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1.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 24(2)ago. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386600

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the observers diagnostic performance in panoramic radiography using monitor, tablet, X-ray image view box, and against window daylight as a visualization method in different diagnostic tasks. Thirty panoramic radiography were assessed by three calibrated observers for each visualization method, in standardized light conditions, concerning dental caries, widened periodontal ligament space, and periapical bone defects from the four first molars; mucosal thickening and retention cysts in maxillary sinus; and stylo-hyoid ligament calcification and atheroma. A five-point confidence scale was used. The standard-reference was performed by two experienced observers. Diagnostic values using window light were significantly lower for caries and periapical bone defect and retention cyst, stylo-hyoid ligament calcification detection (p<0.05). For atheroma detection, X-ray image view box, tablet, and widow light had lower accuracy than the evaluation on the monitor (p<0.05). Observers diagnostic performances are worsened using window light as an evaluation method for panoramic radiography for dental, sinus, and calcification disorders, while the monitor was the most reliable method.


Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el desempeño diagnóstico de los observadores en la radiografía panorámica utilizando monitor, tablet, caja de visualización de imágenes de rayos X y contra la luz del día de la ventana como método de visualización en diferentes tareas de diagnóstico. Treinta radiografías panorámicas fueron evaluadas por tres observadores calibrados para cada método de visualización, en condiciones de luz estandarizadas, con respecto a caries dental, espacio del ligamento periodontal ensanchado y defectos óseos periapicales de los cuatro primeros molares; engrosamiento de la mucosa y quistes de retención en el seno maxilar; y calcificación y ateroma del ligamento estilohioideo. Se utilizó una escala de confianza de cinco puntos. La referencia estándar fue realizada por dos observadores experimentados. Los valores diagnósticos con luz de ventana fueron significativamente menores para caries y defecto óseo periapical y quiste de retención, detección de calcificación del ligamento estilohioideo (p <0.05). Para la detección de ateroma, la caja de visualización de imágenes de rayos X, el tablet y la luz de viuda tuvieron una precisión menor que la evaluación en el monitor (p <0.05). El rendimiento diagnóstico del observador empeora al utilizar la luz de la ventana como método de evaluación de la radiografía panorámica para los trastornos dentales, de los senos nasales y de la calcificación, mientras que el monitor fue el método más fiable.

2.
Vigil. sanit. debate ; 10(2): 50-60, maio 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371231

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O processamento de alimentos orgânicos por pequenos produtores contribui para um sistema alimentar economicamente, socialmente e ambientalmente sustentável. É importante conhecer o perfil e as potenciais dificuldades dos processadores de alimentos orgânicos, organizados sob a modalidade do Sistema Participativo de Garantia da qualidade orgânica, devido ao seu crescimento e relevância social, para direcionamento de ações e políticas públicas com consequente fortalecimento da agricultura de bases agroecológica. Objetivo: Descrever o perfil dos processadores de alimentos orgânicos do estado do Rio de Janeiro e identificar os principais desafios nas redes de produção e comercialização. Método: Estudo exploratório e descritivo com delineamento transversal realizado por pesquisa documental aos planos de manejos, manual de boas práticas, atas do Sistema Participativo de Garantia, certificados  emitidos pela Associação de Agricultores Biológicos do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, assim como outros documentos de atualização de Organismos Participativos de Avaliação da Conformidade Orgânica em relação aos produtores credenciados. Resultados: Observou-se que 60% dos processadores orgânicos no estado do Rio de Janeiro são vinculados ao Sistema Participativo de Garantia da qualidade orgânica. A unidade de processamento mais utilizada é a anexa ao domicílio. A maioria são agricultores ou microempreendedores familiares que recebem ajuda da família no processo produtivo e a atividade mais desenvolvida é a fabricação de conservas, geleias, molhos e doces. Menos de 70% possuíam alvará de funcionamento e licença sanitária, 97% tinham plano de manejo orgânico; 79% possuíam manual de boas práticas e 78%, plano de rastreabilidade. Das principais dificuldades, destacam-se: aquisição de matéria-prima, adequação às normas sanitárias e logística de distribuição. Conclusões: O estudo desvelou a potencialidade do processamento de produtos orgânicos para o desenvolvimento socioeconômico regional e a necessidade de mais incentivos para viabilizar a inclusão produtiva de pequenos empreendimentos.


Introduction: Smallholder organic food processing contributes to an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable food system. It is important to know the profile and potential difficulties of organic food processors, organized under the modality of the Participatory Organic Quality Assurance System, due to its growth and social relevance for targeting actions and public policies with the consequent strengthening of agriculture with an agroecological basis. Objective: Describe the profile of organic food processors in Rio de Janeiro state and identify the main challenges in the production and commercialization schemes. Method: This is an exploratory and descriptive study with transversal design developed by documental research of different documents: handling plans, good practices manual, minutes of the Participatory Organic Quality Assurance System, certificates issued by the Association of Biological Farmers of the State of Rio de Janeiro, and other updated documents of the Participative Organism of Organic Conformity Assessment related to the accredited producers. Results: Sixty per cent of the organic processors in the Rio de Janeiro state were linked to the Participatory Organic Quality Assurance System. The processing unit mostly used is the one attached to their homes. Most of them are farmers or family micro-entrepreneurs that have assistance of family members in the production process and the main activity carried out is the production of canned foods, jams, sauces, and homemade desserts. Less than 70% of the producers had an operation permit and sanitary license, 97% had an Organic Handling Plan; 79% had a Good Practices Manual and 78% had a Traceability Plan. Among the main difficulties, there were: raw resource acquisition, sanitary rules adequacy and logistics in supplies. Conclusions: The study demonstrated the potentiality of organic products processing for the local social and economic development, and the need of greater inducements to make an inclusive production of small enterprises feasible.

3.
Rev. CES psicol ; 15(1): 24-43, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376228

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: la esquizofrenia es una enfermedad crónica que genera gran discapacidad, para la cual se han reportado biomarcadores potenciales, pero sin suficiente validez clínica. El mismatch negativity (MMN) y el P3a son potenciales relacionados con eventos que han demostrado ser indicadores neurofisiológicos del procesamiento auditivo pre-atencional y potenciales biomarcadores. Objetivo: evaluar el MMN y P3a en pacientes con diagnóstico de esquizofrenia y su relación con variables sociodemográficas y clínicas. Método: estudio cuantitativo transversal de 23 sujetos con esquizofrenia (ESQ) y 22 controles sanos (SN). Las amplitudes promedio y latencias del MMN/P3a para la condición infrecuente en duración y frecuencia fueron obtenidas mediante un paradigma oddball auditivo en un EEG de 32 canales. Resultados: se encontraron diferencias para la condición frecuencia en la amplitud del MMN (p=0.046; CI 95% 0.009; 0.87) y la amplitud del P3a (p=0.042; CI 95% 0.025; 1.24) entre los grupos; la amplitud del MMN fue menor en el grupo ESQ (-0.36 DE 0.51 µV) en comparación con los participantes del grupo de SN (-0.81 DE 0.89 µV), mientras que la amplitud del P3a fue menor en el grupo SN (0.18 DE 0.97 µV) versus el grupo ESQ (0.82 DE 1.05 µV). En relación con las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas, las asociaciones con el P3a fueron moderadas y con el MMN débiles. Conclusiones: la reducción de la amplitud del MMN a la condición frecuencia exhibe mayor utilidad que el P3a como medida de alta estabilidad en pacientes con esquizofrenia, lo que reitera su posible uso como biomarcador.


Abstract Background: schizophrenia is a chronic disease that generates great disability, which currently has potential biomarkers but without sufficient clinical validity. Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are event-related potentials that have been shown to be neurophysiological indicators of pre-attentional auditory processing and potential biomarkers. Objective: to evaluate MMN and P3a in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and their relationship with sociodemographic and clinical variables. Method: a quantitative cross-sectional study of 23 subjects with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls was performed. The average amplitudes and latencies of the MMN/P3a for the condition infrequent in duration and infrequent in frequency were obtained using an auditory oddball paradigm on a 32-channel EEG. Results: differences were found for the frequency condition in the amplitude of the MMN (p=0.046; 95% CI 0.009; 0.87) and the amplitude of the P3a (p=0.042; 95% CI 0.025; 1.24) between the groups; MMN amplitude was lower in schizophrenia (-0.36 SD 0.51 µV) compared to healthy controls (-0.81 SD 0.89 µV), while P3a amplitude was lower in healthy controls (0.18 SD 0.97 µV) versus the group with schizophrenia (0.82 SD 1.05 µV). In regard to sociodemographic and clinical variables, the associations with P3a were moderate, and showed weak MMN. Conclusions: MMN amplitude reduction to the frequency condition exhibits greater utility than P3a as a measure of high stability in schizophrenia, restating its potential use as a biomarker.

4.
Rev. CES psicol ; 15(1): 96-118, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376231

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: analizar el procesamiento emocional en niños, niñas y adolescentes argentinos de edad escolar según sexo. Método: estudio descriptivo-comparativo con un diseño ex post facto, transversal. Participaron en la investigación 67 mujeres y 74 varones escolarizados de entre 7 y 14 años dividido en tres franjas etarias. Para evaluar el procesamiento emocional se utilizaron las 60 imágenes específicas para niños y adolescentes del International Affective Picture System (IAPS), y para medir los juicios evaluativos se utilizó el Self Assessment Manikin (SAM). Resultados: la distribución de las imágenes muestra una correlación moderada negativa entre dos dimensiones afectivas básicas del procesamiento emocional, la valencia afectiva y la activación fisiológica, con valores similares en ambos sexos. Las mujeres puntuaron más bajo que los varones en valencia y arousal, aunque sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Los varones evaluaron los estímulos aversivos con menor grado de activación y los estímulos agradables con mayor activación. En general, se observa mayor agrupamiento de las imágenes desagradables y neutras en las mujeres respecto de las de los varones. Conclusión: en ambos sexos se presentó una relación inversa entre valencia y arousal, evidenciada en mayor activación ante imágenes desagradables, lo cual demostraría una tendencia reaccionaron a las imágenes desagradables con mayor intensidad mientras que los varones, valoraron las imágenes agradables con mayor intensidad.


Abstract Objective: to analyze emotional processing in Argentine school-age children and adolescents according to sex. Method: descriptive-comparative study with an ex post facto, cross-sectional design. 67 girls and 74 schooled boys aged between 7 and 14, participated in the research divided into three age ranges. The 60 specific images for children and adolescents from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) were used to assess emotional processing, and the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) was used to measure evaluative judgments. Results: the distribution of the images shows a moderate negative correlation between valence and arousal, with similar values in both sexes. Women scored lower in valence and arousal compared to men, although without statistically significant differences. The men evaluated the aversive stimuli with a lower degree of activation and the pleasant stimuli with greater activation. In general, a greater grouping of unpleasant and neutral images is observed in women compared to those of men. Conclusion: in both sexes there was an inverse relationship between valence and arousal, evidenced in greater activation in the face of unpleasant images, which would demonstrate an avoidance trend when arousal levels are high. Females reacted to unpleasant images with greater intensity while males rated pleasant images with higher degree.

5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389822

ABSTRACT

Resumen El trastorno del procesamiento sensorial (TPS) es una condición frecuente, pero poco conocida por muchos profesionales de la salud. El procesamiento sensorial se define como la capacidad que posee el sistema nervioso central de interpretar y organizar las sensaciones del propio cuerpo y del ambiente, para su uso efectivo en el entorno mediante respuestas adaptativas. Por lo tanto, cualquier disfunción en el procesamiento (registro, modulación y/o discriminación) de estos estímulos se expresa como una respuesta desadaptativa, siendo significativo cuando esta impacta en la vida diaria del paciente. Es deber del médico sospechar este trastorno, acogiendo al paciente y su familia, derivando oportunamente a terapia ocupacional para su correcta evaluación y eventual manejo de acuerdo con las necesidades de cada paciente.


Abstract Sensory processing disorder (SPD) is an unknown condition for many health care professionals. Sensory processing is defined as the capacity of the central nervous system to interpretate and organize sensations from our own body and from the environment, for their proper use by adaptive responses. Any dysfunction in this processing (registration, modulation and or discrimination) is expressed by a maladaptive response, being considered abnormal when this response has a negative impact in the patient's daily activities. Is our duty as health care workers to suspect this disorder, help our patients and their families by doing a proper referral to an occupational therapist for their evaluation and management, according to each patient needs.

6.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 764-768, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923016

ABSTRACT

Zixue san is a preparation in Chinese Pharmacopoeia ,and is a commonly used representative formula in Liangkai formulation. In the previous editions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia ,for the item of the formulation and preparation method of Zixue san,“mirabilite”“mirabilite(prepare)”“Xuanming powder ”and other different descriptions have been repeatedly modified and amended;the methods of preparation of mirabilite in the processing specifications of different provinces and cities are also different,causing effects in actual production. Therefore ,the author has researched the historical evolution of Zixue ,the formulation and preparation method of Zixue san in the previous editions of Chinese P harmacopoeia,and has expounded the change process of mirabilite,mirabilite(prepare),Xuanming powder in the item of formulation and preparation method of Zixue san. In addition ,the author compares Chinese Pharmacopoeia with the processing methods of mirabilite in the national and provincial processing specifications ,in order to provide a basis for the processing of mirabilite in the formulation of Zixue san.

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 507-513, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922927

ABSTRACT

The key factors for producing the best quality Chinese herbal medicines are high-quality germplasm, suitable cultivation area and the proper processing methods for herbal raw materials. Gentiana crassicaulis in Gentiana (Sect. Cruciata), Gentianaceae is one of the original plants of the Chinese herb Qinjiao (Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix), and its type specimen was collected in Lijiang, Yunnan. There is a long planting history of the herb in this area. In this study a sampling plot was designated in these traditional planting areas. G. crassicaulis was planted and herbal raw materials were harvested from the plot. The raw materials were prepared locally and at a pharmaceutical factory in Shanghai using processing methods such as "sweating" or "no sweating", "slicing" or "no slicing" (whole root), and "stoving" or "no stoving" (air drying). The quality of all processed samples was evaluated. In addition, molecular markers were determined for identifying cultivated and wild samples from Lijiang, Yunnan. The results are as follows: ① Samples from the sampling plot and the field are taxonomically identified as Gentiana crassicaulis. ② A total of 270 sequences of trnC-GCA-petN, atpB-rbcL, psbN, ndhB-rps7 and ycf1 were obtained, and three genotypes were determined from the cultivated samples; the type III was shared by both cultivated and wild plants. Based on the molecular markers, a DNA barcoding method to identify cultivated and wild samples of G. crassicaulis from Lijiang, Yunnan was established. ③ Total content of loganic acid and gentiopicroside in all samples was ≥ 2.5%, and above the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2020) limit. ④ In HPLC fingerprinting, 9 common peaks were assigned and similarity between all samples was > 0.999; and ⑤ In a PCA score plot all slice samples were clustered, while whole root samples were scattered. Therefore, our studies could provide basic data for optimizing the processing method, producing best quality Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix, and evaluating the quality of different ecotype varieties and the multiple origin of herbal medicines.

8.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 592-596, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920730

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To optimize th e p rocessing technology of Portulaca oleracea charcoal,and to investigate its improvement effect on the symptom of hemorrhoid model rats. METHODS The effects of roasting temperature ,dosage and roasting time on the processing technology of P. oleracea charcoal were investigated with Box-Behnken response surface methodology using comprehensive score of tannin content ,water-soluble extract content and appearance properties as the index. The optimal process parameters are selected and verified. The hemorrhoid model rats were treated with P. oleracea charcoal(0.8 g/mL)prepared by the optimal processing technology ,once a day ,for 11 days. After last medication ,the perianal pathological score of hemorrhoid model rats were performed ;serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α),interleukin 6(IL-6)and IL- 1β were detected. RESULTS The optimal processing technology of P. oleracea charcoal included roasting temperature of 200 ℃, dosage of 150 g and roasting time of 14 min. Results of validation test showed that the comprehensive score of P. oleracea charcoal was 92.57,and relative error of it with predicted value (96.59)was -4.13%. External use of P. oleracea charcoal 0.8 g/mL prepared by the optimal processing technology could significantly promote the wound healing of hemorrhoid model rats ,reduced the amount of exudate ,and decreased the levels of TNF-α,IL-6 and IL-β in serum. CONCLUSIONS The optimized processing technology of P. oleracea charcoal is feasible. P. oleracea charcoal prepared by the optimized processing technology has good curative effect on the symptom of hemorrhoid model rats.

9.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 569-574, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920726

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To compare t he diff erences of the fingerprint and in vitro antioxidant activity between decoction pieces of Polygonum cuspidatum by integrated technology of habitat processing and processing (short for IPDP )and traditional processing decoction pieces (short for TPDP ). METHODS Ten batches of IPDP and ten batches of TPDP were prepared by integrated technology and traditional technology ,respectively. HPLC method was used to establish and compare the fingerprints of IPDP and TPDP. The scavenging rates of DPPH free radical ,ABTS free radical ,superoxide free radical and hydroxyl free radical and reducing activity of Fe 3+ were detected for IPDP and TPDP. In vitro antioxidant activities were compared between IPDP and TPDP. RESULTS There were 11 common peaks in the fingerprints of IPDP and TPDP ,among which 17 came from IPDP and 13 came from TPDP. The peak heights of peak 6(polydatin)and peak 15(emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside)in IPDP were significantly higher than those in the TPDP ,and the peak heights of peak 13(resveratrol),peak 17(emodin)and peak 19(physcion)in the TPDP were significantly higher than those in the IPDP. The results of in vitro antioxidant test showed that IPDP and TPDP had a certain scavenging capacity on DPPH free radical ,ABTS free radical ,superoxide free radical and hydroxyl free radicals ,and also had a certain reducing capacity on Fe 3+. CONCLUSIONS The integrated processing technology of P. cuspidatum has a good retention effect on the glycosides in P. cuspidatum ,and the in vitro antioxidant activity of IPDP is stronger than that of TPDP.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920594

ABSTRACT

@#With the improvement of computer computing capability and the accumulation of a large amount of medical data, artificial intelligence is gradually being applied in the diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial tumors. Artificial intelligence technology can assist doctors in clinical diagnosis and improve the efficiency of clinical work and the accuracy of diagnosis. In recent years, researchers have focused primarily on the recognition of medical images. The commonly used method is to annotate a large number of images by experts for learning image features by machines. The available literature has been able to utilize artificial intelligence technology to diagnose tumors by analyzing medical images, pathological sections, and tumor photos. The main issues in the current research are uneven labeling data quality, small data size, limited research problems, and single data modalities. These problems need to be solved through the continuous improvement of algorithms and the accumulation of high-quality data. The future direction of artificial intelligence applications should be to integrate medical data from multiple sources, assist doctors in diagnosis, and explore a variety of noninvasive and easy-to-use new methods for the early diagnosis of tumors. This may completely change the existing diagnosis and treatment model of oral and maxillofacial tumors.

11.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 172-178, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To op timize the i ntegrated technology of producing area processing and decoction pieces processing of Curcuma longa (hereinafter refer to “integrated technology ”). METHODS The content of ethanol-soluble extract in C. longa was determined by hot leaching method ;the contents of curcumin ,demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. On the basis of identification of producing area processing technology , Using overall desirability (OD) value of the contents of ethanol-soluble extract , curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin as evaluation indexes ,moisture content ,slice thickness and drying temperature as factors ,the integrated technology of C. longa was optimized by single factor tests combined with central composite design-response surface method ,and the validation tests were conducted. At the same time ,prepared product was compared with traditional decoction pieces prepared according to 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (part Ⅰ). RESULTS The best integrated technology was that the fresh C. longa was boiled in boiling water for 5 min,dried at 50 ℃ to 40% water content ,cut into 2 mm thin slices ,and dried at 50 ℃ until moisture content not exceeding 15.0%. After validation ,The deviation between the average OD value (0.811 3,RSD=2.13%) and the predicted value (0.848 1)of the contents of ethanol-soluble extract ,curcumin,demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin was 4.34%. OD value of the contents of ethanol-soluble extract ,curcumin,demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin in decoction pieces prepared by integrated technology were all higher than those prepared by traditional technology. CONCLUSIONS The process optimized in this study is simple ,stable and feasible.

12.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 332-337, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913092

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the content changes of ch emical constituents of processed products of Terminalia chebula at different temperatures ,and to compare its anti-ulcerative colitis effect. METHODS Processed products of T. chebula at different temperatures(160,180,200,220,240,260,280,300 ℃)were prepared by sand scalding technology. HPLC method was adopted to determine the contents of gallic acid ,chebulagic acid ,chebulinic acid and ellagic acid in crude drug and processed products of T. chebula at different temperatures. The mice were divided into blank group ,model group ,Mesalazin enteric-coated tablets group (positive control ,0.4 g/kg),crude drug and processed products groups of T. chebula at different temperatures (1.3 g/kg),with 10 mice in each group. Except for blank group ,other groups were given 6% acetic acid 0.1 mL via anus to induce ulcerative colitis model. After modeling ,blank group and model group were given water intragastrically ,and other groups were given relevant drug intragastrically ,20 mL/kg,once a day ,for consecutive 7 days. The general physical signs of mice in each group were observed and the body weight was recorded. The colorectal length and index ,serum levels of related inflammation indexes [superoxide dismutase (SOD),malondialdehyde (MDA),interleukin-10 (IL-10),IL-1 β ,tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)] were detected. The pathomorphological changes of colon and rectum were observed ,and the comprehensive score of pharmacodynamics was performed. RESULTS With the increase of processing temperature ,the contents of chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid decreased gradually ,the content of gallic acid increased first and then decreased ,and the content of ellagic acid increased. Compared with model group ,the general physical signs ,body weight ,colorectal length ,colorectal index and related inflammation indexes were all improved significantly in crude drug and processed products groups of T. chebula at different temperatures(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The glandular recess structure of colorectal tissue was repaired ,the infiltration of inflammatory cells was reduced ,and the comprehensive score of efficacy of processed products prepared at 260 ℃ was the highest. CONCLUSIONS The contents of chemical components in T. chebula processed at different temperatures change significantly and their anti-ulcerative colitis effects are different. The processed products of T. chebula prepared at 260 ℃ show the best anti-ulcerative colitis effect.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1163-1185, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929376

ABSTRACT

Cancer immunotherapy has become a new generation of anti-tumor treatment, but its indications still focus on several types of tumors that are sensitive to the immune system. Therefore, effective strategies that can expand its indications and enhance its efficiency become the key element for the further development of cancer immunotherapy. Natural products are reported to have this effect on cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccines, immune-check points inhibitors, and adoptive immune-cells therapy. And the mechanism of that is mainly attributed to the remodeling of the tumor-immunosuppressive microenvironment, which is the key factor that assists tumor to avoid the recognition and attack from immune system and cancer immunotherapy. Therefore, this review summarizes and concludes the natural products that reportedly improve cancer immunotherapy and investigates the mechanism. And we found that saponins, polysaccharides, and flavonoids are mainly three categories of natural products, which reflected significant effects combined with cancer immunotherapy through reversing the tumor-immunosuppressive microenvironment. Besides, this review also collected the studies about nano-technology used to improve the disadvantages of natural products. All of these studies showed the great potential of natural products in cancer immunotherapy.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1225-1239, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929366

ABSTRACT

The dysregulation of transcription factors is widely associated with tumorigenesis. As the most well-defined transcription factor in multiple types of cancer, c-Myc can transform cells by transactivating various downstream genes. Given that there is no effective way to directly inhibit c-Myc, c-Myc targeting strategies hold great potential for cancer therapy. In this study, we found that WSB1, which has a highly positive correlation with c-Myc in 10 cancer cell lines and clinical samples, is a direct target gene of c-Myc, and can positively regulate c-Myc expression, which forms a feedforward circuit promoting cancer development. RNA sequencing results from Bel-7402 cells confirmed that WSB1 promoted c-Myc expression through the β-catenin pathway. Mechanistically, WSB1 affected β-catenin destruction complex-PPP2CA assembly and E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor β-TRCP recruitment, which inhibited the ubiquitination of β-catenin and transactivated c-Myc. Of interest, the effect of WSB1 on c-Myc was independent of its E3 ligase activity. Moreover, overexpressing WSB1 in the Bel-7402 xenograft model could further strengthen the tumor-driven effect of c-Myc overexpression. Thus, our findings revealed a novel mechanism involved in tumorigenesis in which the WSB1/c-Myc feedforward circuit played an essential role, highlighting a potential c-Myc intervention strategy in cancer treatment.

15.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 235-248, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929091

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have revealed great functional and structural heterogeneity in the ribbon-type synapses at the basolateral pole of the isopotential inner hair cell (IHC). This feature is believed to be critical for audition over a wide dynamic range, but whether the spatial gradient of ribbon morphology is fine-tuned in each IHC and how the mitochondrial network is organized to meet local energy demands of synaptic transmission remain unclear. By means of three-dimensional electron microscopy and artificial intelligence-based algorithms, we demonstrated the cell-wide structural quantification of ribbons and mitochondria in mature mid-cochlear IHCs of mice. We found that adjacent IHCs in staggered pairs differ substantially in cell body shape and ribbon morphology gradient as well as mitochondrial organization. Moreover, our analysis argues for a location-specific arrangement of correlated ribbon and mitochondrial function at the basolateral IHC pole.


Subject(s)
Animals , Artificial Intelligence , Cochlea/metabolism , Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner , Mice , Mitochondria , Synapses/metabolism
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928211

ABSTRACT

As an important basis for lesion determination and diagnosis, medical image segmentation has become one of the most important and hot research fields in the biomedical field, among which medical image segmentation algorithms based on full convolutional neural network and U-Net neural network have attracted more and more attention by researchers. At present, there are few reports on the application of medical image segmentation algorithms in the diagnosis of rectal cancer, and the accuracy of the segmentation results of rectal cancer is not high. In this paper, a convolutional network model of encoding and decoding combined with image clipping and pre-processing is proposed. On the basis of U-Net, this model replaced the traditional convolution block with the residual block, which effectively avoided the problem of gradient disappearance. In addition, the image enlargement method is also used to improve the generalization ability of the model. The test results on the data set provided by the "Teddy Cup" Data Mining Challenge showed that the residual block-based improved U-Net model proposed in this paper, combined with image clipping and preprocessing, could greatly improve the segmentation accuracy of rectal cancer, and the Dice coefficient obtained reached 0.97 on the verification set.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Delayed Emergence from Anesthesia , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928086

ABSTRACT

The high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) characteristic chromatogram of Xiaoer Ganmaoning Oral Liquid(oral liquid for short) was established. The medicinal materials corresponding to characteristic peaks, their index components and ranges of similarity with the reference chromatograms were clarified. The similarity between the characteristic chromatograms of 10 batches of the oral liquid and the reference chromatogram was higher than 0.994. Eighteen characteristic peaks were identified, which were derived from different medicinal materials including Scutellariae Radix, Arctii Fructus, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Gardeniae Fructus and Forsythiae Fructus. Further, 11 characteristic peaks were assigned by the comparison with reference substances as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, baicalin, baicalein, wogonin, scutellarin, forsythiaside A and arctiin. Also, the characteristic chromatogram of precipitate in the oral liquid was established, and the similarity between characteristic chromatograms of 10 batches of the precipitate and the reference chromatogram was higher than 0.940. The 14 characteristic peaks originating from the precipitate and those from the oral liquid were consistent in retention time, and the content of all index components in the precipitate was lower than 5% of that in the oral liquid. Moreover, the stability of precipitate during the accelerated stability test was explored with filtration and Matlab-based image sensory evaluation. The precipitate mass and precipitation degree both increased over the stability test duration significantly. The stability of the oral liquid was used as a model system in this study to establish the integrated quality control system which related to medicinal materials, preparations and precipitate with HPLC characteristic chromatograms and image sensory evaluation, which lays a foundation for the exploration of the quantity value transfer of the oral liquid.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Quality Control , Scutellaria baicalensis/chemistry
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928085

ABSTRACT

With the rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix unearthed from the tomb of Haihunhou in the Western Han Dynasty as the re-ference, the present study evaluated the quality of Rehmanniae Radix and investigated the processing technology of rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix to lay the foundation for the research on rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix products. With catalpol and rehmannioside D as the investigation indexes, the quality and grade of Rehmanniae Radix from different producing areas were evaluated with the methods in 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. UPLC method was established for the determination of catalpol and rehmannioside D in the rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix. The effects of steaming time, the amount of supplementary rice, and steaming times in the rice-steamed processing on the quality of products were investigated by L_9(3~4) orthogonal test and multi-index comprehensive balance scoring method combined with the content of catalpol and rehmannioside D and appearance characteristics. At last, the stability of the processing technology was tested. The results showed that the optimal processing technology for rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix was as follows: Rehmanniae Radix and rice(200 g∶4 g) were steamed twice at atmospheric pressure, four hours each time. The mass fractions of catalpol and rehmannioside D were 0.184% and 0.335%, respectively, and the character score was 6.5. The processing conditions are reaso-nable, stable, and feasible. It can provide a basis for the restoration of the ancient rice-steamed processing technology and references for the development of rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix products in the future.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Oryza , Plant Extracts , Rehmannia , Technology
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928049

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effect of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix(EPR) on intestinal flora structure before and after vinegar processing and explored the detoxification mechanism of vinegar-processed EPR. In this study, the extraction efficiency of casbane diterpenes from EPR with different solvents was investigated, and the optimal solvent was selected to enrich these components. After 14 days of intragastric administration of total diterpene extract of EPR and vinegar-processed EPR, 16 S rDNA sequencing technology was used to detect the structural changes of intestinal flora. The flora related to the intestinal toxicity of EPR was screened out based on the results of intestinal pathological damage by correlation analysis. The results showed that Soxhlet extraction with chloroform as extraction solvent could enrich Casbane diterpenes in EPR. As revealed by 16 S rDNA sequencing results, EPR could significantly change the structure of intestinal flora, which could be reversed by vinegar-processing EPR. Some intestinal flora candidates might be related to detoxification of vinegar processing. The correlation analysis of intestinal flora candidates and indexes related to intestinal mucosal injury showed that compared with EPR, vinegar-processed EPR could down-regulate the abundance of some pathogenic bacteria such as Mucispirillum, Bilophila, and Ruminiclostridium, and up-regulated some probiotics such as Enterorhabdus, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014, Barnesiella, and Candidatus. The intestinal toxicity caused by EPR may be related to the disturbance of intestinal flora, and vinegar-processed EPR can improve intestinal flora disorder by up-regulating the abundance of probiotics and down-regulating the abundance of pathogenic bacteria to remodel the intestinal mucosal barrier and reduce toxicity.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid/chemistry , Colon , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Plant Roots
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928040

ABSTRACT

Against the backdrop of "Internet+" and Made in China 2025, Chinese medicinal processing equipment embraces various opportunities and develops to an unprecedented level. In the 20 years of the new century, the processing equipment has gradually developed in the direction of high efficiency, energy saving, environmental protection, integration, and automation, and this field has tended to highlight the establishment and application of the linkage production line for the processing of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces. Integrating automation control technology, online detection technique, and the internet of things technology, the online detection system of Chinese medicinal processing equipment and the computer information management system of Chinese medicinal proces-sing are the mainstream development trends of Chinese medicinal processing equipment. Standard Chinese medicine processing equipment is the prerequisite for the standardization of processing parameters. A standard system for processing equipment and processing parameters is the key to the modernization of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces. This paper summarized the research and application of Chinese medicinal processing equipment in the 20 years of the 21 st century and predicted the development trend, which is expected to serve as a reference for the technological innovation and development of the processing equipment.


Subject(s)
Automation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Reference Standards
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