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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 149-166, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929285

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC), a malignant tumor worldwide consists of microsatellite instability (MSI) and stable (MSS) phenotypes. Although SHP2 is a hopeful target for cancer therapy, its relationship with innate immunosuppression remains elusive. To address that, single-cell RNA sequencing was performed to explore the role of SHP2 in all cell types of tumor microenvironment (TME) from murine MC38 xenografts. Intratumoral cells were found to be functionally heterogeneous and responded significantly to SHP099, a SHP2 allosteric inhibitor. The malignant evolution of tumor cells was remarkably arrested by SHP099. Mechanistically, STING-TBK1-IRF3-mediated type I interferon signaling was highly activated by SHP099 in infiltrated myeloid cells. Notably, CRC patients with MSS phenotype exhibited greater macrophage infiltration and more potent SHP2 phosphorylation in CD68+ macrophages than MSI-high phenotypes, suggesting the potential role of macrophagic SHP2 in TME. Collectively, our data reveals a mechanism of innate immunosuppression mediated by SHP2, suggesting that SHP2 is a promising target for colon cancer immunotherapy.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928851

ABSTRACT

This study evaluates the static balance ability of human body based on lower limb rehabilitation robot.According to the balance parameters obtained from the movement trajectory of the center of human pelvis, SPSS statistical software was used to verify that there was significant difference between the two groups (P<0.01). Principal component analysis is used to allocate the weight of each parameter and establish the comprehensive evaluation value. The comprehensive evaluation value of the control group was 0.383±0.038, and the experimental group was 0.875±0.136. When the subject's comprehensive evaluation value is between 0.739 and 1.011, it indicates the presence of balance dysfunction, and when it is between 0.345~0.421, it indicates that the balance of the lower limbs of the subject is normal. Experimental results show that this evaluation method can objectively and quantitatively reflect the static equilibrium state of human body.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lower Extremity , Movement , Pelvis , Postural Balance
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927952

ABSTRACT

The present study established the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of the content of eight major active components in Caesalpinia decapetala and performed the quality evaluation of C. decapetala from different habitats with the chemical pattern recognition. The analysis was carried out on a Waters BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) at 40 ℃, with the mobile phase of water containing 0.1% formic acid(A) and acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid under gradient elution, the flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1), and the injection volume of 1 μL. The electrospray ionization(ESI) source in the negative mode and multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) were used for MS quantitative analysis. The content results were analyzed by the hierarchical cluster analysis(HCA) and principal component analysis(PCA) for the evaluation of the quality difference. Eight components showed good linear relationships within their respective concentration ranges(r>0.999), with the average recoveries of 96.85%-103.4% and RSD of 0.52%-2.8%. The analysis results showed that the quality of samples from different batches was different. The samples were classified into three clusters by HCA and PCA. The method is simple, sensitive, accurate, and efficient, and can be used for the quality evaluation of C. decapetala.


Subject(s)
Caesalpinia , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Principal Component Analysis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927950

ABSTRACT

The volatile oil of Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CX) is known as an effective fraction. In order to seek a suitable method for processing CX and its decoction pieces, this study selected 16 volatile components as indices to investigate how different processing methods such as washing/without washing, sun-drying, baking, oven-drying and far-infrared drying at different temperatures affected the quality of CX and its decoction pieces(fresh CX was partially dried, cut into pieces, and then dried) by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), cluster analysis, principal component analysis and comprehensive weighted scoring. The results showed that the rapid washing before processing did not deteriorate the volatile components of CX. Considering the practical condition of production area, oven-drying was believed to be more suitable than sun-drying, baking, and far-infrared drying. The CX decoction pieces with a thickness of 0.3-0.4 cm were recommended to be oven-dried at 50 ℃. The integrated processing(partial drying, cutting into pieces, and drying) did not cause a significant loss of volatile components. For the fresh CX, the oven-drying at 60 ℃ is preferred. The temperature should not exceed 60 ℃, and drying below 60 ℃ will prolong the processing time, which will produce an unfavorable effect on volatile components. This study has provided the scientific evidence for field processing of CX, which is conducive to realizing the normalization and standardization of CX processing in the production area and stabilizing the quality of CX and its decoction pieces.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Oils, Volatile , Principal Component Analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927911

ABSTRACT

Forsythiae Fructus is the dried fruit of Forsythia suspensa and the volatile compounds are its main bioactive components. According to the different harvest periods, F. suspensa can be divided into Qingqiao(mature F. suspensa) and Laoqiao(ripe F. suspensa). To investigate dynamic changes of volatile components in Qingqiao and Laoqiao samples collected at different periods, the present study extracted and analyzed the total volatile oils in Qingqiao and Laoqiao samples(four harvest periods for Qingqiao and two for Laoqiao) by steam distillation method. The results indicated that the content of volatile oils in F. suspensa samples at different harvest periods was significantly different. The content of volatile oils in Qingqiao samples(except those harvested in the first period) was higher than that of Laoqiao, and the content of volatile oils in both Qingqiao and Laoqiao increased with the harvest period. Furthermore, volatile compounds in F. suspensa were qualitatively analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), and 28 volatile compounds were identified. Chemometrics analyses including principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) were further applied to explore differential markers and dynamic changes of volatile components in Qingqiao and Laoqiao samples at different harvest periods. Finally, four volatile compounds, including α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, and 4-terpenol were selected as potential differential markers. The relative content of α-pinene and 4-terpenol was consistent with that of total volatile oils in the changing trend.


Subject(s)
Chemometrics , Forsythia , Fruit , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Oils, Volatile
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920548

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the value of an oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) diagnostic model constructed by using principal component analysis (PCA) to analyze a database of differentially expressed genes in OSCC and to provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment.@*Methods@# RNA-seq expression data of OSCC and normal control samples were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and then, normalized and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by R software. DEGs were enriched by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis to identify their main biological characteristics. 70% of DEGs expression data in RNA-seq were randomly selected as the training set and 30% were selected as the test set. Then, the PCA method was applied to analyze the training set data and extract the principal components (PCs) related to the diagnosis of OSCC in order to construct a PCA model. Then, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of PCA models in the training set and the test set were respectively drawn, and the area under curve (AUC) was calculated to evaluate the accuracy of the PCA model in the diagnosis of OSCC.@*Results@#RNA-seq expression data of OSCC and normal control samples obtained from TCGA database included 330 samples and 32 samples, respectively. Using false discovery rate (FDR) <0.001 and |log2 fold change| (|log2FC|) >4 as the thresholds, a total of 159 downregulated and 248 upregulated DEGs were identified, which were mainly enriched in cellular components such as intermediate fiber and melanosomal membrane, pigment and salivation-related biological processes and mainly involved in salivary secretion and tyrosine metabolism pathways (P.adjust<0.05 and Q<0.05). The DEGs were proposed as tumor markers for OSCC, and PCA analysis of the training set showed that the cumulative ratio of variance of PC1, PC2 and PC3: [including submaxillary gland androgen regulated protein 3B (SMR3B), proline rich 27 (PRR27), histatin 3 (HTN3), statherin (STATH), cystatin D (CST5), BPI fold containing family A member 2 (BPIFA2), proline rich protein Hae Ⅲ subfamily 2 (PRH2), keratin 35(KRT35), histatin 1 (HTN1), amylase alpha 1B (AMY1B)] were 0.873, 0.100 and 0.023, respectively, and the total weight of the three was 0.996. The PCA diagnostic model of OSCC was further constructed by combining the eigenvectors of the above three components. The ROC curves of the training set and test set showed that the AUC values of the PCA model were 0.852 and 0.844, respectively, which were higher than those of other single genes.@*Conclusion @#The OSCC diagnostic model based on the expression levels of SMR3B, PRR27, HTN3, STATH, CST5, BPIFA2, PRH2, KRT35, HTN1 and AMY1B constructed with the PCA method and DEGs has a high diagnostic advantage. This study provides a theoretical basis for the early genetic diagnosis of OSCC and the application of the PCA model in clinical diagnosis.

7.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 452-457, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920462

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To establish the fing erprint of Temurin- 5 powder,conduct chemical pattern recognition analysis ,and determine the contents of 4 components simultaneously. METHODS The fingerprints of 10 batches of Temurin- 5 powder were established and similarity evaluation was performed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)combined with the Similarity Evaluation System of Chromatographic Fingerprints of Traditional Chinese Medicine (2012 edition);common peaks were identified by comparing with mixed substance control. The common peaks were analyzed by systematic cluster analysis and principal component analysis with SPSS 26.0 software. The HPLC method was used to determine the contents of gallic acid , geniposide,chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid in 10 batches of samples. RESULTS A total of 15 common peaks were identified from the fingerprints of 10 batches of Temurin-5 powder,and the similarity was 0.997-0.999. It was identified that peak 1 was gallic acid ,peak 3 was geniposide ,peak 5 was chlorogenic acid and peak 12 was ellagic acid. Among the 10 batches of samples , S4 and S 9 were grouped into one category ,S6-S8 were grouped into one category ,and the other batches of samples were grouped into one category. The accumulative variance contribution rate of first three principal components was 89.245%. The linear ranges of gallic acid ,geniposide,chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid were 5.55-177.5,15.98-511.5,2.56-82.0 and 13.48-431.5 μg/mL, respectively. RSDs of precision ,stability(24 h)and repeatability tests were all less than 2%(n=6 or n=7). The average recoveries were 101.56%,102.21%,98.60% and 96.62%,respectively,RSDs were 1.90%,1.61%,1.58% and 1.73%(n=6). Average contents of above components were 5.03-5.64,10.38-12.16,1.40-1.69,6.47-7.11 mg/g,respectively. CONCLUSIONS The established fingerprint is stable and feasible ,and the content determination method meets the relevant regulations. Combined with chemical pattern recognition analysis ,it can be used for the quality control of Temurin- 5 powder.

8.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(2): 1-12, 2021-05-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363209

ABSTRACT

Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world; however, it may contain toxic compounds such as ochratoxin A (OTA). Objectives: Determine the OTA's presence in different types of coffee, intended for beverage preparation and marketed in Colombia through the application of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analyze its relationship with the physical, physicochemical and microbiological properties. Methods: 8 samples of coffee commercialized in the Colombian market were selected, in which the OTA content was determined by applying the ELISA method. Likewise, a microbiological analysis was performed, and physicochemical properties were determined, such as moisture content, aw, percentage total dissolved solids (%TDS), and extraction yield (%EY). Physical properties such as free-flow densities, compacted bulk densities (CBD), porosity, average particle size (ASP), and color. The data were treated with multivariate analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) to quantitatively investigate the relationships between the coffee samples concerning their physical, physicochemical properties, and OTA content. LSD test was applied with a significance level of 95 % and Pearson correlation test. Results:All the samples had OTA content, but only 2 exceeded the limits allowed by the regulations, with a maximum value of 15.449 µg/Kg, which represents 31.449 % of the tolerable daily intake according to the parameters defined by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). According to the PCA and CA, the samples were grouped harmonically according to the type of coffee associated with its commercial presentation and industrial process, OTA content, and ASP. OTA content was significantly and positively correlated (p< 0.05) with %EY, %TDS, ASP, porosity, CBD and moisture. Conclusions: The coffees marketed in Colombia showed a variable range of OTA, where soluble coffees had higher OTA contents than roasted coffees, and 25 % of the coffees analyzed do not meet the levels defined by Colombian regulations. The OTA content in coffee is related to properties that define the ability to extract solutes from coffee


Antecedentes: El café es una de las bebidas más consumidas en el mundo, sin embargo, puede contener compuestos tóxicos como la ocratoxina A (OTA). Objetivos: Determinar la presencia de OTA en diferentes tipos de café destinados a la preparación de bebida y comercializados en Colombia mediante la aplicación del ensayo inmunoabsorbente ligado a enzimas (ELISA) y analizar su relación con las propiedades físicas, fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas. Métodos: Se seleccionaron 8 muestras de café comercializado en el mercado colombiano, en las cuales se determinó el contenido de OTA mediante la aplicación del método ELISA. Así mismo se realizó análisis microbiológico y se determinaron propiedades fisicoquímicas como contenido de humedad, aw, porcentaje de sólidos disueltos totales (%TDS) y rendimiento de extracción (%EY); y propiedades físicas como densidad por caída libre, densidad compactada (CBD), porosidad, tamaño promedio de partícula (ASP) y color. Los datos fueron tratados con análisis multivariado empleando análisis de componentes principales (PCA) y análisis de conglomerados (CA) para investigar cuantitativamente las relaciones entre las muestras de café con respecto a sus propiedades físicas, fisicoquímicas y contenido de OTA. Se aplicó prueba LSD con un nivel de significación del 95 % y prueba de correlación de Pearson. Resultados: Todas las muestras presentaron contenido de OTA, pero solo 2 sobrepasaron los límites permitidos por la normatividad, con un valor máximo de 15.449 µg/Kg, el cual representa un 31.449 % de la ingesta diaria tolerable según los parámetros definidos por el Comité Mixto FAO/OMS de Expertos en Aditivos Alimentarios (JECFA). De acuerdo al PCA y CA, las muestras se agruparon armónicamente de acuerdo al tipo de café asociado a su presentación comercial y proceso industrial, contenido de OTA y ASP; el contenido de OTA se correlacionó significativa y positivamente (p < 0.05) con el %EY, %TDS, ASP, porosidad, CBD y humedad. Conclusión: Los cafés comercializados en Colombia presentan un rango variable de OTA, en donde los cafés solubles presentan contenidos de OTA mayores que los cafés tostados y el 25 % de los cafés analizados no cumplen con niveles definidos por la normatividad colombiana. El contenido de OTA en el café está relacionado con propiedades que definen la capacidad de extracción de solutos del café


Subject(s)
Humans , Coffee , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Principal Component Analysis , Ochratoxins
9.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(2): 192-199, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286187

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. The preclinical stages of dementia include subtle neurocognitive changes that are not easily detected in standard clinical evaluations. Neuropsychological evaluation is important for the classification and prediction of deterioration in all the phases of dementia. Objective: Compare the neuropsychological performance in healthy older adults with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using principal components analysis. Methods: We evaluated 94 older adults with a clinical protocol which included general measures of mental, emotional and functional state. The neuropsychological protocol included tasks of memory, executive function, attention, verbal fluency and visuoconstructional abilities. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce variables´ dimensionality on neuropsychological evaluation. Results: 33(35%) participants had a normal cognitive function, 35(37%) had subjective cognitive decline and 26(28%) had a mild cognitive impairment. The PCA showed seven factors: processing speed, memory, visuoconstruction, verbal fluency and executive components of cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control and working memory. ANOVA had shown significant differences between the groups in the memory (F=4.383, p=0.016, η2p=0.087) and visuoconstructional components (F=5.395, p=0.006, η2p=0.105). Post hoc analysis revealed lower memory scores in MCI than SCD participants and in visuospatial abilities between MCI and SCD and MCI and Normal participants. Conclusions: We observed differentiated cognitive profiles among the participants in memory and visuoconstruction components. The use of PCA in the neuropsychological evaluation could help to make a differentiation of cognitive abilities in preclinical stages of dementia.


RESUMO. Os estágios pré-clínicos da demência incluem mudanças neurocognitivas sutis que não são facilmente detectadas nas avaliações clínicas padrão. A avaliação neuropsicológica é importante para a classificação e predição da deterioração em todas as fases da demência. Objetivo: Comparar o desempenho neuropsicológico em idosos saudáveis com declínio cognitivo subjetivo (DCS) e com comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL) por meio da análise de componentes principais. Métodos: Avaliaram-se 94 idosos com um protocolo clínico que incluía medidas gerais do estado mental, emocional e funcional. O protocolo neuropsicológico incluiu tarefas de memória, função executiva, atenção, fluência verbal e habilidades visuoconstrutivas. Utilizou-se a análise de componentes principais (PCA, na sigla em inglês) para reduzir a dimensionalidade das variáveis na avaliação neuropsicológica. Resultados: Um total de 33 (35%) participantes apresentavam função cognitiva normal, 35 (37%) declínio cognitivo subjetivo e 26 (28%) comprometimento cognitivo leve. A PCA apresentou sete fatores: velocidade de processamento, memória, visuoconstrução, fluência verbal e componentes executivos de flexibilidade cognitiva, controle inibitório e memória de trabalho. ANOVA mostrou diferenças significativas entre os grupos na memória (F=4,383, p=0,016, η2p=0,087) e componentes visuoconstrutivos (F=5,395, p=0,006, η2p=0,105). A análise post hoc revelou escores de memória mais baixos no CCL do que os participantes com DCS e nas habilidades visuoespaciais entre CCL e DCS e CCL e participantes normais. Conclusões: Observaram-se perfis cognitivos diferenciados entre os participantes nos componentes de memória e visuoconstrução. O uso da PCA na avaliação neuropsicológica poderia auxiliar na diferenciação das habilidades cognitivas em estágios pré-clínicos da demência.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Neuropsychology
10.
Eng. sanit. ambient ; 26(1): 181-191, jan.-fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154118

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O efluente sanitário bruto é um dos responsáveis pela poluição de rios urbanos, e a instalação de estações de tratamento de efluentes (ETE) exige uma avaliação comparativa do comportamento desses rios antes e depois da ETE. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade da água do rio São Domingos (RSD) após o início da operação da ETE Catanduva (SP), cujas eficiências médias de remoção foram: demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (93,71%), nitrogênio amoniacal (73,12%), fósforo total (25,70%), turbidez (85,16%) e ST (31,75%). Foram utilizados 768 dados coletados pela Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo a montante e a jusante de Catanduva (SP). Obras de dragagem realizadas durante o período avaliado foram responsáveis por um significativo decréscimo temporário na qualidade da água do RSD em Catanduva. Após dois anos do início da operação da ETE, houve significativa melhoria na qualidade do RSD, com redução das concentrações médias de DBO (de 20,97 para 5,73 mg.L−1), nitrogênio amoniacal (de 3,84 para 0,99 mg.L−1) e Escherichia coli (de 105 para 104 UFC.100 mL−1) e aumento da concentração de oxigênio dissolvido (de 0,90 para 3,12 mg.L−1). A análise de componentes principais indicou que a qualidade do rio a jusante de Catanduva está-se aproximando da boa qualidade verificada a montante da cidade. Esses dados sugerem que o RSD pode futuramente ser classificado como Classe 3 (Resolução do Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente — CONAMA n° 357/05) e até ser utilizado para abastecimento humano, reduzindo a elevada demanda de água subterrânea na região.


ABSTRACT Non-treated wastewater is responsible for the pollution of urban rivers, and it is mandatory to evaluate the behavior of these rivers before and after the construction of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the water quality of São Domingos River (SDR) after the start of the Catanduva/SP WWTP operation, whose average removal efficiencies were: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD; 93.71%), ammonia nitrogen (73.12%), total phosphorus (25.70%), turbidity (85.16%), and total solids (31.75%). We used 768 data collected upstream and downstream of the city of Catanduva/SP, previously analyzed by CETESB (state environmental agency). Dredging works carried out during the evaluated period were responsible for a significant temporary worsening in the water quality of the SDR in Catanduva. Two years after the beginning of the Catanduva WWTP, there was a significant improvement in SDR water quality, with a reduction in the average concentrations of BOD (20.97 to 5.73 mg.L−1), ammonia nitrogen (3.84 for 0.99 mg.L−1), and Escherichia coli (105 to 104 CFU.100 mL−1) were reduced; and DO concentration (0.90 to 3.12 mg.L−1) increased. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the water quality of the river downstream of Catanduva is approaching the same quality verified upstream of the city. These data suggest that SDR may be considered a Class 3 river (Resolution CONAMA 357/05) in the future and may even be used for human supply, reducing the high demand for groundwater in the region.

11.
Eng. sanit. ambient ; 26(1): 29-43, jan.-fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154124

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O Sistema Aquífero Guarani (SAG) compreende um dos mais importantes aquíferos do mundo, tanto pela grande reserva quanto pela qualidade de suas águas subterrâneas. Entretanto, nem todas as regiões, nas quais o SAG é utilizado no abastecimento público, possuem estudos a respeito do quimismo de suas águas e de sua associação com a geologia. Este trabalho apresenta a caracterização hidrogeoquímica das águas subterrâneas do SAG utilizadas no abastecimento público em São Carlos, São Paulo, região nordeste do SAG, por meio de amostras provenientes de 27 poços tubulares profundos. A captação de água subterrânea é proveniente principalmente do SAG. Entretanto, também é possível verificar a presença das formações Botucatu, Piramboia, Serra Geral, Itaqueri, Adamantina e sedimentos cenozoicos. Apesar de pouco mineralizadas, verifica-se variabilidade iônica na composição das águas subterrâneas, evidenciada na distribuição espacial da condutividade elétrica na área de estudo. Os resultados hidroquímicos apontam para a existência de quatro fácies hidroquímicas: bicarbonatadas mistas, bicarbonatadas cálcicas, bicarbonatadas sódicas e sódica fluoretada, em ordem decrescente de representatividade. A heterogeneidade geológica interfere na concentração de íons na água, por meio da dissolução mineral, e possibilita a mistura das águas subterrâneas. A análise de componentes principais constatou que 62,7% da variabilidade total do conjunto amostral é explicada, principalmente, por dois fatores. O primeiro grupo de variáveis representa 38,7% da variabilidade, atribuída principalmente aos íons provenientes da dissolução de minerais (HCO3−, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+) e aos parâmetros relacionados a esse processo (pH e condutividade elétrica). O segundo revelou 24% da variabilidade total, que pode estar associado a origens antrópicas, como a presença dos íons Cl−, N-NO3−, SO42-, F− e K+.


ABSTRACT The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) comprises one of the most important aquifers in the world due to its large water reserve and its groundwater quality. However, some regions that comprise the GAS groundwater for human supply are not thoroughly characterized on water chemistry and its relation with the local geology. This work presents the hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater from the northeast region of the GAS used for human public supply in São Carlos (São Paulo, Brazil) based on samples from 27 deep boreholes. The groundwater exploration occurs mainly from GAS. However, it is also possible to verify the presence of the Botucatu, Piramboia, Serra Geral, Itaqueri, Adamantina, and Cenozoic sediments. Although little mineralized, there is a large ionic variability in the groundwater composition, also evidenced by spatial distribution of the electrical conductivity in the research area. These results explain four hydrochemical water types: mixed bicarbonate; calcium bicarbonate; sodium bicarbonate; and sodium fluoride, in decreasing order of representativeness. The concentration of ions in groundwater reflects the geological heterogeneity, through mineral dissolution and possible groundwater mixing. A Principal Component Analysis demonstrated that 62.7% of the total sample set variability is explained by two main factors. The first one represents 38.7% of the variability; mainly attributed to ions from minerals dissolution (HCO3−, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+) and parameters related to this process (pH and electrical conductivity). The second group showed 24.0% of the total variability, which may be associated with anthropic activities origins, such as the presence of Cl−, N-NO3−, SO42-, F−, and K+.

12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(2): 625-636, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153773

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se identificar os padrões de consumo alimentar e os fatores associados em crianças menores de dois anos no Brasil. Estudo transversal, de base populacional, utilizando dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde realizada em 2013. O consumo alimentar foi mensurado por questões dicotômicas, listando os alimentos, considerando apenas o dia anterior à entrevista. Os padrões foram identificados por meio de análise de componentes principais. Utilizou-se regressão de Poisson para obtenção de razão de prevalência bruta e ajustada. Considerou-se o efeito de delineamento amostral nas análises que foram estratificadas de acordo com a idade. Dentre as 5.052 crianças, foram identificados três padrões, sendo denominados como: "padrão de consumo de alimentos saudáveis", "padrão de consumo de leites" e "padrão de consumo de alimentos não saudáveis". Observou-se associação entre os padrões em cada faixa etária, principalmente com cor da pele, sexo, escolaridade do chefe da família, zona de residência e região. Um quarto das crianças de 12 a 23 meses ingeriu refrigerantes, mais de um terço sucos artificiais e quase metade doces no dia anterior à entrevista. Foram identificados três padrões alimentares, além de observar introdução alimentar precoce em crianças menores de seis meses de idade.


Abstract The scope of this paper was to identify patterns of food consumption and associated factors among children under two years of age in Brazil. It involved a cross-sectional, population-based study using data from the National Health Survey conducted in 2013. Food consumption was measured by dichotomous questions, listing the food ingested solely on the day prior to the interview. The patterns were identified through principal component analysis. Poisson regression was used to obtain a crude and adjusted prevalence ratio. The sample design effect was considered in the analyses that were stratified according to age. Among the 5,052 children, three patterns were identified, being defined as: a "healthy food consumption pattern," a "milk consumption pattern" and an "unhealthy food consumption pattern." There was an association between the patterns in each age group, mainly related to skin color, gender, schooling of the head of the family, area of residence and region. A quarter of the children from 12 to 23 months consumed soft drinks, more than a third drank artificial juices and almost half ate candies the day before the interview. Three dietary patterns were identified, besides observing early food ingestion among children under six months of age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Carbonated Beverages , Milk , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Diet , Feeding Behavior
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879187

ABSTRACT

Astragali Radix-Curcumae Rhizoma is a classic drug pair mainly used for the treatment of digestive tract-related inflammation and tumors, but the ratio is not fixed in clinical practice. In order to study whether the anti-tumor effect of the drug pair is diffe-rent under different ratios, orthotopic transplantation model of colon cancer was established in mice. Then the principal component analysis(PCA) and cluster analysis(CA) were used to explore the effect of different ratios of the drug pair on the tumor growth and metastasis, and select the optimal ratio of Astragali Radix-Curcumae Rhizoma for anti-colon cancer effect. After administration for 15 days, the body weight of colon cancer mice with the tumor removed, the tumor volume and the number of liver metastases were mea-sured; the pathological changes of tumor tissue and liver tissue were observed by HE staining. At the same time, Western blot method was used to detect the protein expression level of tumor growth-related indicators in tumor tissue(Ki67, HBP1, AFP) and tumor metastasis-related indicators in liver tissue(β-catenin, E-cadherin, vimentin, p53) of the tumor-bearing mice. Subsequently, PCA and CA were used to select the optimal ratio of Astragali Radix-Curcumae Rhizoma for anti-colon cancer effect. The experimental results showed that different ratios of Astragali Radix-Curcumae Rhizoma inhibited tumor growth and metastasis to varying degrees. The ratio at 1∶1 of Astragali Radix-Curcumae Rhizoma had the best inhibitory effect on tumor growth, and the 2∶1 ratio group had the best effect on inhibiting liver metastasis and improving weighed loss. Astragali Radix-Curcumae Rhizoma significantly up-regulated the protein expression of HBP1 in tumor tissue of colon cancer mice, and significantly down-regulated the protein expression of Ki67 and AFP in tumor tissue; meanwhile, Astragali Radix-Curcumae Rhizoma significantly up-regulated the protein expression of E-cadherin in liver tissue of colon cancer mice, and significantly reduced the protein expression of β-catenin, vimentin and p53 in liver tissue. PCA results showed that the first three groups in the Astragali Radix-Curcumae Rhizoma compatibility group that were closer to the sham operation group were in the order of 2∶1, 1∶1 and 3∶2, among which the center distance of the 2∶1 group was the shortest from the sham operation group, indicating that the ratio 2∶1 of Astragali Radix-Curcumae Rhizoma had the best intervention effect on colon cancer in mice, consistent with the commonly used clinical proportion. CA results showed that 11 groups of colon cancer mice were classified into 3 categories: Astragali Radix-Curcumae Rhizoma compatibility group, sham operation group and model group, which was consistent with the theory. The results of this study provide a basis for more effective clinical application of Astragali Radix-Curcumae Rhizoma in the treatment of colon cancer, and provide new ideas for the development of classic drug pairs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astragalus Plant , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Mice , Plant Roots , Rhizome
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879134

ABSTRACT

This study is to clarify the composition and content differences of water-soluble nutrients in Lycium barbarum leaves(LBLs) from different areas. The total polysaccharides, free monosaccharides and oligosaccharides, nucleosides and amino acids in 35 batches of LBLs were analyzed with use of spectrophotometry, HPLC-ELSD and UPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that LBLs contained abundant polysaccharides, fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose, with an average contents of 39.07, 12.69, 8.99, 17.44, 8.32 mg·g~(-1), respectively. Besides, eight nucleosides and twelve amino acids were detected in LBLs, and their average total contents were 54.95, 336.9 μg·g~(-1). Principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares discrimination analysis(PLS-DA) of carbohydrate, nucleoside and amino acid showed that the water-soluble nutrients of the samples from Qinghai Province were significantly different from those from other areas mainly in asparagine, proline, glutamine, sucrose, adenine and guanosine. In this study, the compositions and contents of water-soluble nutrients in LBLs were preliminarily clarified, which provided basis for further development and utilization of LBLs resoures.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Lycium , Nutrients , Plant Leaves , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Water
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878971

ABSTRACT

In this study, 23 germplasm resources of Chrysanthemum morifolium used in medicine and tea were collected from Dabie Mountains and its surrounding producing areas, and the contents of 13 mineral elements were determined and compared. The thermal maps of correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used for comprehensive evaluation. The results showed that the average content of each element in Ch. morifolium of different germplasm resources was: K>N>P>Mg>Ca>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd, and the leaves were: K>N>Ca>Mg>P>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Cu>Ni>Pb>Cd. There are rich contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe in Ch. morifolium flowers and their leaves, among them, K element has the largest change range, while N, Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn elements have a larger change range. The absorption and accumulation of each element in the leaves of different germplasm resources varied greatly. The correlation analysis shows that there is a strong positive correlation between Ca element, Mg, Mn and Cd element.Principal component analysis in Ch. morifolium flowers characteristic elements for Mn, Cr, Cu, P, K, can be used as a Ch. morifolium resources to identify the characteristics of the elements, choose top five principal component(F1-F5) comprehensive evalua-tion of medicinal Ch. morifolium, scored in the top five varieties for Hangiu-Fuhuangju, Hangju-Xiaoyangju, Hangju-Sheyangju, Hangju-Dayanghua, Hangju-Subeiju,indicates that in terms of mineral elements, the five medicinal Ch. morifolium resources quality is better. The PCA score chart can divide 23 Ch. morifolium resources into 4 groups, and the cluster analysis heat map divides 23 Ch. morifolium resources into 5 groups. All the Ch. morifolium resources of the same type can be well clustered together, indicating that the difference in mineral element content of Ch. morifolium germplasm resources is closely related to genetic factors.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum/genetics , Flowers/genetics , Minerals , Plant Leaves , Tea
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878962

ABSTRACT

This study is to provide the basis of establishing a quality evaluation system, based on the differences in appearance and internal components of Astragali Radix from different sources. The diameter of 18 batches of Astragali Radix, the content of alcohol(water) extract and 7 kinds of flavonoids were determined. The peak area ratio of flavonoid aglycon to aglycone was calculated. PCA and CA were carried out by synthesizing various indexes. The results of PCA and CA showed that Astragali Radix was obviously clustered into three types. Alcohol extract, formononetin/formosan glycosides,(pilose isoflavones+astragalus flavonoid A)/pilose isoflavone glucoside are the most significant differences in the variable importance projection index(VIP) of Astragali Radix. Combining the diameter, alcohol(water) extract, flavonoid aglycon to aglycone peak area ratio can provide an analysis method for the establishment of the grade evaluation system of Astragali Radix.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glucosides , Glycosides , Plant Roots
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878955

ABSTRACT

The study is aiming at investigating the application of entropy weight TOPSIS method in the comparison of the scavenging effect of DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical and the inhibition effect of xanthine oxidase(XOD) and lipoxygenase(LOX) of Chrysanthemum indicum. The DPPH, ABTS, salicylic acid and spectrophotometry were used to determine the scavenging effect of DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical and the inhibition effect of xanthine oxidase(XOD) and lipoxygenase(LOX) of Ch. indicum from 31 different areas in vitro. Take the half inhibition rate of as the evaluation index, two principal components were extracted by the principal component analysis, and their cumulative contribution rate reached at 92.4%. The different areas of Ch. indicum could be divided into Dabei Mountain and Qinling-Taihang Mountain by use principal component to analysis. The entropy weight TOPSIS method was used to objectively assign weights to five indexes, calculate the weight of each index and set up the best and worst scheme of the evaluation object, and the relative proximity(C_i) was used as the measure to construct the multi-index comprehensive evaluation model of Ch. indicum. And then sort with the relative proximity value. The results showed that the relative proximity was between 0.098 and 0.983 which represents there were significant differences in the scavenging effect of DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical and the inhibition effect of xanthine oxidase(XOD) and lipoxygenase(LOX) between extracts of Ch. indicum from different areas. The Ch. indicum from Dabie Mountain area have a relatively high relative degree of measurement and high-quality ranking. Taken together, the quality of Ch. indicum.from the Dabie Mountain area is better. The index weight coefficient and the classification result of producing area are basically consistent with the result of principal component analysis. The results show that the TOPSIS method based on entropy weight method can be used to evaluate the comprehensive quality of Ch. indicum.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants , Chrysanthemum , Entropy , Plant Extracts
18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 3150-3164, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922785

ABSTRACT

The three-dimensional (3D) conformation of chromatin is integral to the precise regulation of gene expression. The 3D genome and genomic variations in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are largely unknown, despite their key roles in cellular function and physiological processes. High-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C), Nanopore sequencing, and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) assays were performed on the liver of normal and NAFLD mice. A high-resolution 3D chromatin interaction map was generated to examine different 3D genome hierarchies including A/B compartments, topologically associated domains (TADs), and chromatin loops by Hi-C, and whole genome sequencing identifying structural variations (SVs) and copy number variations (CNVs) by Nanopore sequencing. We identified variations in thousands of regions across the genome with respect to 3D chromatin organization and genomic rearrangements, between normal and NAFLD mice, and revealed gene dysregulation frequently accompanied by these variations. Candidate target genes were identified in NAFLD, impacted by genetic rearrangements and spatial organization disruption. Our data provide a high-resolution 3D genome interaction resource for NAFLD investigations, revealed the relationship among genetic rearrangements, spatial organization disruption, and gene regulation, and identified candidate genes associated with these variations implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The newly findings offer insights into novel mechanisms of NAFLD pathogenesis and can provide a new conceptual framework for NAFLD therapy.

19.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1153-1157, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876880

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To identify and evaluate the risk factors of innovative drug clinical trials ,and to provide references for the development of risk management and control strategies. METHODS :Using the method of literature research ,the risk factors of innovative drug clinical trials were obtained ,classified and sorted out ,and the risk evaluation indicators were initially formed. On this basis ,the questionnaire was designed. By means of interview and questionnaire survey ,54 experts were invited from 4 tertiary hospitals and 1 contract research organization to score. SPSS 24.0 software was used to perform principal component analysis on risk event status data. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS :The risk evaluation system included 9 first-class indicators such as policy and legal risk ,clinical trial institution risk and trial scheme design risk ,and 31 second-class indicators such as industrial policy,law and regulation changes ,intellectual property risk . According to the analysis ,the risk factors of innovative drug clinical trials mainly included drug and biological sample management risk ,trial scheme design risk ,clinical trial institution risk ,safety report management risk ,ethical review risk ,policy and legal risk ,and subject management risk. Relevant parties in clinical trials need to focus on monitoring various risk factors ,establish dynamic monitoring and control mechanism and implementation guarantee mechanism ,and effectively prevent and control risk ,to promote the smooth implementation of clinical trials.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888113

ABSTRACT

This study established high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) fingerprints of Chinese medicines derived from Apocynum venetum and Poacynum pictum in Xinjiang and explored their composition differences with the combination of content determination, similarity analysis, cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The HPLC conditions included Phenomenex Kinetex C_(18) column(4.6 mm ×100 mm, 2.6 μm), acetonitrile-0.01% trifluoroacetic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase, gradient elution, flow rate of 0.6 mL·min~(-1), detection wavelength of 281 nm and column temperature of 25 ℃. The content of chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-O-sophoroside, rutin, hyperin, isoquercitrin, trifolin and astragalin was determined in 31 batches of medicinal materials, and fingerprint research and chemometric analysis were performed with Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine(Version 2004 A) and SPSS 21.0. In the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2020, the quality of Apocyni Veneti Folium is controlled by character identification, microscopic identification, thin layer chromatography identification and quantitative determination of hyperin. There were 21 common peaks of A. venetum and P. pictum in the HPLC fingerprints, 5 of which were identified as chlorogenic acid, hyperin, isoquercitrin, trifolin and astragalin, with their content also determined. Except for 3 batches of medicinal materials, the similarity of other 28 batches was higher than 0.83, indicating good similarity. Two categories were formed in the cluster analysis based on content determination, which showed that some differences existed in similarities between different regions of Xinjiang. The medicinal materials were ranked by quality with principal component analysis, and the results indicated that the top 15 all came from northern Xinjiang. The quality difference of A. venetum and P. pictum had a correlation with the place of origin. This study provides a reference for the analysis and evaluation of A. venetum and P. pictum from different habitats and the selection of introduction and cultivation areas.


Subject(s)
Apocynum , China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
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