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1.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1384400

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Examinar las transiciones migratorias de profesionales de enfermería mexicanos que residen en Alemania. Material y Método: Estudio cualitativo de tipo etnográfico focalizado, guiado por la Teoría de Transiciones; se realizó entre los meses de noviembre de 2020 y mayo de 2021; se utilizó un muestreo por bola de nieve, donde los participantes de la red social Facebook, que aceptaron participar, hicieron referencia a otras personas. Se reclutaron a 11 profesionales de enfermería mexicanos; se realizaron entrevistas por Zoom, audiograbadas con previo consentimiento. La información obtenida fue transcrita en su totalidad y examinada mediante el análisis temático con el apoyo del software QUIRKOS. Resultados: El 63,6% fueron mujeres con una edad promedio de 30,8 años y un tiempo promedio de 1,26 años en Alemania. Las transiciones migratorias se clasificaron en 10 categorías: 1) Condiciones económicas y laborales, 2) Idioma, 3) Proceso de homologación de estudios, 4) Costos, 5) Discriminación, 6) Costumbres y tradiciones, 7) Gastronomía, 8) Clima, 9) Recreación y 10) Seguridad. Conclusiones. Conocer las transiciones migratorias de profesionales de enfermería mexicanos en Alemania permite realizar una serie de recomendaciones a la práctica, las políticas públicas y futuros proyectos de investigación e intervención.


ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the migration transitions of Mexican nursing professionals residing in Germany. Materials and Methods: A focused ethnography guided by the Theory of Transitions was conducted between the months of November 2020 and May 2021; snowball sampling was used, where the participants of the social network Facebook, who agreed to participate, referred to other people. Eleven Mexican nurses living in Germany were recruited; interviews were conducted using the Zoom platform and audio-recorded with prior consent. The information obtained was transcribed verbatim and examined through thematic analysis using the QUIRKOS software. Results: 63.6% of the nurses were women, with an average age of 30.8 years; and an average time of 1.26 years living in Germany. Migration transitions were classified into 10 categories: 1) Economic and labor conditions, 2) Language, 3) Study accreditation process, 4) Costs, 5) Discrimination, 6) Customs and traditions, 7) Gastronomy, 8) Climate, 9) Recreation, and 10) Safety. Conclusions: Understanding the migration transitions of Mexican nurses in Germany allows us to make a series of recommendations for practice, public policies, and future research and intervention projects.


RESUMO Objetivo: Examinar as transições migratórias de profissionais de enfermagem mexicanos que residem na Alemanha. Material e Método: Estudo qualitativo de tipo etnográfico focado, guiado pela Teoria das Transições e realizado entre os meses de novembro de 2020 e maio de 2021. Utilizou-se uma amostragem de bola de neve, na qual os participantes da rede social Facebook, que concordaram em participar, contactaram outras pessoas. Onze profissionais mexicanos residentes na Alemanha foram recrutados; foram realizadas entrevistas usando a plataforma Zoom e gravadas em áudio com consentimento prévio. As informações obtidas foram transcritas textualmente e examinadas por meio de análise temática utilizando o software QUIRKOS. Resultados: 63,6% dos profissionais de enfermagem eram mulheres, com idade média de 30,8 anos; e tempo médio de 1,26 anos vivendo na Alemanha. As transições migratórias foram classificadas em 10 categorias: 1) Condições econômicas e trabalhistas, 2) Idioma, 3) Processo de acreditação de estudos, 4) Custos, 5) Discriminação, 6) Costumes e tradições, 7) Gastronomia, 8) Clima, 9) Lazer, e 10) Segurança. Conclusões: Conhecer as transições migratórias dos profissionais de enfermagem mexicanos na Alemanha permite fazer uma série de recomendações para a prática, as políticas públicas e os futuros projetos de pesquisa e intervenção.

2.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(5): e00096221, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374845

ABSTRACT

This is an evaluative study, with sequential explanatory mixed methods, aimed at evaluating the performance of the Brazilian Mobile Emergency Medical Service (SAMU) in the Grande ABC region, located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. In the quantitative approach, an analysis of interrupted time series was performed to evaluate the immediate and gradual effects of the SAMU on hospital mortality due to acute myocardial infarction. The qualitative approach was conducted via semi-structured interviews and a thematic analysis was applied for the interpretation of the results, exploring the attitudes and values of the interviewees regarding the performance of SAMU in the Grande ABC region. Interrupted time series analysis showed a -0.04% reduction in the underlying mortality rate since SAMU implementation (95%CI: -0.0816; -0.0162; p-value = 0.0040) and a reduction in the mortality level, -2.89 (95%CI: -4.3293; -1.4623; p-value = 0.0001), both with statistical significance. To improve the robustness of the results, a control region was used, showing a statistically significant difference in the post-intervention result of -0.0639 (95%CI: -0.1060; -0.0219; p-value = 0.0001). The interviews revealed that the SAMU has the potential to intervene in the prognosis of transported cases, however, challenges related to the availability of beds, expansion of telemedicine, and continuous training of professionals for qualified emergency care in the event of a heart attack must be overcome. The results indicate that the studied intervention is part of a set of factors that, together, generate more conditions to achieve a better result.


Estudo avaliativo com uso de métodos mistos na tipologia explanatória sequencial cujo objetivo foi avaliar o desempenho do Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência (SAMU) na região do Grande ABC, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Na abordagem quantitativa, foi realizada análise de séries temporais interrompidas para testar os efeitos imediatos e graduais da intervenção sobre a mortalidade hospitalar por infarto agudo do miocárdio. A abordagem qualitativa foi realizada através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, e a análise temática foi aplicada para a interpretação dos resultados, explorando as atitudes e valores dos entrevistados em relação ao desempenho do SAMU no Grande ABC. A análise de série temporal interrompida mostrou uma redução de -0,04% na taxa de mortalidade subjacente desde a implementação do SAMU (IC95%: -0,0816; -0,0162; p = 0,0040) e uma redução no nível de mortalidade, de -2,89 (IC95%: -4,3293; -1,4623; p = 0,0001), ambas estatisticamente significativas. Para melhorar a robustez dos resultados, foi utilizada uma região de controle, o que mostrou uma diferença estatisticamente significativa na tendência pós-intervenção de -0,0639 (IC95%: -0,1060; -0,0219; p = 0,0001). De acordo com as entrevistas, o SAMU tem o potencial de intervir no prognóstico dos pacientes transportados; entretanto, em casos de infarto agudo do miocárdio, diversos desafios precisam ser superados, relacionados à disponibilidade de leitos, expansão da telemedicina e capacitação permanente das equipes de atendimento qualificado em emergências. Os resultados indicam que a intervenção faz parte de um conjunto de fatores que, conjuntamente, geram mais condições para alcançar melhores resultados.


Investigación evaluativa, utilizando métodos mixtos explicativos secuenciales, cuyo objetivo fue evaluar el desempeño del Servicio de Atención Móvil de Urgencia (SAMU) en una región de Brasil, denominada Grande ABC, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. En el enfoque cuantitativo, se realizó un análisis de series temporales interrumpidas para comprobar los efectos inmediatos y graduales de la intervención sobre la mortalidad intrahospitalaria por infarto agudo de miocardio. El enfoque cualitativo se llevó a cabo a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas y para la interpretación de los resultados se aplicó un análisis temático, investigando las actitudes y valores de los entrevistados sobre el desempeño del SAMU en la región Grande ABC. Los análisis de series de tiempo interrumpido mostraron una reducción -0,04% en la tasa de mortalidad subyacente desde la implementación del SAMU (IC95%: -0,0816; -0,0162; p = 0,0040) y una reducción en el nivel de mortalidad, -2,89 (IC95%: -4,3293; -1,4623; p = 0,0001), ambos con significación estadística. Con el fin de mejorar la solidez de los resultados, se utilizó un control de región, que mostró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la tendencia del resultado post intervención de -0,0639 (IC95%: -0,1060; -0,0219; p = 0,0001). Las entrevistas revelaron que el SAMU tiene el potencial de intervenir en la prognosis de los casos trasportados, sin embargo, deben superarse los desafíos relacionados con la disponibilidad de camas, expansión de la telemedicina y el entrenamiento continuo de profesionales para la asistencia cualificada en emergencias, en caso de un ataque al corazón. Los resultados indican que la intervención estudiada es parte de un conjunto de condiciones que, juntas, generan más condiciones para alcanzar un mejor resultado.

3.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1359570

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever as percepções dos profissionais da saúde sobre a presença do acompanhante no processo do nascimento. Método: estudo descritivo, qualitativo, realizado em um hospital escola, com 29 profissionais da saúde. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de entrevistas, entre maio a julho de 2018, sendo analisadas com abordagem baseada no Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Resultados: após análise emergiram quatro Ideias Centrais: experiências positivas e a participação do acompanhante, o ambiente desconhecido gera sentimento de insegurança no acompanhante, a presença do acompanhante causa desconforto na equipe de saúde e o profissional barra o acompanhante pela presunção de que ele irá atrapalhar. Conclusão: as percepções dos profissionais se mostraram conflitantes, sendo que alguns percebem a importância e os benefícios do acompanhante no nascimento, e outros apontaram que ele atrapalha a equipe de saúde, pela ansiedade e estresse, prejudicando a equipe de saúde e interferindo de maneira negativa


Objective: to describe the perceptions of health professionals about the presence of a companion in the birth process. Method: a descriptive, qualitative study, carried out in a teaching hospital, with 29 health professionals. Data collection was carried out through interviews, between May and July 2018, being analyzed using an approach based on the Collective Subject Discourse. Results:after analysis, four Central Ideas emerged: positive experiences and the companion's participation, the unknown environment generates feelings of insecurity in the companion, the presence of the companion causes discomfort in the health team and the professional stops the companion due to the presumption that it will hinder. Conclusion: the perceptions of the professionals were conflicting, with some perceiving the importance and benefits of the companion at birth, and others pointed out that it disturbs the health team, due to anxiety and stress, harming the health team and interfering in a negative way


Objetivo: describir las percepciones de los profesionales de la salud sobre la presencia de un acompañante en el proceso del parto. Método: estudio descriptivo, cualitativo, realizado en un hospital universitario, con 29 profesionales de la salud. La recolección de datos se realizó a través de entrevistas, entre mayo y julio de 2018, siendo analizadas con un enfoque basado en el Discurso Colectivo del Sujeto. Resultados: luego del análisis surgieron cuatro Ideas Centrales: experiencias positivas y la participación del acompañante, el entorno desconocido genera sentimientos de inseguridad en el acompañante, la presencia del acompañante provoca malestar en el equipo de salud y el profesional detiene al acompañante por presunción de que dificultará. Conclusión: las percepciones de los profesionales fueron conflictivas, algunos percibieron la importancia y los beneficios del acompañante al nacer, y otros señalaron que perturba al equipo de salud, por ansiedad y estrés, perjudicando al equipo de salud e interfiriendo de manera negativa


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Patient Care Team/trends , Humanizing Delivery , Medical Chaperones/trends , Hospital-Patient Relations , Qualitative Research , Hospitals, Teaching
4.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 48(2)abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388473

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción. El objetivo de este estudio es establecer patrones positivos y negativos de los resultados de los procesos de acreditación de las carreras. Asimismo, identificar desde una perspectiva cualitativa, variables relevantes y relaciones entre los criterios usados en su evaluación. Materiales y métodos. El estudio es transversal, descriptivo y cualitativo. Se analizaron veinte resoluciones de acreditación de las carreras de Nutrición y Dietética en Chile, emitidas entre los años 2004 y 2016 por la Comisión Nacional de Acreditación mediante el software ATLAS ti. Se consideraron las tres dimensiones; Propósitos e Institucionalidad; Condiciones de Operación y Resultados; y Capacidad de Autorregulación para establecer una matriz de relaciones con la identificación de patrones positivos y negativos entre criterios. Resultados. Se evidencian fuertes diferencias entre las carreras. Las relaciones positivas y negativas entre los códigos de los criterios perfil de egreso y plan de estudio indican que solo algunas de ellas proveen una formación adecuada. Del mismo modo, las relaciones entre la calificación del cuerpo docente y la investigación revelan casos de docentes sin niveles suficientes. Otros aspectos deficitarios son el nivel con que ingresan los estudiantes y el uso efectivo de diagnósticos y autoevaluaciones. Conclusiones. El estudio provee información relevante para la toma de decisiones y procesos de retroalimentación orientados al urgente mejoramiento y aseguramiento de la calidad de carreras, en particular de sus planes de estudio, calificación de docentes y efectividad de los procesos de aseguramiento de la calidad, dada la creciente importancia de estos profesionales en la salud pública.


ABSTRACT Introduction. The objective of this study is to establish positive and negative patterns based on the results of accreditation processes of degree programs. Similarly, its aim is to identify, from a qualitative perspective, relevant variables and relationships among the criteria used in their evaluation. Materials and methods. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive and qualitative study. Twenty accreditation resolutions of Chilean Nutrition and Dietetics degree programs were analyzed using the software ATLAS ti. Resolutions were issued between 2004 and 2016 by the National Accreditation Commission. Three dimensions were considered in order to establish a matrix of relationships associated with the identification of positive and negative patterns among criteria: Purpose and Institutionalism; Operating Conditions and Results; and Self-Regulatory Ability. Results. Major differences were found among the degree programs. Positive and negative relationships between criteria codes, graduate profile and curriculum, indicate that only some degree programs provide an appropriate training. In the same way, the relationship between the teaching staff qualification and research work revealed cases of teachers who were not sufficiently qualified. Other weak aspects were the level of knowledge that students have when they enter university and the effective use of diagnostics and self-assessment tests. Conclusions. This study provides relevant information for decision making and feedback processes oriented at the urgent improvement and quality assurance of degree programs, particularly of curricula, teaching staff qualifications, and effectiveness of the quality assurance processes, given the increasing importance of nutrition professionals in the public health area.

5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(1): 265-274, jan. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153734

ABSTRACT

Abstract Qualitative Health research procedures that are not always applied, mainly in the analysis phase. Our objective is to present a systematized technique of step-by-step procedures for qualitative content analysis in the health field: Clinical-Qualitative Content Analysis. Our proposal consider that the qualitative research applied to the field of health, can acquire a perspective analogous to clinical practice and aims to interpret meanings expressed in reports through individual interviews or statements. This analysis takes part of the Clinical-Qualitative Method. The literature review was realized through: a book chapter, eight original articles and three methodological articles. The Clinical-qualitative Content Analysis technique comprises seven steps: 1) Editing material for analysis; 2) Floating reading; 3) Construction of the units of analysis; 4) Construction of codes of meaning; 5) General refining of the codes and the Construction of categories; 6) Discussion; 7) Validity. The clinical-qualitative analysis presupposes and involves a critical reflection on the processes carried out at each step. This reflection is an extremely rich process, if carried out collectively and in dialogue with other researchers with some proficiency in qualitative methods.


Resumo Os procedimentos da pesquisa qualitativa em saúde nem sempre são bem aplicados, principalmente na fase de análise de dados. Nosso objetivo é apresentar uma técnica sistematizada de procedimentos, passo a passo, para análise de conteúdo qualitativa no campo da saúde: A Análise de Conteúdo Clínico-Qualitativa. Nossa proposta considera que a pesquisa qualitativa aplicada ao campo da saúde, pode adquirir uma perspectiva análoga à prática clínica e visa interpretar significados expressos em relatos por meio de entrevistas ou depoimentos individuais. Esta análise faz parte do Método Clínico-Qualitativo. A revisão de literatura foi realizada por meio de: capítulo de livro, oito artigos originais e três artigos metodológicos. A técnica de Análise Clínico-Qualitativa de Conteúdo compreende sete passos: 1) Edição de material para análise; 2) leitura flutuante; 3) Construção das unidades de análise; 4) Construção de códigos de significado; 5) Refinação geral dos códigos e construção de categorias; 6) Discussão; e 7) Validade. A análise clínico-qualitativa envolve uma reflexão crítica sobre os processos realizados em cada etapa. Essa reflexão é um processo extremamente rico, se realizado coletivamente e em diálogo com outros pesquisadores com alguma proficiência em métodos qualitativos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Research Design , Research Personnel , Qualitative Research
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906387

ABSTRACT

Objective:A comprehensive and in-depth analysis method for identification of chemical constituents in Suanzaoren Tang granules was established. Method:Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was employed with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) for gradient elution (0-8 min, 5%-17%B; 8-10 min, 17%B; 10-11 min, 17%-18%B; 11-12 min, 18%-20%B; 12-17 min, 20%-23%B; 17-22 min, 23%-33%B; 22-30 min, 33%-60%B; 30-32 min, 60%-100%B; 32-36 min, 100%B), the flow rate of 0.3 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> and electrospray ionization (ESI). High quality MS/MS data were scanned in positive and negative ion modes with scanning range of <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 50-1 500. The local database of the chemical components from different Chinese medicines in Suanzaoren Tang granules was established by SCIEX OS software. Then the chemical components in Suanzaoren Tang granules were characterized by matching with the local database and comparing with the reference substance and literature information. Result:A total of 134 compounds were characterized and identified under positive and negative ion modes, mainly including flavonoids, triterpenoids, phthalides, steroidal saponins, alkaloids and organic phenolic acids. In addition, the sources of Chinese medicines for all compounds identified in Suanzaoren Tang granules were assigned. Among them, 41 were from Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, 11 were from Poria, 22 were from Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, 28 were from Chuanxiong Rhizoma and 35 were from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Conclusion:The method can be used to identify the chemical constituents in Suanzaoren Tang granules systematically, quickly and accurately, which can provide a new strategy for the rapid and accurate identification of other Chinese patent medicines.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905839

ABSTRACT

Objective:To screen qualitative preparation quality markers of Yuliantang, in order to provide data support for the selection of indicator components, and establish the direct connection between indicator components and efficacy (Xiehuo Zhitong) for achieving the quantity-effect combination. Method:The stability of preparation process of Yuliantang lyophilized powder was investigated by HPLC fingerprint technology, then, the components in Yuliantang lyophilized powder were identified by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS. By referring to the relevant literature, the pharmacological activities of these identified compounds were compared with the pharmacological effects corresponding to the efficacy of Yuliantang, and the composition of the qualitative preparation quality markers of Yuliantang lyophilized powder was determined. Result:The similarities between HPLC fingerprint of 10 batches of Yuliantang lyophilized powder and the control fingerprint were >0.9, indicating that the preparation process was stable and feasible. A total of 29 components were identified from Yuliantang, of which 23 alkaloids, 3 phenylpropanoids, 2 sesquiterpenoids and 1 limonoid, and there were 15 ingredients of<italic> </italic>Coptidis Rhizoma, 12 ingredients of<italic> </italic>Euodiae Fructus, and 2 ingredients of<italic> </italic>Aucklandiae Radix. The composition of the qualitative preparation quality markers of Yuliantang was initially determined as magnoflorine or 10-hydroxy-2,3,9-trimethoxyberberine, phellodendrine, menisperine, thalifendine, groenlandicine, dehydroevodiamine, coptisine, jatrorrhizine, columbamine, methylcoptisine, berberine, epiberberine, palmatine, evodiamine, rutaecarpine, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, limonin, costunolide, dehydrocostus lactone. Conclusion:The method for researching and screening the preparation quality markers in Yuliantang lyophilized powder is scientific, reasonable and feasible, it can provide reference for the determination of component indicators in the process research of Yuliantang and qualitative and quantitative indexes in its quality standard.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921803

ABSTRACT

A sensitive and efficient method was established and validated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of total alkaloids from the extract of Eurycoma longifolia by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(HPLC-Q-TOF-MS) combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-QQQ-MS/MS). The HPLC-Q-TOF-MS conditions are as follows: Welch Ultimate XB-C_(18) column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with acetonitrile(containing 0.1% formic acid)-0.1% formic acid in water as mobile phase for gradient elution. The UPLC-QQQ-MS/MS conditions are as below: Agilent Eclipse Plus C_(18) column(2.1 mm×50 mm, 1.8 μm) with acetonitrile(containing 0.1% formic acid) and 0.1% formic acid in water as mobile phase for gradient elution. MS data were collected by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode. According to the comparison with reference standards and the accurate masses of molecules, a total of 17 alkaloids in E. longifolia extract were identified by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS. The UPLC-QQQ-MS/MS quantitative analysis result of 3 alkaloids showed that the linear ranges of them were good(r≥0.999 7) and the overall recoveries ranged from 108.8%-110.2%, with RSDs of 2.9%-5.3%. The method is accurate, reliable, and efficient, which can comprehensively reflect the constituents and content of alkaloids in E. longifolia. The result can serve as a reference for further elucidating its therapeutic material basis and quality control.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Eurycoma , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1469-1492, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888815

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been an indispensable source of drugs for curing various human diseases. However, the inherent chemical diversity and complexity of TCM restricted the safety and efficacy of its usage. Over the past few decades, the combination of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry has contributed greatly to the TCM qualitative analysis. And novel approaches have been continuously introduced to improve the analytical performance, including both the data acquisition methods to generate a large and informative dataset, and the data post-processing tools to extract the structure-related MS information. Furthermore, the fast-developing computer techniques and big data analytics have markedly enriched the data processing tools, bringing benefits of high efficiency and accuracy. To provide an up-to-date review of the latest techniques on the TCM qualitative analysis, multiple data-independent acquisition methods and data-dependent acquisition methods (precursor ion list, dynamic exclusion, mass tag, precursor ion scan, neutral loss scan, and multiple reaction monitoring) and post-processing techniques (mass defect filtering, diagnostic ion filtering, neutral loss filtering, mass spectral trees similarity filter, molecular networking, statistical analysis, database matching, etc.) were summarized and categorized. Applications of each technique and integrated analytical strategies were highlighted, discussion and future perspectives were proposed as well.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888029

ABSTRACT

The dried fruit body of Phylloporia ribis(Hymenochaetaceae), which prefers to live on the stumps of Lonicera japonica(Caprifoliaceae), has a variety of activities, whereas its pharmacodynamic material basis is not completely clear and there are few reports on its quality control and evaluation. In this study, an UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was used to analyze the nucleosides and nucleobases in P. ribis and a HPLC method was established for simultaneous determination of 10 nucleosides and nucleobases. MS and MS/MS data were acquired in positive ion mode. Based on the data comparison of the sample and the reference substance, the literature data and the compound databases of ChemSpider and PubChem, 18 nucleosides and nucleobases were identified qualitatively from the water extract of P. ribis for the first time. After optimization, the HPLC was performed using a Welch Ultimate AQ C_(18) column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) by gradient elution with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase, the flow rate of 1.0 mL·min~(-1), the detection wavelength of 260 nm, and the column temperature of 30 ℃. Through the investigation of the extraction method, solvent and time, it was determined that the test solution should be obtained by cold water extraction for 18 h. At the present HPLC conditions, 10 components of uracil, cytidine, hypoxanthine, uridine, thymine, inosine, guanosine, 2'-deoxyinosine, 2'-deoxyguanosine and thymidine could be well separated(R > 1.5) and showed good linearity(r > 0.999 9) in the concentration ranges of 0.247-24.7, 0.283-28.3, 0.273-27.3, 0.256-25.6, 0.257-25.7, 0.318-31.8, 0.245-24.5, 0.267-26.7, 0.250-25.0 and 0.267-26.7 mg·L~(-1), respectively. The average reco-veries of 10 components were 95.78%-104.5%, and the RSDs were 2.2%-5.2%(n=6). The contents of 10 nucleosides and nucleobases in different samples of P. ribis varied greatly, which were 0.021-0.122, 0.004-0.029, 0.014-0.226, 0.009-0.442, 0.003-0.014, 0.002-0.146, 0.007-0.098, 0-0.054, 0.005-0.069, 0.004-0.081 and 0.072-1.28 mg·g~(-1) for uracil, cytidine, hypoxanthine, uridine, thymine, inosine, guanosine, 2'-deoxyinosine, 2'-deoxyguanosine, thymidine and total 10 components, respectively. These results demonstrated that the components had significant differences in the internal quality, and good quality control was needed to ensure the medical efficacy. This study provides a scientific basis for the discovery of pharmacodynamic ingredients, quality control and evaluation of P. ribis.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Guanosine , Nucleosides , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1980-1987, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887007

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to explore the content and composition of aristolochic acid compounds in Chinese medicinal materials containing toxic aristolochic chemicals, so as to ensure the safety of these medicinal materials and their related products. Nine Chinese medicinal materials were selected for study, including the tuber of Aristolochia cinnabarina, the herbs of Asarum forbesii, the stems of Aristolochia manshuriensis., the fruits of Aristolochia debilis, the roots of Aristolochia debilis, the stems and leaf of Aristolochia debilis, the herbs of Aristolochia mollissima, the roots of Aristolochia fangchi, and the roots of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum. The aristolochic acid components in the nine Chinese medicinal materials were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS) combined with high performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection. The separation was performed on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-Aq column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) with gradient elution using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.2% acetic acid. ESI positive ion mode MS was used to investigate the ionization pathways of aristolochic acid Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲa, Ⅳa, Ⅶa, and aristololactam Ⅰ, Ⅱ using seven reference standards, and the structures of the components with UV spectrasimilar to those of the seven reference standards in the selected medicinal materials were qualitatively analyzed by following the investigated ionization pathways. The identified aristolochic acid components were quantified using an external standard method by HPLC-UV with detection at 254 nm. Twenty-two aristolochic acid components including 11 aristolochic acids and 11 aristololactams were identified from the nine selected medicinal materials; 15 aristolochic acids were found in the tuber of Aristolochia cinnabarina and the roots of Aristolochia debilis, followed by 14 aristolochic acids in the fruits of Aristolochia debilis and the stems of Aristolochia manshuriensis. The greatest content of aristolochia components was found in the tuber of Aristolochia cinnabarina and the stems of Aristolochia manshuriensis, ranging from 8.91 mg·g-1 to 13.40 mg·g-1, and the least amount was in the herbs of Asarum forbesii, at less than 0.10 mg·g-1 and containing only two aristolochia components. This study systematically explored the quantity and composition of aristolochic acid components in selected Chinese medicinal materials believed to contain toxic aristolochic compounds, providing a basis for follow-up studies on the toxicity of these substances that can lead to safety standards for their use.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879049

ABSTRACT

In order to better utilize saffron floral bio-residues(SFB), a qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids in SFB was conducted using UPLC-MS and UPLC, respectively. On the one hand, 50 flavonols and 5 anthocyanins were putatively characte-rized by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. On the other hand, an UPLC method was established for determining the fingerprint of SFB as well as testing the main flavonoids kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside and delphinidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside. Contents of kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside and delphinidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside of 10 batches of samples were 44.21-58.73 mg·g~(-1) and 2.11-6.37 mg·g~(-1), respectively, and the similarities of 10 batches were more than 0.99. In addition, the color of the samples was digitized by using electronic eye technology, and it was found that the color of the samples was significantly correlated with the content of delphinidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside. The richness of flavonoids in SFB indicated its potential for development and utilization, and the large variation in anthocyanin content among samples from different regions suggested that more attention should be paid to the methods of sample pretreatment and storage.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Crocus , Flavonoids , Flowers , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
13.
Cad. Bras. Ter. Ocup ; 29: e2961, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1285782

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Occupational justice concept is defined as the equal access and participation in all occupations, including the resources required for participation and opportunities for social inclusion. Occupational justice not only remains conceptually ambiguous for occupational therapy practice but also lacks critical examination of its applicability to non-Western cultures. Objective This article describes the reflexive process exercised by the researchers during and after using the Occupational Justice Health Questionnaire (OJHQ) as an occupational therapy tool in a substance addiction rehabilitation setting in the Philippines. Method This qualitative study gathered transcriptions from field notes and focus group discussions of the authors. These transcriptions were characterized by the authors' reflections on their experiences using the OJHQ on four distinct periods: 1) OJHQ translation, 2) pilot testing, 3) OJHQ-Filipino version administration, and 4) project conclusion. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. Results Qualitative data revealed four themes: tool usefulness; administration guidelines; contextualized use of the tool; and nuances of occupational injustices in substance addiction and rehabilitation setting. Conclusion Findings expanded OJHQ's purpose to enhance clinical reasoning, promote justice-oriented health care, activate reflective practice, and recognize the interweaving and evolving nature of injustices. This article offers an understanding of how reflections can facilitate cultural adaptation of practice tools used in occupational therapy and justice practice.


RESUMO Introdução O conceito de justiça ocupacional é definido como a igualdade de acesso e participação em todas as ocupações, incluindo os recursos necessários para a participação e oportunidades de inclusão social. A justiça ocupacional não apenas permanece conceitualmente ambígua para a prática, mas também carece de um exame crítico de sua aplicabilidade a culturas não ocidentais. Objetivo Descrever o processo reflexivo dos pesquisadores durante e após o uso do Questionário de Saúde e Justiça Ocupacional (OJHQ), como uma ferramenta em terapia ocupacional em um ambiente de reabilitação para pessoas com dependência de substâncias psicoativas nas Filipinas. Método Estudo qualitativo baseado em notas reflexivas e grupos focais. As transcrições foram caracterizadas pelas reflexões dos autores sobre suas experiências usando o OJHQ em quatro períodos distintos: 1) Tradução do OJHQ, 2) teste piloto, 3) Administração da versão OJHQ-Filipino e 4) conclusão do projeto. Os dados foram analisados por meio de análise temática. Resultados Os dados qualitativos revelaram quatro temas: utilidade da ferramenta; diretrizes de administração; uso contextualizado da ferramenta; e nuances de injustiças ocupacionais no contexto de dependência de substâncias psicoativas e reabilitação. Conclusão Houve a expansão do propósito do OJHQ para aprimorar o raciocínio clínico, promover cuidados em saúde orientados para a justiça, ativar a prática reflexiva e reconhecer a natureza entrelaçada e evolutiva das injustiças. Compreende-se como as reflexões podem facilitar a adaptação cultural das ferramentas práticas utilizadas na terapia ocupacional com base em práticas de justiça.

14.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 25: e200788, 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346360

ABSTRACT

Pharmacists have important roles in mental health disease; however, their performance in Brazilian Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS) is unknown. This qualitative study was conducted in a CAPS, Brazil; using interviews and analyzes from the perspective of Bardin, in which categories arising from the perceptions of patients and the health team emerged in relation to the provision of the medication review with follow up (MR) service and the role of the pharmacist in mental health. According to the participants, the MR service is essential and important because it allows professional recognition, beyond the identification of professional attributes of the pharmacists. Moreover, there was a duality in the pharmacist's role between the logistic and clinical attributes of mental health. Thus, this perception helps to elucidate the pharmacist's process of work in mental health and supports future strategies of action in this area. (AU)


Farmacêuticos têm papéis importantes na área da saúde mental; entretanto, sua atuação nos Centros de Atenção Psicossociais (CAPS) brasileiros é desconhecida. Este estudo qualitativo foi realizado em um CAPS, Brasil; utilizando-se de entrevistas e análises sob a perspectiva de Bardin, no qual categorias em relação à prestação do serviço de acompanhamento farmacoterapêutico (AFT) e ao papel do farmacêutico na saúde mental emergiram através das percepções dos pacientes e equipe de saúde. Segundo os participantes, o serviço de AFT é essencial e importante porque permite o reconhecimento profissional, além da identificação dos atributos profissionais dos farmacêuticos. Além disso, houve uma dualidade no papel do farmacêutico em relação aos atributos logísticos e clínicos na saúde mental. Assim, essas percepções ajudam a elucidar o processo de trabalho do farmacêutico em saúde mental, subsidiando futuras estratégias de ação nesta área. (AU)


Los farmacéuticos tienen un papel importante en el área de la salud mental; sin embargo, se desconoce su desempeño en los Centros de Atención Psicosocial de Brasil (CAPS). Este estudio cualitativo se llevó a cabo en un CAPS, Brasil; utilizando entrevistas y análisis desde la perspectiva de Bardin, en las que de las percepciones de los pacientes y del equipo de salud surgieron categorías en relación a la prestación del servicio de seguimento farmacoterapéutico (SFT) y el papel del farmacéutico en la salud mental. Según los participantes, el servicio de SFT es fundamental e importante. Además, existía una dualidad en el rol del farmacéutico en relación a los atributos logísticos y clínicos en salud mental. Así, estas percepciones ayudan a dilucidar el proceso de trabajo del farmacéutico en salud mental, apoyando futuras estrategias de actuación. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Patient Care Team , Pharmacists/psychology , Mental Health , Continuity of Patient Care , Treatment Outcome , Evaluation Studies as Topic
15.
Pensam. psicol ; 18(2): 3-14, Jul.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154981

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo. Explorar las similitudes y diferencias de los tipos de motivación hacia la práctica de actividad física (AF) de adolescentes, adultos mayores y exdeportistas de élite, desde la Teoría de la Autodeterminación, para la creación de programas de AF. Método. La recolección de los datos se llevó a cabo mediante grupos focales: tres con adolescentes, dos con adultos mayores y uno con exdeportistas. En total, participaron 17 adolescentes, 14 adultos mayores y cuatro exdeportistas. Se realizó un análisis temático. Resultados. Para cada grupo se encontró un conjunto de factores de motivación autónoma, controlada y amotivacionales hacia la práctica de AF. En común, en los tres grupos estudiados, se identificaron la diversión, la socialización y la salud como factores de motivación hacia la práctica de AF. Conclusión. Las orientaciones para la creación de programas de AF para adolescentes se centraron en la individualización de sus objetivos y la percepción en la libertad de elección relacionada con cada AF. En adultos mayores, el enfoque fue hacia nuevas experiencias, considerando de forma significativa el perfil del monitor. Para el grupo de exdeportistas se propone que el punto de partida sea la reconceptualización de la práctica de AF después de la carrera deportiva.


Abstract Objective. To explore the similarities and differences between the types of motivation towards the practice of physical activity (PA) in different populations (adolescents, older adults and former elite athletes) for the creation of PA programs that reflect the particularities of those populations. Method. The qualitative data collection was carried out through focus groups; three groups with adolescents, two with older adults and one with former elite athletes. In total, 17 adolescents, 14 older adults and four former elite athletes participated in this study. A thematic analysis was conducted. Results. The results are shown based on autonomous, controlled motivation and amotivation towards the practice of physical activity for each group. Fun, socialization and health have been identified as motivating factors towards the PA practice common in the three groups studied. Conclusion. Orientations are proposed for the creation of PA programs. For adolescents, the proposal would include the individualization of their objectives and the perception of the freedom of choice in relation to the PA. For the group of older adults, it is important to offer new experiences, taking into account the profile of the monitor. For the group of former elite athletes, the proposed starting point would be the reconceptualization of the PA practice after the athletic career.


Resumo Escopo. Explorar as similitudes e as diferencias dos tipos de motivação para a prática física (AF) de adolescentes, idosos, e ex-atletas de elite, desde a Teoria da Autodeterminação, para a criação de programas de AF. Metodologia. A recolecção de dados foi feita em grupos focais: três com adolescentes, dois com idosos e um com ex-atletas. Foi realizada uma análise temática. Resultados. Para cada grupo foi encontrado um conjunto de fatores de motivação autónoma, controlada e amotivacionais para a prática de AF. Em comum, nos três grupos estudados, foram identificadas a diversão, a socialização e a saúde como fatores de motivação para a prática de AF. Conclusão. As orientações para a criação de programas de AF para adolescentes estiveram centradas na individualização dos seus escopos e a percepção na liberdade de eleição relacionada com cada AF. Nos idosos, o enfoque foi para as novas experiências, considerando de forma significativa o perfil do monitor. Para o grupo de ex-atletas se propõe que o ponto de partida seja a reconceptualização da prática de AF depois da carreira esportiva.

16.
Acta méd. peru ; 37(4): 463-470, oct-dic 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278167

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos: analizar y discutir las barreras para diagnóstico y tratamiento de cáncer de cuello uterino (CCU) en un hospital público de Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos: se llevó a cabo un estudio cualitativo entre los meses de diciembre 2019 y marzo 2020. Observación y entrevistas a profundidad fueron las herramientas de recojo de información empleadas. En total, 15 entrevistas a profundidad con pacientes y distintos miembros del personal de salud fueron realizadas. Resultados: para los diferentes miembros del personal de salud, las barreras se centran en la falta de personal y mejora de las infraestructuras hospitalarias. Esto ocasiona un debilitamiento en campañas de educación sobre la importancia del tamizaje para la prevención del CCU. Para las pacientes, los tiempos, el desconocimiento y el miedo a exponerse ante un personal de salud varón, son las principales barreras para la toma de decisiones en salud respecto a la prevención y cuidado de CCU. Conclusiones: la débil infraestructura hospitalaria repercute en actividades de educación y promoción sobre CCU. También impacta el tiempo de entrega de resultados de pruebas de tamizaje y el acceso a citas ginecológicas. Estas demoras generan ausencias y discontinuidad en el autocuidado de las mujeres. Esta realidad, sumada al desconocimiento sobre la gravedad del CCU por parte de las pacientes y a la priorización de responsabilidades laborales y domésticas, invitan a reflexionar sobre el insuficiente trabajo del sistema de salud en relación al manejo de esta enfermedad.


ABSTRACT Objectives: To analyze and discuss barriers for diagnosis and therapy of cervical cancer (CC) in a public hospital in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods: A qualitative study was performed between December 2019 and March 2020. Observation and detailed interviews were the data collection tools used. In total, 15 detailed interviews with patients and healthcare personnel were carried out. Results: For healthcare personnel interviewed, barriers (for good care) are basically lack of personnel and poor hospital infrastructure. This leads to weakening educational campaigns with respect to the importance of adequate screening for CC prevention. For patients, time limitations, lack of knowledge and fear of being exposed to a male healthcare worker are the main barriers for healthcare proper decision making with respect to CC prevention and management. Conclusions: The weak Peruvian hospital infrastructure influences educational and promotional activities dedicated to CC. There is also an impact of the time for obtaining results of screening tests and access to gynecological consultation. These delays lead to absence and discontinuation in women self care. All this, additionally to lack of knowledge about CC severity by patients, and also because of prioritization of their working and household tasks, may lead us to reflect on an insufficient performance of our healthcare system with respect to management of this disease.

17.
Pers. bioet ; 24(1): 43-56, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1279521

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este estudio tiene como propósito describir aspectos éticos relacionados con la atención de enfermería en personas con discapacidad, población considerada socialmente vulnerable y reconocida en condiciones de desigualdad. Corresponde a una primera fase de estudio primario realizado en la región de Atacama, Chile, que utilizó metodología cualitativa y análisis de contenido. Se realizan entrevistas a profesionales de enfermería respetando los criterios éticos de Ezekiel Emanuel. Los principales hallazgos dan cuenta de las categorías ontológicas: razonamiento moral, sistema de valores, modelo de relación enfermera-paciente, consecuencias de la acción ética de enfermería, estrategias para superar conflictos morales y barreras en el cuidado. Se concluye que cuidar personas con discapacidad es fuente de dilema y angustia moral para los profesionales de enfermería, especialmente cuando se trata de sujetos con discapacidad sensitiva o cognitiva. El modelo médico paternalista predomina en el contexto clínico, lo que limita el derecho a la autonomía de las personas con discapacidad. A los valores morales tradicionales promovidos por los profesionales de enfermería se suman valores instrumentales como la eficiencia. No se mencionan valores cívicos considerados fundamentales ante el desafío de la diversidad humana y la vida en democracia.


Abstract The purpose of the study is to describe ethical aspects related to nursing care for persons with disabilities; a population considered socially vulnerable and in conditions of inequality. It corresponds to the first phase of a primary study conducted in Atacama, Chile using a qualitative methodology and content analysis. Nursing graduates are interviewed respecting Ezekiel Emanuel's ethical criteria. The main findings account for ontological categories such as moral reasoning, value system, nurse-patient relationship model, consequences of the ethical nursing action, strategies to overcome moral conflicts, and barriers in care. It is concluded that caring for people with disabilities is a source of dilemma and moral anguish for nurses, especially when it comes to individuals with sensitive or cognitive disabilities. The paternalistic medical model predominates in the clinical context, limiting the right to autonomy of persons with disabilities. Instrumental values such as efficiency are added to traditional moral values promoted by nurses. Civic values considered fundamental to the challenge of human diversity and life in democracy are not mentioned.


Resumo Este estudo tem como objetivo descrever aspectos éticos relacionados com a atenção de enfermagem em pessoas com deficiência, população considerada socialmente vulnerável e reconhecida em condições de desigualdade. Corresponde a uma primeira fase de estudo realizado na região de Atacama, Chile, que utilizou metodologia qualitativa e análise de conteúdo. Foram realizadas entrevistas com profissionais de enfermagem, respeitando os critérios éticos de Ezekiel Emanuel. Os principais achados evidenciam as categorias ontológicas: raciocínio moral, sistema de valores, modelo de relação enfermeiro-paciente, consequências da ação ética de enfermagem, estratégias para superar conflitos morais e barreiras no cuidado. Conclui-se que cuidar de pessoas com deficiência é fonte de dilema e angústia moral para os profissionais de enfermagem, especialmente quando se trata de pessoas com deficiência sensitiva ou cognitiva. O modelo médico paternalista predomina no contexto clínico, o que limita o direito à autonomia das pessoas com deficiência. Aos valores morais tradicionais promovidos pelos profissionais de enfermagem, somam-se valores instrumentais como a eficiência. Não são mencionados valores cívicos considerados fundamentais ante o desafio da diversidade humana e a vida na democracia.


Subject(s)
Nursing , Disabled Persons , Social Vulnerability , Disaster Vulnerability , Ethical Theory , Ethics , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Professionalism , Nursing Care
18.
Acta méd. costarric ; 62(2)jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383318

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Analizar barreras y facilitadores relacionados con el diagnóstico de la lepra en Costa Rica, desde la perspectiva de la persona con la enfermedad y en el contexto de la vida cotidiana. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio cualitativo de carácter exploratorio a partir de 25 entrevistas semiestructuradas, a personas con lepra o con antecedente de haberla padecido, de entre 23 y 88 años, atendidos en el sistema de salud público costarricense. A partir del análisis de los datos cualitativos, las barreras y facilitadores se agruparon en factores personales, culturales y la oferta de los servicios de salud. Resultados: En relación con los factores personales, la mayoría de los participantes reportó no poseer conocimiento ni conciencia previa a la enfermedad. El temor a ser estigmatizado, la sintomatología intermitente, sentirse bien, compromisos laborales y familiares, fueron percibidos como barreras. Entre los factores culturales, algunas creencias religiosas fueron percibidas como barreras, y la historia familiar de lepra como facilitador en términos de la búsqueda de atención y diagnóstico. Con respecto a los servicios de salud, el acceso oportuno a citas con personal de salud informado, la telemedicina y médicos de la familia, fueron citados como facilitadores. Conclusiones: Las principales barreras y facilitadores descritos en los resultados del estudio deben ser tomados en cuenta a fin de contribuir a la detección y tratamiento oportuno de la lepra, para curar la enfermedad, evitar la discapacidad y eliminar la transmisión.


Abstract Objective: To analyze barriers and facilitators related to the diagnosis of leprosy in Costa Rica from the perspective of the person with the disease and in the context of everyday life. Methods: A qualitative exploratory study was carried out from 25 semi-structured interviews, with people with leprosy or with a history of having it, aged between 23 - 88 years, treated in the Costa Rican public health system. From the analysis of the qualitative data, the barriers and facilitators were classified into personal, cultural factors and the offer of health services. Results: In relation to personal factors, most of the participants reported having no knowledge or awareness prior to the disease. Fear of being stigmatized, intermittent symptoms, feeling good, work and family commitments were perceived as barriers. Among the cultural factors, some religious beliefs were perceived as barriers and the family history of leprosy as a facilitator in terms of seeking care and diagnosis. With respect to health services, timely access to appointments with informed health personnel, telemedicine and family doctors were cited as facilitators. Conclusions: The main barriers and facilitators described in the results of the study should be considered in order to contribute to the detection and timely treatment of leprosy to cure the disease avoid disability and eliminate transmission.

19.
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 17(2)jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386881

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: caracterizar el proceso de implementación de la Política Nacional para el Control de la Tuberculosis, en Costa Rica, 2012-2015. Métodos: se utilizó la estrategia política de Monitoreo y Evaluación (M&E) con la finalidad de analizar los objetivos del programa según su contexto y los indicadores obtenidos durante el período 2012-2015. Se planteó un estudio instrumental de caso para saber cuáles componentes de la política se han utilizado y así comprender el proceso de implementación. Se recolectó la información por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas a las personas tomadoras de decisiones y al personal encargado de la implementación de la política. Resultados: Costa Rica para el año 2015 tuvo 8.13 casos reportados de tuberculosis (TB) por 100 000 habitantes. Además, cumplió con la meta del 85 % del tratamiento exitoso; no obstante, el porcentaje de curación fue del 60 % y el porcentaje de fallecimiento del 6.55 %. Conclusiones: se concluye que el país no realiza las estrategias de colaboración establecidas por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, no existe coordinación intersectorial ni trabajo interinstitucional con las demás entidades que forman parte del Sistema de Salud y no se ha logrado involucrar a la comunidad ni a instituciones sociales.


Summary Aim: To characterize the implementation process of the National Policy of Tuberculosis Control in Costa Rica 2012-2015. Methods: The Monitoring and Evaluation Strategy (M&E) was used in order to analyze the objectives of the program according to the context and to obtained indicators for 2012-2015. A case study was proposed to know which components of the policy had been used and to comprehend the implementation process. The information was collected through semi-structured interviews to policy makers and implementers of the policy. Results: In 2015, Costa Rica had 8.13 reported cases of tuberculosis per 100 000 people. The country achieved the 85 % of successful treatment; however, the cure rate was 60 % and the death rate was 6.55 %. Conclusions: The country did not perform the recommended collaborative strategies by Pan American Health Organization, did not have inter-sectorial coordination or inter-institutional work with other institutions from the Health System, and did not achieve the participation of the community or the social institutions in the program.

20.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(1): 242-244, Mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088084

ABSTRACT

Qualitative research methodologies can be of great contribution in health sciences. Knowing the different approaches, characteristics of the sample selection and forms of data analysis facilitates the choice of tools to use. This article aims to deliver the main features in these areas.


Las metodologías de investigación cualitativas pueden ser de gran aporte en ciencias de la salud. El conocer las distintas aproximaciones, características de la selección de la muestra y formas de análisis de datos, facilita la elección de las herramientas a utilizar. Este artículo tiene como objetivo entregar las características principales en estas áreas


Subject(s)
Humans , Data Collection , Qualitative Research , Health Sciences
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