases, and among the university students with sexual behaviors, there were 614 ( 79.95% ) students that were willing to receive HIV testing, and 409 ( 53.26% ) and 305 ( 39.71% ) students that were willing to receive HIV testing in hospitals and disease control and prevention institutions, respectively.@*Conclusions@# The awareness of AIDS control knowledge is low among students in the university in Hangzhou City, which does not reach the national goal of supervision and assessment for AIDS control in China. There are high-risk sexual behaviors and the rate of condom use is low.

13.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 75(1): 20210123, 2022. graf., tab.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | SES-SP, LILACS, BDENF, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1341052

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: Assess the compliance of the implementation of better evidence in the transitional care of the person with heart failure from the hospital to the home. Methods: Evidence implementation project according to the JBI methodology in a cardiology hospital in São Paulo. Six criteria were audited before and after implementing strategies to increase compliance with best practices. 14 nurses and 22 patients participated in the audits. Results: In the baseline audit, compliance was null with five of the six criteria. Strategies: training of nurses; reformulation of the hospital discharge form and guidance on self-care in care contexts; and making telephone contact on the 7th, 14th and 21st days after discharge. In the follow-up audit, there was 100% compliance with five of the six criteria. Conclusion: The project made it possible to increase the compliance of transitional care practices in people with heart failure with the recommendations based on the best evidence.


RESUMEN Objetivos: Evaluar la conformidad de implementación de mejores evidencias en cuidado de transición de personas con insuficiencia cardíaca del hospital al domicilio. Métodos: Proyecto de implementación de evidencias conforme metodología del JBI en hospital cardiológico de São Paulo. Seis criterios fueron auditados antes y post implementación de estrategias para aumentar la conformidad con las mejores prácticas. Participaron de las auditorías 14 enfermeros y 22 pacientes. Resultados: Auditoría de base, la conformidad fue nula con cinco de los seis criterios. Estrategias: capacitación de enfermeros; reformulación de ficha de alta hospitalaria y orientaciones sobre autocuidado en contextos de cuidado; y realización de contacto telefónico al 7º, 14º y 21º días post alta. Auditoría de seguimiento, hubo 100% de conformidad con cinco de los seis criterios. Conclusión: El proyecto permitió aumentar la conformidad de las prácticas de cuidado de transición en personas con insuficiencia cardíaca con las recomendaciones basadas en las mejores evidencias.


RESUMO Objetivos: Avaliar a conformidade da implementação de melhores evidências no cuidado transicional da pessoa com insuficiência cardíaca do hospital para o domicílio. Métodos: Projeto de implementação de evidências conforme metodologia do JBI em um hospital cardiológico em São Paulo. Seis critérios foram auditados antes e depois da implementação de estratégias para aumentar a conformidade com as melhores práticas. Participaram das auditorias 14 enfermeiros e 22 pacientes. Resultados: Na auditoria de base, a conformidade foi nula com cinco dos seis critérios. Estratégias: capacitação dos enfermeiros; reformulação da ficha de alta hospitalar e orientações sobre autocuidado nos contextos de cuidado; e realização de contato telefônico no 7º, 14º e 21º dias após alta. Na auditoria de seguimento, houve 100% de conformidade com cinco dos seis critérios. Conclusão: O projeto permitiu aumentar a conformidade das práticas de cuidado transicional em pessoas com insuficiência cardíaca com as recomendações baseadas nas melhores evidências.

14.
Cad. Bras. Ter. Ocup ; 30: e3031, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1364617

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este ensaio objetiva refletir sobre o exercício profissional de terapeutas ocupacionais tomando como referencial teórico a concepção de cotidiano com base em Agnes Heller. Na terapia ocupacional, a discussão sobre cotidiano e vida cotidiana revela uma ênfase no seu uso como uma chave de leitura e de intervenção para pensar a vida das pessoas, grupos ou populações destinatárias das ações profissionais; assim, o foco tem sido sempre o cotidiano do outro. Propomos, neste artigo, um deslocamento reflexivo e problematizamos o cotidiano do profissional em si, entendendo que os limites e possibilidades no/do trabalho são tensionados no espaço da vida cotidiana em que o exercício profissional acontece e é atravessado pelas estruturas da cotidianidade. Discutimos o próprio cotidiano como locus de resistência à alienação e à possibilidade de suspensões temporárias da cotidianidade por meio de um trabalho crítico, capaz de articular as dimensões técnica, ética e política do exercício profissional, de transitar entre as esferas individual e coletiva na leitura e intervenção sobre as demandas profissionais, de superar a dicotomia teoria e prática e, assim, reafirmar o compromisso com a transformação da sociedade, em que lutas por redistribuição e reconhecimento produzam justiça e participação social.


Abstract This essay aims to reflect on the professional practice of occupational therapists taking as a theoretical reference the conception of everyday life by Agnes Heller. In occupational therapy, the discussion about everyday life and everyday life reveals an emphasis on its use as a key to reading and intervention to think about the lives of people, groups or populations that are recipients of professional actions; thus, the focus has always been the daily life of the other. We propose, in this article, a reflexive shift and we problematize the daily life of the professional themself, understanding that the limits and possibilities in/of work are tensioned in the space of everyday life in which professional practice takes place and is crossed by the structures of everyday life. We discuss daily life itself as a locus of resistance to alienation and the possibility of temporary suspensions of daily life through critical work, capable of articulating the technical, ethical and political dimensions of professional practice, of moving between the individual and collective spheres in reading and intervention on professional demands, to overcome the theory and practice dichotomy and, thus, reaffirm the commitment to the transformation of society, in which struggles for redistribution and recognition produce justice and social participation.

15.
Cad. Bras. Ter. Ocup ; 30: e2964, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1364622

ABSTRACT

Resumo Introdução A reflexão sobre a prática, na perspectiva da epistemologia da racionalidade prática, favorece o ganho de consciência sobre seus aspectos tácitos, como do raciocínio profissional. Estudos que focalizam a reflexão sobre a prática para sustentar o raciocínio profissional de terapeutas ocupacionais têm emergido; porém, eles ainda são incipientes, especialmente no Brasil. Objetivo Analisar o conteúdo e a aplicabilidade de uma ferramenta reflexiva para sustentar o raciocínio profissional no processo de análise situada das necessidades da pessoa em acompanhamento em terapia ocupacional. Método Pesquisa-ação, com participação de 11 terapeutas ocupacionais atuantes na Atenção Básica à Saúde, desenvolvida com as seguintes etapas: elaboração prévia da ferramenta; utilização da ferramenta pelas participantes e análise de seu conteúdo e estrutura; entrevistas individuais após a utilização; análise descritiva e temática; adequação da ferramenta; oficinas de validação; e construção da versão final da ferramenta. Resultados As modificações sugeridas abarcaram alterações de termos, acréscimos e integração de diferentes domínios. A versão final da ferramenta se estruturou em 20 questões, organizadas em sete domínios. As possibilidades de aplicabilidade foram: dar visibilidade para as especificidades da terapia ocupacional no trabalho em equipe; possibilitar a reflexão sobre a prática e melhorar o raciocínio profissional; utilizar a ferramenta em outros contextos de prática e no ensino da prática profissional. Conclusão A ferramenta apresenta aplicabilidade prática, contribuindo para fortalecer o núcleo profissional em terapia ocupacional e o diálogo interprofissional, facilitando a reflexão sobre a prática e ampliando a consciência sobre processos de raciocínio profissional.


Abstract Introduction Reflection on practice, from the epistemology of practical rationality perspective, favors gaining awareness of tacit aspects of the practice, such as professional reasoning. Studies focusing the reflection on practice to support occupational therapists' reasoning have emerged. However, they are still incipient, especially in Brazil. Objective To analyze the content and applicability of a reflective tool to support professional reasoning in the process of situated analysis of the needs of the assisted person in occupational therapy. Method Action research, with the participation of 11 occupational therapists working in Primary Health Care, was developed following the steps: previous development of the tool; use of the tool by the participants and analysis of its content and structure; individual interviews after its use; descriptive and thematic analysis; tool suitability; validation workshops and construction of the final version of the tool. The data were produced through a participants characterization form, an agreement questionnaire to analyze the content and structure of the tool, and individual interviews about its applicability. Data were analyzed descriptively and thematically. The reflective tool was adjusted based on the participants' suggestions. Validation workshops were held with the participants to build the final version of the tool. Results The suggested modifications in the tool included changes in terms, and also additions and integration of different domains. Its final version was structured on 20 questions, organized in seven domains. The applicability possibilities were: to give visibility to the specificities of occupational therapy in interprofessional teams; to enable reflection on practice and to improve professional reasoning; to use the tool in other contexts of practice; and for teaching of professional practice. Conclusion The tool has practical applicability, contributing to strengthening the professional core in occupational therapy and for interprofessional dialogue, facilitating the reflection on practice, and increasing the awareness about professional reasoning processes.

16.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 35: e35104, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364851

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: About 84% of the population have had some low back symptom during their lifetime; where 23% of cases become chronic pain. It is observed that in around 85% of cases of chronic low back pain, there is no specific cause or diagnosis, where it is referred to as chronic nonspecific low back pain. Given its disabling potential, the comprehensive assessment, attitudes and beliefs of the physiotherapist in clinical management become essential to the prognosis. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between sociodemographic/socioeducational and work profile and the attitudes and beliefs of physiotherapists in the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain treatment. Methods: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study. For data collection, two questionnaires were used, one referring to the sociodemographic/socioeducational profile information and the other referring to attitudes and beliefs determined by the Pain Attitudes and Beliefs Scale for Physiotherapists. Data were analyzed using the BioEstat 5.0 program using descriptive statistics, t-test and Pearson correlation (p < 0.05). Results: Fifty-seven physical therapists were analyzed, where most were women (61.4%), had specialization (56.2%), worked in private clinics (63.2%) and used specific methods in the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain (84.2%). Biomedical belief was predominant (70.2%) and showed a significant relationship with age (p = 0.0006). Conclusion: The biomedical model is still predominantly used, which is related to the age of the professionals surveyed.


Resumo Introdução: Cerca de 84% da população já teve algum sintoma lombar durante a vida e em 23% destes a dor tornou-se crônica. Observa-se que cerca de 85% das dores lombares crônicas não possuem causa ou diagnóstico específico, sendo denominadas de dor lombar crônica inespecífica (DLCI). Visto o seu potencial incapacitante, a avaliação integral, atitudes e crenças do fisioterapeuta no manejo clínico tornam-se fundamentais para o prognóstico. Objetivo: Testar a relação entre o perfil sociodemográfico/socioeducacional e laboral e as atitudes e crenças de fisioterapeutas no manejo do tratamento da DLCI. Métodos: Trata-se de uma pesquisa transversal e quantitativa. Para a coleta de dados foram utilizados dois questionários, um referente às informações de perfil sociodemográfico/socioeducacional e outro inerente às atitudes e crenças determinadas pelo Pain Attitudes and Beliefs Scale for Physiotherapists. Os dados foram analisados pelo programa BioEstat 5.0, utilizando estatística descritiva, teste t e correlação de Pearson (p < 0,05). Resultados: Dos 57 fisioterapeutas analisados, a maioria eram mulheres (61,4%), possuíam especialização (56,2%), atuavam em clínicas privadas (63,2%) e utilizavam métodos específicos no manejo da DLCI (84,2%). A crença biomédica mostrou-se predominante (70,2%) e apresentou relação significativa com a idade (p = 0,0006). Conclusão: Ainda é predominantemente empregado o modelo biomédico, que apresenta relação com a idade dos profissionais pesquisados.

17.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 26: e210673, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364998

ABSTRACT

Considerando que no cenário do Sars-CoV-2 os idosos são o grupo etário em maior risco de desenvolver formas graves da doença e que o distanciamento social afeta a saúde emocional, o presente artigo propõe discutir a dimensão psicossocial da pandemia com foco nos idosos de um município baiano, dialogando com a necessidade de produção de novos conhecimentos e práticas de cuidado em um município baiano. Trata-se de um estudo de caso, no qual os participantes responderam a um questionário digital semiestruturado. Tomando como referência a análise de conteúdo como método, os resultados foram organizados por meio de três grandes categorias: 1) Afetações psicossociais, comportamentais e emocionais; 2) Planejamento no cuidado da população idosa; 3) Práticas de cuidado da população idosa durante a pandemia. Concluiu-se que as dimensões psicossocial e coletiva condicionam a saúde e o cuidado dos idosos gerando desafios adicionais no planejamento das ações.


Considering that older persons are the age group most at risk of developing severe Covid-19 and that social distancing affects mental health, this article discusses the psychosocial dimension of the pandemic, focusing on this group. We emphasize the need to produce new knowledge and care practices in a municipality in the state of Bahia, Brazil. We conducted a case study in which the participants responded a semi-structured online questionnaire. The results were analyzed using content analysis and organized into three core categories: 1) psychosocial, behavioral and emotional affects; 2) elderly care planning; 3) elderly care practices during the pandemic. We conclude that the health and care of older persons are conditioned by psychosocial and collective dimensions, giving rise to additional challenges in action planning.


Considerando que en el escenario de Sars-CoV-2 los ancianos son el grupo de edad con mayor riesgo de desarrollar formas graves de la enfermedad y que el distanciamiento social afecta la salud emocional, este artículo se propone discutir la dimensión psicosocial de la pandemia con enfoque en los ancianos, dialogando con la necesidad de producción de nuevos conocimientos y prácticas de cuidado, en un municipio del Estado de Bahia. Se trata de un estudio de caso, en el cual los participantes respondieron un cuestionario digital semiestructurado. Tomando como referencia el análisis de contenido como método, los resultados se organizaron en tres grandes categorías: 1: Afectaciones psicosociales, comportamentales y emocionales; 2) Planificación en el cuidado de la población anciana; 3) Prácticas de cuidado de la población anciana durante la pandemia. Se concluyó que las dimensiones psicosocial y colectiva condicionan la salud y el cuidado a los ancianos generando desafíos adicionales en la planificación de las acciones.

18.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 46(1): e055, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365608

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Introduction: Human Rights are inherent to the human condition, considering all aspects of life: the right to life, to an education, to freedom, to religion, to security and to work. Given that, it is important to nurture a Human Rights culture in educational institutions, aiming at improving inter-personal dynamics and the educational environment. The tutors' development, in this aspect, becomes fundamental. Objective: To understand the meanings attributed by tutors to their experiences involving Human Rights situations in the academic environment as the first step to implement teacher development in this area. Methods: qualitative study involving tutors from a college located in northeastern Brazil, which employs the Problem-Based Learning methodology, between December of 2019 and September of 2020. The collection was performed through focal groups with intentional selection. The script for the discussion was based in the National Plan for Human Rights Education, The Human Rights Education Manual, The Universal Human Rights Declaration and articles related to the discussion topic. Bardin content analysis was used. The project was approved by the Ethics Committee under CAAE number 22696919.3.0000.5569. Results: The studied analytic categories were: gender and sexuality, communication and freedom of speech, social minorities and student self-esteem and stigmatization. During the process of reinterpreting the collected content, the following empirical subcategories were identified: ableism, fatphobia, psychophobia and interpersonal conflicts. The tutors revealed having experienced conflicts involving Human Rights, as follows: gender oppression; homophobia by students and teachers; lack of racial representativeness among the college student population; fatphobia in the academic environment; decrease in student's performance due to mental health issues. The participant tutors also expressed insecurity when it came to intervening and giving feedback in such situations, as well as some lack of knowledge about Human Rights. Conclusion: The tutors reported episodes that demonstrated Human Rights violation practices in the academic environment and showed to be insecure about intervening in such situations, especially when these situations led to conflict between the students.


Resumo: Introdução: Os direitos humanos (DH) são inerentes à condição humana, considerando todos os aspectos da vida: o direito à vida, à educação, à liberdade, à religião, à segurança e ao trabalho. Dessa forma, é importante incentivar a cultura dos DH nas instituições de ensino, na intenção de qualificar as dinâmicas interpessoais e o ambiente educacional. O desenvolvimento docente nesse aspecto torna-se fundamental. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender os significados atribuídos pelos tutores às vivências envolvendo DH no ambiente acadêmico como primeiro passo para instituir o desenvolvimento docente nessa área. Método: Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, realizado entre dezembro de 2019 e setembro de 2020, que envolveu tutores de uma faculdade do Nordeste do Brasil cuja metodologia de ensino é a Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas. A coleta se deu por meio de grupos focais com seleção intencional. O roteiro para a discussão foi baseado no Plano Nacional de Educação em Direitos Humanos, no Caderno de Educação em Direitos Humanos, na Declaração de Direitos Humanos e em artigos referentes ao tema. Utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo de Bardin. O projeto recebeu parecer favorável do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa: CAAE nº 22696919.3.0000.5569. Resultado: As categorias analíticas estudadas foram: gênero e sexualidade, comunicação e liberdade de expressão, minorias sociais e estigmatização e autoestima do estudante. Durante o processo de reinterpretação das falas, identificaram-se as seguintes subcategorias empíricas: capacitismo, gordofobia, saúde mental, psicofobia e conflitos interpessoais. Os docentes revelaram conflitos envolvendo DH, a exemplo das seguintes situações: opressão de gênero; homofobia por parte de docentes e estudantes; falta de representatividade racial na faculdade; gordofobia no ambiente acadêmico; queda de rendimento de estudantes por problemas de saúde mental. Expressaram insegurança em intervir e dar feedback em tais situações, bem como certo desconhecimento relacionado aos DH. Conclusão: Os docentes relataram episódios que demonstram práticas de violação aos DH no ambiente acadêmico e se mostraram inseguros para intervir nessas situações, sobretudo quando geravam conflito entre os estudantes.

19.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 46(1): e022, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365616

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Introduction: Since the National Curricular Guidelines for the Medicine course were implemented, with emphasis on the training of professionals with a generalist profile, the factors that may contribute to the interest in professional practice are unknown. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the perception of medical students regarding their generalist training and the factors that influence the desire for professional practice. Methodology: Descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study of qualitative and explanatory character with 523 students from different medical courses in the city of Salvador-Bahia, who answered an online survey after signing the informed consent form. The sample was categorized into interest in Immediate Specialization (IS) and among those who intend to Act as a Generalist (AG). The age and period of the course were also categorized into groups. Results: The age of the sample was 18 to 25 years in 83.7% (n = 438), with 72.5% (n = 380) being female, attending 69% of the 4º to 9º semesters (n = 363). The Immediate Specialization group represented 27.2% (95% CI: 35% -73%) and the group that intends to Act as a Generalist, 72.8% (95% CI: 68% -76%). General training did not influence the option for professional practice with RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.55-1.20) p = 0.308. The factors associated with AG were believing in the generalist's resolution capacity and SUS guidelines (p <0.001), the desire to contribute to society (p = 0.005) and society's credibility (p = 0.044). Conclusion: Students perceive that the curriculum includes general training, however it did not influence the interest in professional practice. The desire to act as a generalist is present in a significant number among them, driven by altruism and the desire to contribute to society, supported by the organic laws that underlie the SUS Guidelines, while not feeling valued and having its credibility, questioned by society, only stimulates professional practice on a temporary basis.


Resumo: Introdução: Desde que foram implantadas as Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para o curso de Medicina com ênfase à formação de profissionais com perfil generalista desconhece-se os fatores que podem contribuir com o interesse pelo exercício profissional. Metodologia: Estudo transversal descritivo e analítico de caráter qualitativo explanatório com 523 acadêmicos dos diversos cursos de medicina da cidade de Salvador-Bahia, que responderam um questionário online após assinatura do TCLE. A amostra foi categorizada em interesse na Especialização Imediata (EI) e entre aqueles que pretendem Atuar como Generalistas (AG). A idade e o período do curso também foram categorizados em grupos. Resultados: A idade da amostra era de 18 a 25 anos em 83,7% (n=438), sendo 72,5% (n=380) do sexo feminino, cursando do 4º ao 9º semestre em 69% (n=363). O grupo Especialização Imediata representou 27,2% (IC95%: 35%-73%) e o grupo que pretende Atuar como Generalista, 72,8% (IC95%: 68%-76%). A formação generalista não influenciou a opção pelo exercício profissional com RR=0,81 (IC95%: 0,55-1,20) p=0,308. Os fatores associados a AG foram: pertencer a instituição pública (p=0,041) acreditar na capacidade de resolubilidade do generalista e nas diretrizes do SUS (p<0,001), o desejo de contribuir com a sociedade (p=0,005) e a credibilidade da sociedade (p=0,044). Conclusão: Os estudantes percebem que a grade curricular contempla a formação generalista, no entanto não influenciou o interesse pelo exercício profissional. O desejo de atuar como generalista está presente em um número expressivo entre eles, movido pelo altruísmo e o desejo de contribuir com a sociedade, respaldados pelas leis orgânicas que fundamentam as Diretrizes do SUS, ao mesmo tempo em que não se sentir valorizado e ter sua credibilidade questionada pela sociedade, estimulam ao exercício profissional apenas de modo temporário.

20.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 46(1): e027, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365620

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: A orientação comunitária apresenta, em estudos de avaliação dos atributos da atenção primária à saúde, baixa performance entre os usuários. Questiona-se, em especial, se a qualificação profissional em Medicina de Família e Comunidade (MFC) contribui para a otimização desse desempenho. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a associação entre qualificação profissional em MFC e o grau de orientação comunitária na perspectiva dos profissionais médicos atuantes na Estratégia Saúde da Família de Belo Horizonte. Método: Trata-se de estudo censitário que reuniu médicos de todas as regionais de Belo Horizonte. Variáveis sociodemográficas relativas à formação acadêmica e à situação ocupacional foram obtidas por meio de questionário. Utilizou-se o instrumento PCATool-Brasil para medir o desempenho do atributo. Resultado: A comparação entre desempenho do escore orientação comunitária e variáveis independentes foi feita pelo teste qui-quadrado, com correção de Fischer. O escore médio foi de 7,9 (DP ±1,2). Nenhuma variável independente foi associada com a orientação comunitária satisfatória. Houve correlação entre tempo de conclusão da residência médica em MFC e alto escore para orientação comunitária. Conclusão: A qualificação em MFC não determina, por si só, um alto grau de orientação comunitária. O maior tempo de formação em MFC na modalidade residência médica correlacionou-se com maior desempenho desse atributo derivado.


Abstract: Introduction: In studies evaluating the attributes of Primary Health Care, Community Orientation has shown weak performance among users. In particular, questions remain over whether professional qualification in Family Practice (FP) helps optimize this performance. Purpose: verify the association between professional qualification in FP and the degree of Community Orientation from the perspective of medical professionals working in the Family Health Strategy of Belo Horizonte. Methods: This census study was applied to doctors in Belo Horizonte. Sociodemographic variables related to academic training and occupational status were obtained through a questionnaire. The PCATool-Brasil was used to measure the performance of this attribute. Result: The comparison between the performance of the Community Orientation score and independent variables was made using the chi-square test, with Fischer correction. The average score was 7.9 (SD ± 1.2). No independent variable was associated with a satisfactory level of Community Orientation. There was a correlation between time of completion of medical residency in FP and a high Community Orientation score. Conclusion: Qualification in FP does not itself determine a high degree of Community Orientation. Longer training in FP medical residency was correlated to better performance of this derived attribute.

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