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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927916

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the effect of co-amorphous technology in improving the dissolution rate and stability of silybin based on the puerarin-silybin co-amorphous system prepared by the spray-drying method. Solid-state characterization was carried out by powder X-ray diffraction(PXRD), polarizing microscopy(PLM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry(DSC), etc. Saturated powder dissolution, intrinsic dissolution rate, moisture absorption, and stability were further investigated. The results showed that puerarin and silybin formed a co-amorphous system at a single glass transition temperature which was higher than that of any crude drug. The intrinsic dissolution rate and supersaturated powder dissolution of silybin in the co-amorphous system were higher than those of the crude drug and amorphous system. The co-amorphous system kept stable for as long as three months under the condition of 40 ℃, 75% relative humidity, which was longer than that of the single amorphous silybin. Therefore, the co-amorphous technology could significantly improve the dissolution and stability of silybin.


Subject(s)
Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Desiccation , Drug Compounding/methods , Drug Stability , Silymarin , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Technology , X-Ray Diffraction
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927910

ABSTRACT

Puerarin was conjugated with bovine serum albumin(BSA) and ovalbumin(OVA) by periodate oxidation to serve as the immunogen and coating antigen, respectively. BALB/c mice were immunized with puerarin-BSA according to the routine immunization procedure, and the titer and specificity of serum were detected after three immunization. After booster immunization, mouse spleen lymphocytes were fused with mouse myeloma cells, and 24 hybridoma cell lines of the monoclonal antibodies against puerarin were screened by monoclonal antibody screening technique. Ascites was prepared and purified. The cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibody(mAb) M1 with 4'-methoxy puerarin, daidzin, puerarin-6″-O-xyloside, daidzein, mirificin, 3'-methoxy puerarin, and 3'-hydroxy puerarin was 239.84%, 112.18%, 67.89%, 58.28%, 22.37%, 0.40%, and 0.20%, respectively, and those with other analogs such as baicalein and baicalin were all less than 0.10%. The IC_(50) and the working range of the indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(icELISA) for puerarin were 44.80 ng·mL~(-1) and 8.20-292.30 ng·mL~(-1), respectively. The average recovery was 91.95%-98.20% with an RSD in the range of 0.70%-2.60%. The content of puerarin in different Puerariae Lobatae Radix samples was determined with icELISA and validated by UPLC-MS. The correlation between data obtained from icELISA and UPLC-MS was 0.999 0, indicating that icELISA is suitable for the rapid detection of puerarin in Puerariae Lobatae Radix samples.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Chromatography, Liquid , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Hybridomas/metabolism , Isoflavones , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927851

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the mechanism of puerarin inhibiting the proliferation,invasion,and migration of non-small cell lung cancer cells. Methods A549 cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of puerarin.The inhibition rate (IR) on cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8,and qRT-PCR was performed to detect the mRNA levels of miR-490 and denticleless E3 ubiquitin protein ligase(DTL).Double luciferase reporter assay was employed to identify the targets of miR-490 and DTL based on the establishment of NC mimic group,miR-490 mimic group,NC inhibitor group,and miR-490 inhibitor group.The cells treated by 20 μmol/L puerarin were classified into six groups:DMSO,puerarin,puerarin+NC inhibitor,puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor,puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor+Si-NC,and puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor+Si-DTL.Transwell was used to detect cell migration and invasion.Western blotting was performed to detect the protein levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related markers E-cadherin,N-cadherin,and Vimentin. Results With the increase in puerarin concentration,the IR gradually elevated (F=105.375,P<0.001),miR-490 expression gradually increased (F=32.919,P<0.001),and DTL expression gradually decreased (F=116.120,P<0.001).Compared with NC mimic group,miR-490 mimic group had decreased luciferase activity (t=7.762,P=0.016),raised miR-490 mRNA level (t=13.319,P<0.001),and declined DTL mRNA level (t=7.415,P=0.002).Compared with those in NC inhibitor group,miR-490 demonstrated decreased mRNA level (t=9.523,P=0.001) and DTL presented increased mRNA level (t=11.305,P<0.001) in miR-490 inhibitor group.Western blotting showed that the protein level of DTL was higher in NC mimic group (t=7.953,P=0.001) than in miR-490 mimic group and higher in miR-490 inhibitor group than in NC inhibitor group (t=10.552,P<0.001).Compared with DMSO group,puerarin group showed up-regulated mRNA level of miR-490 (t=10.255,P=0.001) while down-regulated mRNA level of DTL (t=6.682,P=0.003).Compared with those in puerarin+NC inhibitor group,the mRNA level of miR-490 declined (t=10.995,P<0.001) while that of DTL raised (t=12.478,P<0.001) in puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor group.The mRNA level of miR-490 had no significant difference between puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor+Si-NC group and puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor+Si-DTL group (t=1.081,P=0.341),and that of DTL was lower in the latter group (t=14.321,P<0.001).The protein level of DTL was higher in puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor group than in puerarin+NC inhibitor group (t=11.423,P<0.001),and lower in puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor+Si-DTL group than in puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor+Si-NC group (t=12.080,P<0.001).Compared with DMSO group,puerarin group showed inhibited cell proliferation (F=129.27,P<0.001).The activity of cell proliferation was higher in puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor group than in puerarin+NC inhibitor group (F=75.12,P<0.001),and higher in puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor+Si-NC group than in puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor+Si-DTL group (F=52.59,P<0.001).Compared with DMSO group,puerarin group had suppressed cell migration (t=8.963,P=0.001).The cell migration ability was higher in puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor group than in puerarin+NC inhibitor group (t=12.117,P<0.001) and higher in puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor+Si-NC group than in puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor+Si-DTL group (t=12.934,P<0.001).Puerarin group showed weakened cell invasion ability compared with DMSO group (t=4.710,P=0.009).The cell invasion ability was higher in puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor group than in puerarin+NC inhibitor group (t=13.264,P<0.001) and lower in puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor+Si-DTL group than in puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor+Si-NC group (t=13.476,P<0.001).Compared with DMSO group,puerarin group showed up-regulated protein level of E-cadherin (t=7.137,P=0.002) while down-regulated protein levels of N-cadherin (t=8.828,P=0.001) and vimentin (t=6.594,P=0.003).Compared with those in puerarin+NC inhibitor group,the protein level of E-cadherin (t=12.376,P<0.001) decreased while those of N-cadherin (t=13.436,P<0.001) and vimentin (t=11.467,P<0.001) increased in puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor group.Compared with puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor+Si-NC group,puerarin+miR-490 inhibitor+Si-DTL group up-regulated the protein level of E-cadherin (t=13.081,P<0.001) while down-regulated the protein levels of N-cadherin (t=10.835,P<0.001) and vimentin (t=11.862,P<0.001). Conclusion Puerarin could inhibit the proliferation,invasion,and migration of non-small cell lung cancer cells by up-regulating miR-490 and down-regulating DTL.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Humans , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism
4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1352-1360, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924746

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of puerarin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) injured with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). HUVEC were divided into three groups: a control group, a model group (H2O2 400 μmol·L-1) and a puerarin-treated group (3, 10, 30 and 100 μmol·L-1). HUVEC were cultured with varied concentration of puerarin for 2 h and treated with H2O2 for another 24 h. Cell proliferation was detected by a CCK-8 assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by a JC-1 fluorescent probe. A transwell chamber assay was adopted to observe cell migration ability. Mitochondrial respiratory function was measured in a two-chamber titration injection respirometer (Oxygraph-2k). The expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-18 (IL-18) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression of pyroptosis-mediated proteins, including cleaved-cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-1 (caspase-1), N-gasdermin D (N-GSDMD), NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) and purinergic ligand-gated ion channel 7 receptor (P2X7R) was detected by Western blot. The results show that 400 μmol·L-1 H2O2 treatment for 24 h causes obvious damage to HUVEC. Compared with the model group, puerarin protected against cellular injury in a dose-dependent manner, with the greatest effect at a dose of 30 and 100 μmol·L-1. Puerarin significantly decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and improved mitochondrial function. Puerarin inhibited cell migration induced by H2O2, suppressed the expression of IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α, and down-regulated the pyroptosis-mediated protein. These changes are statistically significant (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that puerarin has a protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative damage of HUVEC by inhibiting the migration of HUVEC cells. The mechanism may be related to improved mitochondrial respiratory function and inhibition of pyroptosis.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888140

ABSTRACT

This study was mainly based on the compatibility of Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Chuanxiong Rhizoma to prepare submicron emulsion and evaluated its physical and pharmaceutical properties. Firstly, pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were drawn by dripping method which took Chuanxiong oil as the oil phase and the area of microemulsion region as the index. On this basis, suitable emulsifier and co-emulsifier were screened for the preparation of Chuanxiong oil submicron emulsion. Then, the formula realizing the largest oil loading was selected. Finally, puerarin substituted part of emulsifier and co-emulsifier to lower their content, so as to form puerarin-Chuanxiong oil submicron emulsion featuring the combination of medicine and adjuvant. Its particle size, zeta potential, centrifugal stability and storage stability were determined, and the in vitro drug release behavior was investigated by dialysis bag method, based on which the quality of the as-prepared submicron emulsion was evaluated comprehensively. The proposed method was proved feasible for the preparation of Chuanxiong oil submicron emulsion, which adopted polyoxyethylene castor oil(EL-40) as the emulsifier and was free from co-emulsifier. The formula of the maximum oil loading was found as Chuanxiong oil∶EL-40∶water 3∶7∶90. Further, puera-rin successfully replaced up to 10% of the emulsifier in submicron emulsion. Eventually, the optimal drug-loading formula was determined as puerarin∶Chuanxiong oil∶EL-40∶water 7∶30∶63∶900. The quality evaluation results of the as-prepared submicron emulsion demonstrated that the average emulsion droplet size was 333.9 nm, the PDI 0.26, and the zeta potential-10.12 mV. The submicron emulsion had a good centrifugal stability and did not present any instable phenomena such as delamination and precipitation during its standing still for 50 days. The evaluation of in vitro drug release behavior indicated that the submicron emulsion was capable of releasing the drug completely. The puerarin-chuanxiong oil submicron emulsion prepared in this study possessed a stable quality and to some extent increased the solubility of puerarin along with a sustained-release effect. This study provided ideas for the clinical application of puerarin.


Subject(s)
Emulsions , Isoflavones , Particle Size , Solubility
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888018

ABSTRACT

Puerarin has the anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) activity,which can reverse nerve injury induced by Aβand inhibit neuronal apoptosis.However,its potential pharmacodynamic mechanism still needs to be further researched.The occurrence and development of AD is due to the change of multiple metabolic links in the body,which leads to the destruction of balance.Puerarin may act on multiple targets and multiple metabolic processes to achieve therapeutic purposes.Quantitative proteomic analysis provides a new choice to understand the mechanism as completely as possible.This research adopted SH-SY5Y cells induced by Aβ_(1-42)to establish AD cell model,and Aβimmunofluorescence detection showed that Aβdecreased significantly after puerarin intervention.The mechanism of puerarin reversing SH-SY5Y cell injured by Aβ_(1-42)was further explored by using label-free non-labeled quantitative technology and Western blot detection based on bioinformatics analysis result.The results showed that most of the differential proteins were related to biological processes such as cellular component organization or biogenesis,cellular component organization and cellular component biogenesis,and they mainly participated in the top ten pathways of P value such as pathogenic Escherichia coli infection,m TOR signaling pathway,regulation of autophagy,regulation of actin cytoskeleton,spliceosome,hepatocellular carcinoma,tight junction,non-small cell lung cancer,apoptosis and gap junction.Annexin V/PI flow cytometry and TUNEL were used to detect apoptosis,and the results showed that Aβdecreased significantly and the rate of apoptosis decreased significantly after puerarin intervention.Western blot analysis found that the protein expression level of autophagy related protein LC3Ⅱwas up-regulated after Aβinduction,and the degree of this up-regulation was further enhanced in puerarin intervention group.The trend of the ratio of LC3Ⅱ/LC3Ⅰamong groups was the same as the protein expression level of LC3Ⅱ,the protein expression level of p62 in the control group,AD model group and puerarin intervention group decreased successively.Protein interaction network analysis showed that CAP1 was correlated with TUBA1B,HSP90AB2P,DNM1L,TUBA1A and ERK1/2,and the correlation between CAP1 and ERK1/2 was the highest among them.Western blot showed that the expressions of p-ERK1/2,Bax and CAP1 were significantly down-regulated and the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was significantly up-regulated after puerarin intervention.Therefore,puerarin might improve the SH-SY5Y cells injured by Aβ_(1-42)through the interaction of multiple biological processes and pathways in cells multiple locations,and CAP1 might play an important role among them.


Subject(s)
Amyloid beta-Peptides , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms , Proteomics
7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1343-1351, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887089

ABSTRACT

This study was to investigate the protective effects of puerarin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury and the underlying mechanism. The MI/R-model was established by ligating the left anterior descending artery (LAD) for 60 min followed by 24 h reperfusion, puerarin (10, 30, and 100 mg·kg-1) was orally administered 20 min before reperfusion. Cardiac function, myocardial infarct index, cardiac damage markers, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis index were measured to evaluate the protective effects of puerarin on MI/R injury. The activation of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (Myd88)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway were determined by Western blot. All animal experimental procedures were approved by the ethics committee of the Institute of Materia Medica, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. The results showed that puerarin could significantly improve cardiac function, reduce myocardial infarct size, decease the levels of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and suppress cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Meanwhile, puerarin could notably decrease the levels of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Western blot analysis revealed that puerarin could downregulate the expression of TLR4, Myd88, NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), cleaved-caspase 1, cleaved-gasdermin-D (GSDMD), IL-1β, and IL-18, as well as the phosphorylation levels of inhibitor of NF-κB α (IκBα), IκB kinase β (IKKβ), and NF-κB. These findings demonstrated that puerarin could alleviate MI/R injury by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation, possibly via TLR4/Myd88/NF-κB pathway.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1391-1399, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887084

ABSTRACT

Our previous studies have shown that puerarin, an active component of the traditional Chinese medicine-Pueraria Lobata, can improve glycometabolism in high-fat diet (HFD) mice with diabetes by activating the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) pathway. This study intends to further evaluate the effect of puerarin on depressive symptoms in HFD mice. Long-term HFD induces type 2 diabetes and depressive-like symptoms in mice. Animal welfare and experimental procedures follow the regulations of the Animal Ethics Committee of the Affiliated Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (approval No. AEWC-025). The experiment was divided into: control group, model group, model/puerarin (150 mg·kg-1·day-1) group, and model/fluoxetine (15 mg·kg-1·day-1) group. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and behavioral experimental analysis were performed after 6 weeks of continuous administration. Afterwards, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and corticosterone (CORT) in serum of mice for each group. Western blot assays were used to detect the level of activation and expression of proteins related to neuroplasticity and depressive disorder in the hippocampus. Moreover, HT-22 cell line was used to investigate the protective effect of puerarin on cell morphology and survival. The results show that puerarin can effectively maintain the survival of HT22 in an environment with high glucose and corticosterone. Meantime, the glycemic regulation of diabetic mice was improved after treatment of puerarin, the depressive symptoms were alleviated, the 5-HT increased, and the corticosterone, IL-1β, and IL-6 decreased in the serum. The up-regulation of related proteins in GLP-1R/Wnt/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling in hippocampus suggests that its effect on ameliorating depression in diabetic mice may be related to the activation of GLP-1R/Wnt/mTOR signaling pathway. This study shows that puerarin can significantly ameliorate the depressive symptoms of HFD induced diabetic mice which might be achieved through activating the GLP-1R/Wnt/mTOR signaling pathway and improving hippocampal neuroplasticity.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 966-971, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886990

ABSTRACT

In recent years, with the improvement in living standards, the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases has increased markedly. Atherosclerosis is the main pathological basis for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and there are many risk factors for atherosclerosis. The pharmacological effects of puerarin are broad, and considerable clinical data confirms that puerarin has a definite effect on cardiovascular diseases resulting from atherosclerosis. The use of puerarin for atherosclerosis has increased in recent years. This article reviews the effect and mechanism of puerarin on atherosclerosis.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883376

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore natural compounds as potential inhibitors against main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. Methods:In the current study, systematic molecular docking analysis was conducted using AutoDock 4.2 to determine the binding affinities and interactions between natural compounds and Mpro. Selected natural compounds were further validated using a combination of molecular dynamic (MD) simulations and molecular mechanic Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) free energy calculations. Results:Out of twenty natural compounds, four natural metabolites namely, amentoflavone, guggulsterone, puerarin, and piperine were found to have strong interaction with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 based on docking analysis. During MD simulations, all four natural compounds bound to Mpro at 50 ns and MM/G/P/BSA free energy calculations showed that all four shortlisted ligands had stable and favorable energies with strong binding to Mpro protein. Conclusions:Guggulsterone is a potential inhibitor of COVID-19 main protease Mpro. Further in vitro and pre-clinical studies are needed.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879129

ABSTRACT

Nanocrystals self-stabilized Pickering emulsion(NSSPE) is a new kind of emulsion where only nanocrystals of poorly soluble drugs are used as stabilizers. Our previous study showed that NSSPE with Ligusticum chuanxiong oil as the main oil phase can significantly promote oral absorption of puerarin. The present study aimed to explore its absorption mechanism in oral administration. The in vitro dissolution test was carried out to study the effect of NSSPE on release of puerarin. The effects and mechanism of NSSPE on uptake and transport of puerarin across Caco-2 cell were investigated. The results showed that the drug release rate of NSSPE was similar to that of nanocrystals, with their cumulative dissolution of puerarin not affected by pH of releasing mediums, both significantly higher than that of crude material. The uptake of puerarin in NSSPE was concentration-dependent and significantly higher than that of solution or surfactant stabilized emulsion. Genistein and indomethacin, inhibitors of lipid rafts/caveolin, could significantly reduce the uptake of puerarin in NSSPE. Compared with solution, NSSPE and surfactants stabilized emulsion obviously increased transport rate K_a and apparent permeability coefficient P_(app) of puerarin in AP → BL direction, but there was no significant difference in BL → AP direction. It could be inferred that there were both passive and active transport mechanisms, as well as lipid raft/caveolin mediated endocytosis for absorption of NSSPE. The promoted oral absorption of puerarin in NSSPE was mainly related to the existing nanocrystal form which could promote dissolution, puerarin as well as Ligusticum chuanxiong oil which could promote drug transmembrane transport and inhibit drug efflux. It is the unique structure and composition of the compound NSSPE that promoted the oral absorption of puerarin.


Subject(s)
Caco-2 Cells , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Emulsions , Humans , Isoflavones , Nanoparticles
12.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1337-1344, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877255

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects and mechanism of puerarin (Pue) on hypoxia-induced pyroptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). METHODS :PASMCs of rats as research objects were randomly divided into normoxia group ,hypoxia group and hypoxia+Pue group (0.2 mmol/L). Except for normoxia group ,other groups were cultured with 5% CO2 and 3% O2 at 37 ℃ for 24 hours to establish hypoxia model. Western blot assay was used to detect the expression of pyroptosis related proteins [NOD-like receptor protein- 3 (NLPR3),caspase-1,interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β),apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC)]. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)release assay was used to detect the release of LDH in cells ;Hoechst 33342/PI double staining test was adopted to detect the proportion of pyroptosis positive cells. PASMCs was randomly divided into normoxia group+control plasmid group ,hypoxia+control plasmid group ,hypoxia+over-expression plasmid group and hypoxia+ over-expression plasmid+Pue group. Except for the normoxia+control plasmid group ,the other groups were established hypoxia model by the same method. After transfection of control plasmid or NLRP 3 over-expression plasmid ,Western blot ,LDH release test and Hoechst 33342/PI double staining test were used to investigate whether Pue could inhibit hypoxia-induced PASMCs pyroptosis by interfering with the activity of NLRP 3 inflammasomes. RESULTS :Compared with normoxia group ,the expression of pyroptosis related proteins ,the release of LDH and the proportion of pyroptosis positive cells were increased significantly in hypoxia group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Pue had the effect of reversing the above indexes (P<0.05 or P<0.01). When the NLRP 3 inflammasome was over-expressed ,the expression of pyroptosis related proteins ,the release of LDH and the proportion of Δ 基金项目:黑龙江省自然科学基金资助项目(No.ZD201416) pyroptosis positive cells were increased significantly (P<0.05 *教授,博士生导师 ,博士。研究方向 :心血管药理学 。电话: or P<0.01). Pue could inhibit the above phenomenon through 0451-58853046。E-mail:zhangxd85@163.com regulating NLRP 3 inflammasome (P<0.05 or P<0.01). 中国药房 2021年第32卷第11期 China Pharmacy 2021Vol. 32 No. 11 ·1337· CONCLUSIONS:Pue can significantly inhibit the hypoxia-induced pyroptosis of PASMCs by down-regulating the expression of pyroptosis related proteins ,reducing the release of LDH and proportion of pyroptosis positive cells. The mechanism is related to the activity inhibition of NLRP 3 inflammasome.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907690

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish the UPLC fingerprint analysis method for Puerariae Lobamle Radix. Methods:The column was Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile (A)-0.1% formic acid (b), gradient elution, flow rate was 0.3 ml/min. The detection wavelength was 250 nm. The column temperature was set at 30 ℃. The sample volume was 2 μl, and the similarity evaluation system of traditional Chinese medicine fingerprint was adopted. The cluster analysis, principal component analysis and partial least square method in SPSS software were used to judge the differences of Pueraria lobata from different habitats.Results:With puerarin as reference peak, 22 common peaks were calibrated, and 6 peaks were identified. The similarity of 25 batches of samples was above 0.990 except S22 was 0.935, which indicated that the samples were with good consistency. Through cluster analysis, principal component analysis and partial least square analysis, 25 batches of Puerariae Lobamle Radix can be clustered into 4-5 categories, and different components such as 3'-hydroxy puerarin were found. The extraction process of Puerariae Lobamle Radix was optimized based on analytic hierarchy process and multi-index orthogonal test. The results showed that adding 50% ethanol 40 ml and refluxing for 40 min was the best extraction process. Conclusion:UPLC fingerprint is suitable for Puerariae Lobamle Radix, and the results are reliable. It can be used as a quality evaluation method for Puerariae Lobamle Radix.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911685

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the protective effect of puerarin on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced acute kidney injury(AKI)in vitro.Methods:HK-2 cells were treated with H/R for simulating ischemia reperfusion injury(IRI)in vivo. The experimental groups included control group, H/R treatment group(0/6/12/24 h), H/R 24 h + puerarin treatment group(puerarin, Pue), H/R 24 h + Pue+ 3-methyladenine(3-MA)treatment group and H/R 24 h+ 3-MA treatment group. Immunoblotting was employed for detecting the expression changes of autophagy-related proteins, CCK-8 for examining cell proliferation, electron microscopy for observing autophagosome formation and TUNEL for detecting apoptosis.Results:As compared with control group, the expression of LC3-II rose in H/R 24 h group, the expression of autophagy marker P62 declined, count of autophagosome increased, cell viability decreased and cellular inflammation occurred. Puerarin had similar effects to 3-MA. As compared with H/R 24 h group, puerarin could reverse the changes in the expression levels of LC3 and P62 induced by H/R( P<0.05). There were greater cell viability, reduced autophagosome count and lessened cell apoptosis( P<0.05). At the same time, protein expression levels of HMGB1, TLR4 and NF-κB dropped( P<0.05). Conclusions:Puerarin suppresses autophagy through HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB axis for lessening ischemia-reperfusion injury an in vitro model.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846701

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes of Yangyin Tongnao Granules (YTG) in cerebral ischemia reperfusion rats after the compatibility of main effective parts (total alkaloids, total flavonoids, total saponins and total phenolic acids). Methods: By using the orthogonal design to research the main effective parts of YTG, nine different dosage ratios combinations were formed, which were used for oral administration in cerebral ischemia reperfusion rats. High performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was used to determine the concentration of puerarin, ferulic acid, and ligustrazine in rat plasma at different time points. The non-compartmental model was used to fit the pharmacokinetic parameters by Drug and Statistics (DAS) 3.2.6 software. The total quantum statistical moment analysis method and comprehensive evaluation method were used to evaluate the total pharmacokinetic characteristics. Meanwhile, the content of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Finally, the PK-PD model and the quantitative equations between drug concentration and efficacy were obtained. Results: The pharmacokinetic characteristics of puerarin, ferulic acid and ligustrazine in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats were different. Total statistical moment and comprehensive score study showed that different combinations had different effects on ACUT, mean retention time (MRT), and comprehensive evaluation. The effective parts inhibited the reduction of oxidation indexes such as SOD and CAT. Sigmoid-Emax models were adopted in all PK-PD models, and the fitting results had a good correlation with the measured data. The R values were more than 0.85. Conclusion: Compatibility of YTG activity parts had a certain effect on their pharmacokinetic behaviors and antioxidation in model rats. The total quantum statistical moment analysis and comprehensive evaluation method can be used to study the pharmacokinetics of multi-component traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. PK-PD model could be used to predict and evaluate the correlation between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846545

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the mechanism of treating COVID-19 with traditional Chinese medicine and monomers with ACE2 as receptor. Methods: Chinese materia medica and monomers acting on angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2) receptor was retrieved by TCMSP database. UniProt, GeneCards and other databases were used to query the gene names corresponding to the target of Chinese medicine monomer, and then Cytoscape 3.6.1 was used to construct the compound-target (gene) network. DAVID was used to carry out the gene ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis to predict its mechanism of action. Results: There were 54 targets in the puerarin-target network, including AKT1, VEGFA, TNF, etc. GO function enrichment analysis revealed 554 GO items (P < 0.05), including 486 biological process (BP) items, 26 cell component (CC) items, and 42 molecular function (MF) items. There were 162 signaling pathways (P < 0.05) involved in small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, renin-angiotensin system pathway, etc. The results of molecular docking showed that the affinity of puerarin with ACE2 and hydrolase of SARS-CoV-2 was similar to the recommended drugs. Conclusion: Puerarin may regulate multiple signaling pathways by binding ACE2 to AGTR1, NOS3, HIF1A and other targets and regulating multiple signaling pathways, which may have therapeutic effects on COVID-19.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846387

ABSTRACT

Objective: Puerarin nanoemulsion lyophilized powder (Pue-NE-LP) was prepared using natural surfactant glycyrrhizic acid as stabilizer and evaluated in vitro. Methods: Pue-NE was prepared by high-speed shear and high-pressure homogenization method, and further combined with freeze-drying method to prepare Pue-NE-LP. Taking the average particle size and polydispersity index (PDI) as the evaluation indexes, the optimal prescription and process parameters of this experiment were screened out through a single factor test. The prepared Pue-NE-LP was characterized by physicochemical properties and dissolution in vitro. Results: The average particle size and PDI of Pue-NE-LP prepared with 5% glyceryl caprylate as oil phase, 2.0 mg/mL glycyrrhizic acid as stabilizer, and 7% glucose as lyophilization protectant was (215.1 ± 0.7) nm and (0.133 ± 0.024), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed that Pue-NE-LP was irregularly small and uniform in size; X-ray diffraction showed that Pue-NE-LP existed in an amorphous state. In vitro release results showed that the dissolution rate of Pue-NE-LP was significantly higher than the physical mixture. Conclusion: Pue-NE-LP prepared with natural surfactant glycyrrhizic acid as a stabilizer is not only simple to prepare, but also can significantly improve the solubility and bioavailability of puerarin. It provides a reference for the multiple development of Pue-NE formulations.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846355

ABSTRACT

Objective: Puerarin nanoemulsion (Pue-NE) was prepared with glycyrrhizic acid as a natural stabilizer, and its release characteristics in vitro were investigated. Methods: Data processing was performed using particle size and polydispersity index (PDI) as independent variables, and using the overall desirability (OD) as the evaluation index. The central composite design-response surface method was used to optimize the prescription, and the physical and chemical properties and release characteristics of Pue-NE prepared by the optimal prescription were investigated. Results: The best prescription for Pue-NE is puerarin at a concentration of 5.0 mg/mL, glycyrrhizic acid at a concentration of 1.75 mg/mL, and caprylic glyceride in an amount of 3.5 mL. The average particle size of the nanoemulsion is (184.5 ± 0.8) nm, the PDI is 0.088 ± 0.002, the zeta potential is (10.56 ± 0.35) mv, the conductivity is (98.3 ± 0.4) μs/cm, pH is 6.750 ± 0.005, solubility (4.970 ± 0.008) mg/mL, drug loading is (99.4 ± 0.2)%, turbidity (24.3 ± 1.0) cm-1 (n = 3). It was identified as O/W emulsion by dyeing method. TEM scanning results show that the droplets are spherical and uniform in size and the stability results showed that Pue-NE has good storage stability at 25 ℃. In vitro release results showed that Pue-NE has the greatest release in phosphate buffered pH 6.8 within 24 hours. Conclusion: The preparation of Pue-NE with glycyrrhizic acid as a natural stabilizer is not only simple and convenient, but also can effectively replace the use of traditional chemical synthetic stabilizers and improve the solubility of puerarin.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846293

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a method for the simultaneous content determination of 14 chemical components such as D- amygdalin, puerarin, hesperidin in Fenghan Ganmao Granules (FGG) by UHPLC-UV wavelength switching method, and chemometric analysis was used to analyze the quality differences. Methods: Separation was performed on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.7 μm) with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid. The content of 14 chemical components in 68 batches of samples from five manufacturers was determined by switching wavelength (210, 254, 310 nm). The radar chart, similarity evaluation, heat map and hierarchical clustering analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA) were used for data analysis. Results: The content of each component was as follows, D-amygdalin 0.063-3.885 mg/g, 3'-hydroxy puerarin 0.012-1.540 mg/g, puerarin 0.036-4.017 mg/g, 3'-methoxy puerarin 0.016-1.837 mg/g, puerarin-6″-O-xyloside 0.004-0.449 mg/g, mirificin 0.021-2.076 mg/g, daidzin 0.010-1.527 mg/g, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin 0.007-0.471 mg/g, 5-O-methylvisammioside 0.062-1.029 mg/g, hesperidin 0.210-8.453 mg/g, rosmarinic acid 0.001-0.237 mg/g, oxypeucedanin hydrate 0.007-0.204 mg/g, glycyrrhizic acid 0.056-1.311 mg/g, oxypeucedanin 0.002-0.042 mg/g, respectively. Chemometric analysis showed that there were some differences among the samples from different manufacturers, and the samples from the same manufacturer were more consistent. Conclusion: The method is simple, reproducible, and specific, which provides a reference method for the overall quality evaluation of FGG.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846261

ABSTRACT

Objective: To prepare and characterize puerarin chitosan/sodium alginate oral nanoparticles (Pur-CS/SA-NPs) and conduct its pharmacokinetics studies. Methods: Pur-CS/SA-NPs were prepared by self-assembly method, the morphology, particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug loading and microstructure of Pur-CS/SA-NPs suspension and lyophilized powder were characterized. To determine the concentration of puerarin in plasma after oral administration of nanoparticles to rats, an LC-MS/MS analysis method for puerarin was established, and its pharmacokinetic characteristics were investigated. Results: The morphology, structure and texture of Pur-CS/SA-NPs suspension and lyophilized powder were complete and fine, no new chemical bonds and crystals were formed. The particle size, PDI, Zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, and drug loading of Pur-CS/ SA-NPs suspension were (208.327 ± 1.870) nm, 0.131 ± 0.006, (89.056 ± 1.680)% and (44.528 ± 0.840)%, respectively. The particle size, Zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of Pur-CS/SA-NPs lyophilized powder were (260.000 ± 0.475) nm, (47.300 ± 0.208) mV, (86.234 ± 0.873)% and (43.117 ± 0.234)%, respectively. The AUC0-24, AUC0-∞, tmax and Cmax of Pur-CS/SA- NPs were (833.067 ± 132.546) mg∙h/L, (844.919 ± 154.768) mg∙h/L, (1.000 ± 0.098) h and (236.318 ± 36.864) mg/L, respectively. The AUC0-24, AUC0-∞, tmax and Cmax of puerarin were (250.087 ± 32.156) mg∙h/L, (250.091 ± 28.398) mg∙h/L, (0.500 ± 0.031) h and (191.830 ± 17.963) mg/L, respectively. The AUC0-24, AUC0-∞, tmax and Cmax of Pur-CS/SA-NPs were 3.331, 3.378, 2.000, and 1.232 times of puerarin, respectively. Conclusion: The structure of Pur-CS/SA-NPs prepared by self-assembly method is stable. After oral administration, the AUC0-24, AUC0-∞ and tmax of the drug in the body are significantly increased, and the circulation time is relatively extended, which significantly improve bioavailability of puerarin.

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