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Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 19-23, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006419


Porto-sinusoidal vascular disease (PSVD) is a new disease nomenclature proposed in recent years, which is an important supplement to idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. PSVD includes the patients with specific pathological conditions, but without portal hypertension symptoms, and the patients with portal vein thrombosis or viral hepatitis. This article elaborates on the naming, epidemiology, etiology, clinical manifestations, prognosis, and treatment of PSVD, in order to improve the understanding of this disease among clinicians.

Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 160-169, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999172


ObjectiveTo objectively evaluate the clinical efficacy of multiple therapies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in low-prognosis patients who received antagonist protocol for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) again. MethodA total of 128 patients with kidney Yin deficiency, liver depression, and blood stasis who planned to receive antagonist protocol for IVF-ET in the West China Second Hospital of Sichuan University were enrolled and assigned into two groups by random number table method. The observation group (64 casces) was treated by oral administration of Chinese medicine decoction + enema of kidney-tonifying and blood-activating method + auricular point sticking + oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), while the control group (64 casces) was treated by only oral administration of DHEA. After treatment for three menstrual cycles, both groups received the antagonist protocol for IVF-ET. The TCM syndrome scores, basic sex hormone levels, antral follicle count (AFC), the usage of gonadotropin (Gn), endometrial receptivity indicators, embryo quality indicators, and pregnancy outcomes were compared between the two groups. ResultAfter treatment, the observation group showed decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) ratio, lowered level of estradiol (E2), increased AFC, decreased amount and days of Gn usage, improved endometrial receptivity indicators (endometrial thickness on trigger and ET days, proportion of endometrial type A in endometrial types and the level of E2 on trigger day) and embryo quality indicators (the rates of mature follicles, fertilization, normal fertilization, and premium embryos), and decreased TCM syndrome scores (P<0.05, P<0.01). Moreover, the observation group had lower FSH/LH ratio, E2 level, and amount of Gn usage, higher AFC, poorer endometrial receptivity and embryo quality indicators, and lower TCM syndrome scores than the control group after treatment (P<0.05, P<0.01). In addition, except for 3 cases of natural pregnancy, the observation group outperformed the control group in terms of improving the clinical pregnancy rates during initiation cycle and transplantation cycle and clinical pregnancy rate and decreasing biochemical pregnancy rate and early abortion rate (P<0.05). ConclusionCombined therapies of TCM can alleviate the clinical symptoms, reduce TCM syndrome scores, reduce the Gn usage amount, improve the number and quality of embryos and endometrial receptivity, and coordinate the synchronous development of endometrium and embryo. In this way, they can increase the clinical pregnancy rate and reduce biochemical pregnancy rate and early abortion rate in the low prognosis patients with kidney yin deficiency, liver depression, and blood stasis who are undergoing IVF-ET again.

Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 39(1): e20230012, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521675


ABSTRACT Introduction: The impact of mitral regurgitation (MR) on valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation (VIV-TAVI) in patients with failed bioprostheses remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic impact of residual moderate MR following VIV-TAVI. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 127 patients who underwent VIV-TAVI between March 2010 and November 2021. At least moderate MR was observed in 51.2% of patients before the procedure, and MR improved in 42.1% of all patients. Patients with postoperative severe MR, previous mitral valve intervention, and patients who died before postoperative echocardiography were excluded from further analyses. The remaining 114 subjects were divided into two groups according to the degree of postprocedural MR: none-mild MR (73.7%) or moderate MR (26.3%). Propensity score matching yielded 23 pairs for final comparison. Results: No significant differences were found between groups before and after matching in early results. In the matched cohort, survival probabilities at one, three, and five years were 95.7% vs. 87.0%, 85.0% vs. 64.5%, and 85.0% vs. 29.0% in the none-mild MR group vs. moderate MR-group, respectively (log-rank P=0.035). Among survivors, patients with moderate MR had worse functional status according to New York Heart Association (NYHA) class at follow-up (P=0.006). Conclusion: MR is common in patients with failed aortic bioprostheses, and improvement in MR-status was observed in over 40% of patients following VIV-TAVI. Residual moderate MR after VIV-TAVI is not associated with worse early outcomes, however, it was associated with increased mortality at five years of follow-up and worse NYHA class among survivors.

Braz. j. infect. dis ; 28(1): 103721, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550136


Abstract Introduction COVID-19 remains an important threat to global health and maintains the challenge of COVID-19 hospital care. To assist decision making regarding COVID-19 hospital care many instruments to predict COVID-19 progression to critical condition were developed and validated. Objective To validate eleven COVID-19 progression prediction scores for critically ill hospitalized patients in a Brazilian population. Methodology Observational study with retrospective follow-up, including 301 adults confirmed for COVID-19 sequentially. Participants were admitted to non-critical units for treatment of the disease, between January and April 2021 and between September 2021 and February 2022. Eleven prognostic scores were applied using demographic, clinical, laboratory and imaging data collected in the first 48 of the hospital admission. The outcomes of greatest interest were as originally defined for each score. The analysis plan was to apply the instruments, estimate the outcome probability reproducing the original development/validation of each score, then to estimate performance measures (discrimination and calibration) and decision thresholds for risk classification. Results The overall outcome prevalence was 41.8 % on 301 participants. There was a greater risk of the occurrence of the outcomes in older and male patients, and a linear trend with increasing comorbidities. Most of the patients studied were not immunized against COVID-19. Presence of concomitant bacterial infection and consolidation on imaging increased the risk of outcomes. College of London COVID-19 severity score and the 4C Mortality Score were the only with reasonable discrimination (ROC AUC 0.647 and 0.798 respectively) and calibration. The risk groups (low, intermediate and high) for 4C score were updated with the following thresholds: 0.239 and 0.318 ( Conclusion The 4C score showed the best discrimination and calibration performance among the tested instruments. We suggest different limits for risk groups. 4C score use could improve decision making and early therapeutic management at hospital care.

Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(2): e2021, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533794


ABSTRACT Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the association between magnetic resonance imaging apparent diffusion coefficient map value and histopathological differentiation in patients who underwent eye enucleation due to retinoblastomas. Methods: An observational chart review study of patients with retinoblastoma that had histopathology of the lesion and orbit magnetic resonance imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient analysis at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre between November 2013 and November 2016 was performed. The histopathology was reviewed after enucleation. To analyze the difference in apparent diffusion coefficient values between the two major histopathological prognostic groups, Student's t-test was used for the two groups. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 19.0 for Microsoft Windows (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study without obtaining informed consent. Results: Thirteen children were evaluated, and only eight underwent eye enucleation and were included in the analysis. The others were treated with photocoagulation, embolization, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy and were excluded due to the lack of histopathological results. When compared with histopathology, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated 100% accuracy in retinoblastoma diagnosis. Optic nerve invasion detection on magnetic resonance imaging showed a 66.6% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity. Positive and negative predictive values were 66.6% and 80.0%, respectively, with an accuracy of 75%. In addition, the mean apparent diffusion coefficient of the eight eyes was 0.615 × 103 mm2/s. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient value of poorly or undifferentiated retinoblastoma and differentiated tumors were 0.520 × 103 mm2/s and 0.774 × 103 mm2/s, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that magnetic resonance imaging is useful in the diagnosis of retinoblastoma and detection of optic nerve infiltration, with a sensitivity of 66.6% and specificity of 80%. Our results also showed lower apparent diffusion coefficient values in poorly differentiated retinoblastomas with a mean of 0.520 × 103 mm2/s, whereas in well and moderately differentiated, the mean was 0.774 × 103 mm2/s.

Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 82(1): s00441779505, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533831


Abstract Background Understanding the causes of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is crucial for effective treatment and preventing recurrences. The SMASH-U scale is a suggested method for classifying and predicting the outcomes of ICH. Objective To describe the SMASH-U classification and outcomes by etiology in patients admitted to a comprehensive stroke center in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients admitted to the hospital or outpatient clinic between April 2015 and January 2018. Two stroke neurologists evaluated the SMASH-U classification, and patients with incomplete medical records were excluded. Results Out of the 2000 patients with a stroke diagnosis evaluated, 140 were included in the final analysis. The mean age was 57.9 (± 15.5) years, and 54.3% were male. Hypertension was the most frequent etiology, accounting for 41.4% of cases, followed by amyloid angiopathy (18.5%) and structural lesions (14.1%). Structural lesions were more common among women and patients under 45 years old. Favorable outcomes were observed in 61% of patients with structural lesions, compared to 10% of patients with medication-related etiologies. Conclusion This study provides important evidence regarding the etiological classification of Brazilian patients with ICH. Hypertension and amyloid angiopathy were the most frequent causes, while structural lesions and systemic diseases were more common in younger patients.

Resumo Antecedentes Compreender as causas da hemorragia intracerebral (HIC) é crucial para o tratamento eficaz e prevenção de recorrências. A escala SMASH-U é um método sugerido para classificar e prever os resultados da HIC. Objetivo Descrever a classificação SMASH-U e os resultados por etiologia em pacientes admitidos em um centro de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) em São Paulo, Brasil. Métodos Foi realizada uma análise retrospectiva de pacientes admitidos no hospital ou ambulatório entre abril de 2015 e janeiro de 2018. Dois neurologistas especializados em doenças cerebrovasculares avaliaram a classificação SMASH-U e pacientes com prontuários incompletos foram excluídos. Resultados Dos 2000 pacientes com diagnóstico de AVC avaliados, 140 foram incluídos na análise final. A idade média foi de 57,9 (±15,5) anos e 54,3% eram do sexo masculino. A hipertensão foi a etiologia mais frequente, correspondendo a 41,4% dos casos, seguida pela angiopatia amiloide (18,5%) e lesões estruturais (14,1%). As lesões estruturais foram mais comuns em mulheres e pacientes com menos de 45 anos. Resultados favoráveis foram observados em 61% dos pacientes com lesões estruturais, em comparação com 10% dos pacientes com etiologias relacionadas a medicamentos. Conclusão Este estudo fornece evidências importantes sobre a classificação etiológica de pacientes brasileiros com HIC. A hipertensão e a angiopatia amiloide foram as causas mais frequentes, enquanto lesões estruturais e doenças sistêmicas foram mais comuns em pacientes mais jovens.

Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 57: e13155, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528104


Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a serious medical condition that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality if not diagnosed and treated promptly. Early detection and treatment are essential for improving the outcome in patients with ICH. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive imaging technique that has been used to detect changes in brain tissue oxygenation and blood flow in various conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive potential of NIRS for early diagnosis of ICH in patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) triage with headache. A total of 378 patients were included in the study. According to the final diagnosis of the patients, 4 groups were formed: migraine, tension-cluster headache, intracranial hemorrhage and intracranial mass, and control group. Cerebral NIRS values "rSO2" were measured at the first professional medical contact with the patient. The right and left rSO2 (RrSO2, LrSO2) were significantly lower and the rSO2 difference was significantly higher in the intracranial hemorrhage group compared to all other patient groups (P<0.001). The cut-off values determined in the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis were RrSO2 ≤67, LrSO2 ≤67, and ΔrSO2 ≥9. This study found that a difference of more than 9 in cerebral right-left NIRS values can be a non-invasive, easy-to-administer, rapid, and reliable diagnostic test for early detection of intracranial bleeding. NIRS holds promise as an objective method in ED triage for patients with intracranial hemorrhage. However, further research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and limitations of this method.

Dement. neuropsychol ; 18: e20230034, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534306


ABSTRACT. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is expressed with neurobehavioral symptoms of different degrees of intensity. It is estimated that, for every three cases detected, there are two cases that reach adulthood without treatment. Objective: To establish what challenges are still present in the implementation of early intervention (EI) and its effects on the prognosis of ASD. Methods: A systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (Prisma) methodology was carried out in the PubMed and ScienceDirect databases in January 2023. The search keywords were "autism spectrum disorder", "early intervention" and "prognosis". Results: Sixteen studies were included, two randomized and 14 non-randomized. Knowledge about the signs of ASD, diagnostic and therapeutic methods, age at the start of treatment, and socioeconomic factors were the main challenges encountered in the implementation of the EI. Conclusion: EI is capable of modifying the prognosis of ASD and challenges in its implementation persist, especially in developing regions with low socioeconomic status.

RESUMO. O transtorno do espectro autista (TEA) expressa-se com sintomas neurocomportamentais de diferentes graus de intensidade. Estima-se que, para cada três casos detectados, existam dois casos que atingem a idade adulta sem tratamento. Objetivo: Estabelecer quais são os desafios ainda presentes na implementação efetiva da intervenção precoce (IP) e quais são os seus efeitos no prognóstico do TEA. Métodos: Revisão sistemática com a metodologia Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (Prisma) foi realizada nos bancos de dados PubMed e ScienceDirect em janeiro de 2023. As palavras-chave da pesquisa foram "autism spectrum disorder", "early intervention" e "prognosis". Resultados: Dezesseis estudos foram incluídos, sendo dois randomizados e 14 não randomizados. O conhecimento sobre os sinais do TEA, os métodos diagnósticos e terapêuticos, a idade de início de tratamento e os fatores socioeconômicos foram os principais desafios encontrados na implementação da IP. Conclusão: A IP é capaz de modificar o prognóstico do TEA e os desafios em sua implementação ainda afetam, principalmente, regiões em desenvolvimento e de baixo status socioeconômico.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 57: e00401, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535371


ABSTRACT Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a public health problem and is a relevant cause of death in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the 20-year survival and predictors of worse prognosis in patients with VL admitted to a reference hospital for the treatment of infectious diseases between 1995 and 2016 in northern Minas Gerais, an area of high endemicity for VL. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a hospital in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. All patients with VL were evaluated over a 20-year period. The medical records were thoroughly analyzed. Cox regression analysis was performed to estimate factors associated with the probability of survival. Results: The cohort included 972 individuals, mostly male children <10 years old, from urban areas who presented at admission with the classic triad of fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and skin pallor. The mean hemoglobin level was 7.53 mg/dl. The mean interval between symptom onset and hospital admission was 40 days. The instituted therapies ranged from pentavalent antimonates to amphotericin, or both. The probability of survival was reduced to 78% one year after symptom onset. Hemoglobin levels and age were strongly associated with the probability of survival. Conclusions: Regardless of the mechanism underlying the reduction in hemoglobin and the non-modifiable factors of age, early initiation of drug treatment is the most appropriate strategy for increasing survival in patients with VL, which challenges health systems to reduce the interval between the onset of symptoms and hospital admission.

Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 39(2): e20220185, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535546


ABSTRACT Introduction: Inflammatory and immunological factors play pivotal roles in the prognosis of acute type A aortic dissection. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic values of immune-inflammatory parameters in acute type A aortic dissection patients after surgery. Methods: A total of 127 acute type A aortic dissection patients were included. Perioperative clinical data were collected through the hospital's information system. The outcomes studied were delayed extubation, reintubation, and 30-day mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis were used to screen the risk factors of poor prognosis. Results: Of all participants, 94 were male, and mean age was 51.95±11.89 years. The postoperative prognostic nutritional indexes were lower in delayed extubation patients, reintubation patients, and patients who died within 30 days. After multivariate regression analysis, the postoperative prognostic nutritional index was a protective parameter of poor prognosis. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of postoperative prognostic nutritional index were 0.898 (0.815, 0.989) for delayed extubation and 0.792 (0.696, 0.901) for 30-day mortality. Low postoperative fibrinogen could also well predict poor clinical outcomes. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of postoperative fibrinogen were 0.487 (0.291, 0.813) for delayed extubation, 0.292 (0.124, 0.687) for reintubation, and 0.249 (0.093, 0.669) for 30-day mortality. Conclusion: Postoperative prognostic nutritional index and postoperative fibrinogen could be two promising markers to identify poor prognosis of acute type A aortic dissection patients after surgery.

Afr. j. prim. health care fam. med. (Online) ; 16(1): 1-6, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1551635


Background: Cancer is the third leading cause of death in Kenya. Yet, little is known about prognostic awareness and preferences for prognostic information. Aim: To assess the prevalence of prognostic awareness and preference for prognostic information among advanced cancer patients in Kenya. Setting: Outpatient medical oncology and palliative care clinics and inpatient medical and surgical wards of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH) in Eldoret, Kenya. Methods: The authors surveyed 207 adults with advanced solid cancers. The survey comprised validated measures developed for a multi-site study of end-of-life care in advanced cancer patients. Outcome variables included prognostic awareness and preference for prognostic information. Results: More than one-third of participants (36%) were unaware of their prognosis and most (67%) preferred not to receive prognostic information. Increased age (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.07) and education level (OR: 1.18, CI: 1.08, 1.30) were associated with a higher likelihood of preference to receive prognostic information, while increased symptom burden (OR= 0.94, CI: 0.90, 0.99) and higher perceived household income levels (lower-middle vs low: OR= 0.19; CI: 0.09, 0.44; and upper middle- or high vs low: OR= 0.22, CI: 0.09, 0.56) were associated with lower odds of preferring prognostic information. Conclusion: Results reveal low levels of prognostic awareness and little interest in receiving prognostic information among advanced cancer patients in Kenya. Contribution: Given the important role of prognostic awareness in providing patient-centred care, efforts to educate patients in Kenya on the value of this information should be a priority, especially among younger patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Cause of Death , Disease Progression , Neoplasms , Prevalence , Access to Information , Kenya
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534846


Introducción: Los pacientes con síndrome antifosfolípido desarrollan morbilidad y mortalidad significativas a pesar del tratamiento actual. Es imperativo, identificar factores pronósticos y medidas terapéuticas para prevenir estas complicaciones. Objetivo: Determinar los factores relevantes en la predicción de la supervivencia en los pacientes con síndrome antifosfolípido. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal analítico de una cohorte histórica de personas con síndrome antifosfolípido, diagnosticados, según los criterios de Sapporo/Sydney y colaboradores en la consulta de enfermedades autoinmunes sistémicas del Hospital Universitario Clínico-Quirúrgico «Arnaldo Milián Castro», Villa Clara, del año 2000 al 2015. Se estudiaron variables demográficas y clínicas. En cada caso se determinó el tiempo de supervivencia con relación al evento muerte. Se aplicó el método de Kaplan Meier para calcular la supervivencia global y determinar las variables predictoras de la mortalidad. Según el estudio de los estadígrafos de comparación interestratos(Log-Rank) se demostró la significación estadística con la prueba de Chi cuadrado de homogeneidad. Resultados: De los 128 pacientes estudiados, 118 fueron femeninos y 10 masculinos (111 de piel blanca y 17 no blancos). La supervivencia global fue de 67,1 % con una media de 13,37 años. Las variables más relevantes que aportaron a la mortalidad en relación con menor supervivencia fueron: leucopenia, linfopenia, color de la piel no blanca, y el no uso de aspirina, con medias de supervivencia de 8,83; 8,17; 10,72; 12,10 años, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La identificación temprana de los factores pronósticos de supervivencia permite implementar estrategias oportunas e individualizadas en pacientes con síndrome antifosfolípido.

Introduction: patients with antiphospholipid syndrome develop significant morbidity and mortality despite current treatment. Identifying prognostic factors and therapeutic measures to prevent these complications is indispensable. Objective: to determine relevant factors in the prediction of survival in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. Methods: a longitudinal analytical study was carried out on cohorts with antiphospholipid syndrome who were diagnosed according to the Sapporo-Sydney criteria and collaborators in the systemic autoimmune disease consultation at "Arnaldo Milián Castro" Clinical and Surgical University Hospital in Villa Clara from 2000 to 2015. Demographic and clinical variables were studied. The survival time in relation to the death event was determined in each case. The Kaplan - Meier method was applied to calculate overall survival and determine the predictor variables for mortality. According to the study of inter-strata comparison statistics (Log-Rank), statistical significance was demonstrated with the Chi-square test of homogeneity. Results: a number of 118 patients were female and 10 male from the 128 studied (111 white-skinned and 17 non-white). Overall survival was 67.1% with a mean of 13.37 years. The most relevant variables that contributed to mortality in relation to lower survival were leukopenia, lymphopenia, non-white skin color and non-use of aspirin, with mean survival of 8.83; 8.17; 10.72; 12.10 years, respectively. Conclusions: the early identification of survival prognostic factors allows us the implementation of timely and individualized strategies in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome , Prognosis , Mortality , Survivorship
Rev. medica electron ; 45(6)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536620


El cáncer de pulmón es la neoplasia maligna que causa mayor mortalidad en el mundo. Dentro de los factores pronósticos de esta entidad, se encuentran el índice neutrófilo-linfocito y el índice plaquetas-linfocito, parámetros hematológicos que se utilizan para evaluar la inflamación y la respuesta inmunitaria en el cuerpo humano. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de exponer el valor que presentan el índice neutrófilo-linfocito y el índice plaquetas-linfocito como herramientas pronósticas del cáncer de pulmón, teniendo en cuenta la evidencia científica publicada hasta el momento. Se estudiaron 46 artículos, 28 de los cuales resultaron seleccionados para la elaboración de la investigación. Se emplearon como criterios de selección la calidad de los estudios, el nivel de actualización sobre el tema en cuestión, así como la fiabilidad de la fuente. Se usaron los recursos disponibles en la red Infomed para la selección de la información, entre ellos: PubMed, SciELO, EBSCO, Cumed, LILACS y Scopus, además de Medline, Academic Search Premier y MedicLatina. Se expuso el valor que presentan el índice neutrófilo-linfocito y el índice plaquetas-linfocito como herramientas pronósticas del cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas, en todos los estadios y con modalidades terapéuticas diferentes.

Lung cancer is the malignant neoplasm that causes higher mortality in the world. Among the prognostic factors of this entity are the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio, hematological parameters that are used to assess inflammation and the immune response in the human body. A bibliographic review was carried out with the objective of exposing the value of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic tool for lung cancer, taking into account the scientific evidence published to date. A total of 46 articles were studied, of which 28 were selected for the development of the research. The quality of the studies, the level of updating on the subject in question, as well as the reliability of the source was used as selection criteria. The resources available in the Infomed network were used to select the information, including PubMed, SciELO and EBSCO, Cumed, LILACS and Scopus, as well as Medline, Academic Search Premier and MedicLatina databases. The value of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic tool in non-small cell lung cancer at all stages and with different therapeutic modalities was exposed.

Crit. Care Sci ; 35(4): 394-401, Oct.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528485


ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the impact of delirium severity in critically ill COVID-19 patients and its association with outcomes. Methods: This prospective cohort study was performed in two tertiary intensive care units in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. COVID-19 patients were evaluated daily during the first 7 days of intensive care unit stay using the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale, Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) and Confusion Method Assessment for Intensive Care Unit-7 (CAM-ICU-7). Delirium severity was correlated with outcomes and one-year mortality. Results: Among the 277 COVID-19 patients included, delirium occurred in 101 (36.5%) during the first 7 days of intensive care unit stay, and it was associated with a higher length of intensive care unit stay in days (IQR 13 [7 - 25] versus 6 [4 - 12]; p < 0.001), higher hospital mortality (25.74% versus 5.11%; p < 0.001) and additional higher one-year mortality (5.3% versus 0.6%, p < 0.001). Delirium was classified by CAM-ICU-7 in terms of severity, and higher scores were associated with higher in-hospital mortality (17.86% versus 34.38% versus 38.46%, 95%CI, p value < 0.001). Severe delirium was associated with a higher risk of progression to coma (OR 7.1; 95%CI 1.9 - 31.0; p = 0.005) and to mechanical ventilation (OR 11.09; 95%CI 2.8 - 58.5; p = 0.002) in the multivariate analysis, adjusted by severity and frailty. Conclusion: In patients admitted with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit, delirium was an independent risk factor for the worst prognosis, including mortality. The delirium severity assessed by the CAM-ICU-7 during the first week in the intensive care unit was associated with poor outcomes, including progression to coma and to mechanical ventilation.

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar como a gravidade do delirium afeta pacientes graves com COVID-19 e sua associação com os desfechos. Métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectivo realizado em duas unidades de terapia intensiva terciárias no Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Os pacientes com COVID-19 foram avaliados diariamente durante os primeiros 7 dias de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva usando a escala de agitação e sedação de Richmond, a Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) e a Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit-7 (CAM-ICU-7). A gravidade do delirium foi correlacionada com os desfechos e a mortalidade em 1 ano. Resultados: Entre os 277 pacientes com COVID-19 incluídos, o delirium ocorreu em 101 (36,5%) durante os primeiros 7 dias de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva e foi associado a maior tempo de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva em dias (IQ: 13 [7 - 25] versus 6 [4 - 12]; p < 0,001), maior mortalidade hospitalar (25,74% versus 5,11%; p < 0,001) e maior mortalidade em 1 ano (5,3% versus 0,6%, p < 0,001). O delirium foi classificado pela CAM-ICU-7 em termos de gravidade, e escores maiores foram associados à maior mortalidade hospitalar (17,86% versus 34,38% versus 38,46%, IC95%, valor de p < 0,001). O delirium grave foi associado a um risco maior de progressão ao coma (RC de 7,1; IC95% 1,9 - 31,0; p = 0,005) e à ventilação mecânica (RC de 11,09; IC95% 2,8 - 58,5; p = 0,002) na análise multivariada, ajustada por gravidade e fragilidade Conclusão: Em pacientes internados com COVID-19 na unidade de terapia intensiva, o delirium foi fator de risco independente para o pior prognóstico, incluindo mortalidade. A gravidade do delirium avaliada pela CAM-ICU-7 durante a primeira semana na unidade de terapia intensiva foi associada a desfechos desfavoráveis, incluindo a progressão ao coma e à ventilação mecânica.

Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533507


Introducción: La criptococosis meníngea es una infección oportunista universal que presenta factores pronósticos variables, especialmente en pacientes inmunosuprimidos. Objetivo: Identificar variables clínicas y paraclínicas asociadas con el desenlace, al final de la hospitalización, en pacientes con criptococosis meníngea atendidos en un hospital de tercer nivel en Bogotá, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo. La información se obtuvo por medio de registros de historias clínicas de pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado de criptococosis meníngea durante el periodo 2016-2021. Resultados: Se analizaron 54 casos, el 85,2 % de ellos de sexo masculino, con una mediana de edad de 38 años. El síntoma principal fue cefalea (74,1 %), con un promedio de duración de 30 días antes del ingreso. El 83,3 % tenía diagnóstico de VIH, con niveles de CD4 por debajo de 50 células/mm3 y recuentos elevados de carga viral. El líquido cefalorraquídeo mostró en más del 50 % hipertensión intracraneal, pleocitosis de predominio linfocitario, hiperproteinorraquia e hipoglucorraquia. El tipo de patógeno aislado más frecuente fue C. neoformans var neoformans. Las variables más prevalentes en el grupo de pacientes que fallecieron fueron la presencia de pleocitosis en LCR (p = 0,025), cultivo para hongo positivo (p = 0,02) y aislamiento C. neoformans var neoformans (p = 0,03). Discusión: La criptococosis meníngea es una patología frecuente en hombres en la cuarta década de la vida y con infección por VIH, sin embargo, los factores relacionados con la mortalidad parecen variar dependiendo de la localización geográfica. Conclusión: En nuestro estudio los factores más prevalentes fueron la presencia de pleocitosis en LCR, cultivo positivo, aislamiento de C. neoformans var neoformans.

Introduction: Meningeal cryptococcosis is a universal opportunistic infection that presents variable prognostic factors, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Objective: To identify clinical and paraclinical variables associated with the outcome at the end of hospitalization in patients with meningeal cryptococcosis treated at a tertiary care hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: Descriptive observational study. The information was obtained through records of medical records of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of meningeal cryptococcosis during the period 2016-2021. Results: 54 cases were analyzed. 85,2 % men, with a median age of 38 years. The main symptom was headache (74,1 %), with an average duration of 30 days prior to admission. 83,3 % had a diagnosis of HIV, with CD4 levels below 50 cell/mm3 and high viral load counts. The cerebrospinal fluid showed in more than 50 % intracranial hypertension, pleocytosis of lymphocyte predominance, hyperprotein- orrhachia and hypoglycorrhachia. The most frequent type of pathogen isolated was C. neoformans var neoformans. And the most prevalent variables in the group of patients who died were the presence of pleocytosis in CSF (p = 0,025), culture for positive fungus (p = 0,02) and isolation of C. neoformans var neoformans (p = 0,03). Discussion: Meningeal cryptococcosis is a frequent pathology in men, in the fourth decade of life and with HIV infection, however, the factors related to mortality seem to vary depending on the geographical location. Conclusion: In our study, the most prevalent factors were the presence of pleocytosis in CSF, positive culture, isolation of C. neoformans var neoformans.

Opportunistic Infections , HIV , Colombia , Cryptococcosis , Prognosis , Mortality , Observational Study
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 83(5): 737-743, dic. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534877


Resumen Introducción : El sarcoma sinovial es un tumor raro (incidencia de 1-3 casos por millón). Es más frecuente en adolescentes y adultos menores de 30 años. Se desarrolla en cualquier parte del cuerpo, siendo, las extremidades el lugar más frecuente de aparición (80% extremidades y 20% otras localizaciones: 8% tronco, retroperitoneal/ abdominal 7%, cabeza y cuello 5%). Los resultados on cológicos de los pacientes con sarcoma sinovial son disímiles. La tasa de supervivencia libre de recurrencia local, la supervivencia libre de eventos y la superviven cia global varían entre las series publicadas. Lo mismo sucede con los factores pronósticos de la enfermedad. Métodos : El objetivo fue analizar un grupo de 43 pacientes con diagnóstico de sarcoma sinovial de las extremidades tratados quirúrgicamente, y determinar (1) tasa de supervivencia global, (2) tasa de superviven cia libre de eventos, (3) tasa de recurrencia local y (4) factores de riesgo oncológicos. Resultados : La supervivencia global a los 2 años fue 90% (IC95%: 76-96%), y 67% (IC95%: 49-80%) a los 5 años. La supervivencia libre de eventos a los 2 años fue 68% (IC95% 51-80%) y a los 5 años 48% (IC95% 32-52%). El riesgo de recurrencia local a 2 años fue 9% (IC95% 3-25%) y a los 5 años 25% (IC95% 13-46%). Los factores de mal pronóstico oncológico fueron el grado histológico y la presencia de metástasis. Discusión : Podemos concluir que nuestros resulta dos oncológicos se asemejan a las series publicadas y que en nuestra serie hubo dos factores de mal pro nóstico.

Abstract Introduction : Synovial sarcoma is an unusual tumor with an incidence of 1-3 cases per million. It is more frequent in teenagers and young adults under 30. It develops anywhere, but the extremities are the most frequent place of appearance (80% extremities, 20% other locations: 8% trunk, 7% retroperitoneal/abdominal, 5% head and neck). Oncological results are different depending on the study. Survival rate free of local recur rence, survival rate free of events and global survival rate vary upon published studies. The same happens with the disease's prognostic factors. Methods : The objective was to analyze a group of 43 patients with diagnosis of synovial sarcoma of the extremities treated surgically and determine (1) global survival rate, (2) survival rate free of events, (3) local recurrence rate and (4) oncological risk factors. Results : The global survival rate at 2 years was 90% (IC95%: 76 - 96%) and 67% (IC95%: 49-80%) at 5 years. The survival rate free of events at 2 years was 68% (IC95% 51-80%) and 48% (IC95% 32-52%) at 5 years. The recurrence rate at 2 years was 9% (IC95% 3-25%) and 25% (IC95% 13-46%) at 5 years. The histological grade and metastatic presence were bad prognostic factors. Discussion : We can conclude that our oncological results are in line with those published in previous series and that there were two factors associated with poor prognosis.

Arq. gastroenterol ; 60(4): 431-437, Oct.-Nov. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527859


ABSTRACT Background: Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass and strength, observed to varying degrees in patients with various chronic conditions. In cirrhotic patients, it reflects protein-energy malnutrition due to metabolic protein imbalance and is associated with worsened prognosis and reduced post-liver transplantation survival. Objective: To evaluate the epidemiological distribution of diminished hand grip (HG) strength in cirrhotic patients at an outpatient clinic of Santa Casa de Misericórdia in Vitória-ES, Brazil, seeking its association with liver function and cirrhosis complications. Methods: Cross-sectional, epidemiological, and single-center study. A questionnaire was administered to patients and HG strength was measured using a dynamometer, with three interval measures taken for 3 seconds each. Results: The study's total population was 64 cirrhotic patients, with a mean age of 58 years and alcohol as the most prevalent etiology. Reduced HG strength was defined based on two reference values: using cutoff point 1, reduced HG strength was identified in 33 patients (51.6%); according to cutoff point 2, 23 (35.9%) had reduced HG strength. The study showed that, among the parameters observed, there was an association between the female gender and diminished HG strength in both cutoff points. Additionally, it was noted that patients with a score of 15 or more on the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) had decreased HG strength at cutoff point 2. The study showed no association between decreased HG strength and the occurrence of cirrhosis complications in the population studied. Conclusion: In our study, we obtained a diminished HG strength variation of 35-52%, which was related to higher MELD scores, suggesting an association with worse clinical outcomes. Therefore, the presence of reduced muscle strength in cirrhotic patients may be linked to prognostic factors and should be valued as clinical data in the management of these patients.

RESUMO Contexto: Sarcopenia é uma síndrome caracterizada por perda progressiva e generalizada de massa e força muscular, observada em diferentes graus em pacientes com afecções crônicas diversas. Nos cirróticos, reflete uma desnutrição proteico-energética por desequilíbrio metabólico de proteínas, e associa-se ao pior prognóstico e redução da sobrevida pós transplante hepático. Objetivo: Avaliar a distribuição epidemiológica da diminuição da força no teste de Hand Grip (HG) nos pacientes cirróticos do ambulatório da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória-ES, buscando sua associação com a função hepática e complicações. Métodos: Estudo transversal, epidemiológico e unicêntrico. Aplicou-se um questionário aos pacientes e mediu-se a força de preensão manual HG com o auxílio de um dinamômetro, sendo realizadas 3 medidas intervaladas durante 3 segundos cada. Resultados: A população total foi de 64 pacientes cirróticos, sendo a média de idade 58 anos e a etiologia mais prevalente o álcool. Definiu-se a presença de redução da força do HG a partir de dois valores de referência: com base no ponto de corte 1, a redução da força do HG foi identificada em 33 pacientes (51,6%); pelo ponto de corte 2, 23 (35,9%) tinham diminuição da força do HG. O estudo evidenciou que, dentre os parâmetros observados, houve associação entre o sexo feminino e a diminuição da força no teste de HG nos dois pontos de corte. Além disso, notou-se que pacientes com pontuação de 15 ou mais no Modelo para Doença Hepática Terminal (MELD) tiveram mais redução da força do HG de acordo com o ponto de corte 2. O estudo evidenciou que não houve associação entre a diminuição da força no teste de HG e o evento de complicações da cirrose na população estudada. Conclusão: Em nossa casuística, obtivemos uma variação da diminuição da força muscular entre 35-52% pelo teste de HG, o que teve relação com o MELD mais elevado, podendo demonstrar associação com piores desfechos clínicos. Dessa forma, concluiu-se que a presença de diminuição da força muscular no teste de HG nos cirróticos pode estar ligada a fatores prognósticos, e deve ser valorizada como dado clínico no manejo destes pacientes.

Rev. argent. cardiol ; 91(4): 284-289, nov. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535506


RESUMEN La insuficiencia cardíaca (IC) es una enfermedad crónica, compleja y progresiva, con elevada morbimortalidad y creciente prevalencia. Pese al avance en las estrategias terapéuticas, destinadas a mejorar la sobrevida y reducir hospitalizaciones, la IC continúa generando un impacto negativo en la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Surge ante este reto la necesidad de desarrollar políticas de salud basadas no solo en la integridad física, sino también en la integridad psicosocial. Los cuidados paliativos (CP) hacen referencia a un cuidado especializado, interdisciplinario, enfocado en mejorar y mantener la calidad de vida de los pacientes que se enfrentan a una enfermedad con elevada morbimortalidad como lo es la IC. El propósito de la presente revisión es evaluar el impacto de la integración de los CP en el tratamiento multidisciplinario de la IC en todas las fases de la enfermedad y determinar la factibilidad de su aplicación en la práctica clínica.

ABSTRACT Heart failure is a chronic, complex and progressive disease, with high morbidity and mortality, and growing prevalence. Despite advances in therapeutic strategies to improve survival and reduce hospitalizations, heart failure still generates a negative impact on the patients' quality of life, making it necessary to develop health policies based not only on their physical but also on their psychosocial integrity. Palliative care refers to specialized, interdisciplinary care focused on improving the quality of life of patients who suffer a disease with elevated morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to assess the impact of the implementation of palliative care in the multidisciplinary treatment of heart failure throughout all the stages of the disease, and to determine the feasibility of its application in clinical practice.

Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 89(5): 101302, Sept.-Oct. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520489


Abstract Objective: To determine whether peripheral blood parameters have any predictive value for all-frequency Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSNHL). Methods: We chose 78 individuals with all-frequency SSNHL who had been admitted to our department. They were divided into two groups: the effective group and the ineffective group. In patients with all-frequency SSNHL, the prognostic variables, including peripheral blood tests and clinical traits, were examined by a logistic regression analysis. In addition, the predictive value was carried out. Results: The effective rate of all-frequency SSNHL was 61.5%. Pre-treatment hearing level and the proportion of patients with diabetes were both significantly lower in the effective group than in the ineffective group (p = 0.024 and 0.000, respectively). The levels of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein were also significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.001 and 0.025, respectively). Pre-treatment hearing level and fibrinogen level both significantly impacted the prognosis of all-frequency SSNHL (p = 0.032 and 0.002, respectively), according to a logistic regression analysis. Furthermore, the prognosis was significantly predicted by both fibrinogen level and pre-treatment hearing level (p = 0.001 and 0.0002, respectively). The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the fibrinogen level had a sensitivity of 85.4% and a specificity of 60.0% for predicting the prognosis of all-frequency SSNHL. Conclusion: For the prognosis of all-frequency SSNHL, the fibrinogen level can be regarded as a useful predictor. The level of C-reactive protein, however, does not have a significant prognostic effect on predicting all-frequency SSNHL. Therefore, more attention should be devoted to the level of fibrinogen in the acute period of all-frequency SSNHL. Level of Evidence: 4.