Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 456
Filter
1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 514-524, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922928

ABSTRACT

Rhei Rhizoma is commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine with multiple botanical origins. Different botanical sources may have different pharmacological activities. The germplasm resources of commercial Rhei Rhizoma were determined based on the chloroplast gene matK, and the anthraquinone and free anthraquinone content was determined by UPLC to analyze quality of commercial Rhei Rhizoma. Eighty-nine commercial Rhei Rhizoma samples were collected from 40 cities in 27 provinces. DNA was extracted and the matK gene was amplified by PCR. Results indicated that the collected samples were from the same botanical origin, Rheum palmatum, and 8 genotypes were identified, including Rp1, Rp2, Rp3, Rp4, Rp5, Rp6, Rp10 and Rp12. Rp4 and Rp6, cultivated in Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces were the main circulating genotypes, representing 40.45% and 37.08% of the total samples, respectively. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the eight genotypes were mainly divided into two branches, of which the main genotypes Rp4 and Rp6 were in one branch. Genetic distance analysis indicated that the genetic separation of the eight genotypes was between 0.001 and 0.010. UPLC analysis indicated that 93.26% of the samples met the Pharmacopoeia standards. There were significant differences in the content of total anthraquinone and free anthraquinone among the samples, in which the difference in free anthraquinone was 1.01% and the difference in total anthraquinone content was 3.79%, indicating that the quality of commercial Rhei Rhizoma samples varies considerably. There was no significant difference in the content of total anthraquinone and free anthraquinone in commercial Rhei Rhizoma among different collection provinces and genotypes. This study will help guide the circulation of Rhei Rhizoma in the market and provides valuable insights for molecular identification and quality analysis of other traditional Chinese medicines.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 460-466, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922922

ABSTRACT

Based on the similar structure of adrenaline shared by higenamine (HI), salsolinol (SA) and coryneine (CO), a photochemical colorimetric sensor based on the displacement reaction of o-diphenol hydroxyl group and alizarin red S-phenylboric acid system was constructed to quickly distinguish and identify the cardiac strength of Shengfupian. The results show that the optimal condition of the sensor is: the molar ratio of alizarin red S (ARS) to phenylboric acid (PA) is 1∶3, reaction temperature is 0 ℃; The preparation method of the sample solution is optimized as follows: 2.5 g of Shengfupian powder was taken, 10 times the amount of methanol was added, and 300 W, 40 kHz ultrasound was carried out for 15 min; methodological studies showed that the method had good precision, repeatability and stability. The |△G| value (G is green, |△G| = |G after - G before|) of each sample was obtained by response values determination of 14 batches of Shengfupian. LC-MS/MS was used to determine the contents of three cardiac components in Shengfupian. It was found that the order of the total contents of cardiotonic components was basically consistent with |△G|. Then the correlation was analyzed, and the correlation coefficient R2 was as high as 0.87, which proved the scientificity and accuracy of this method. This study fills the methodological gap of rapid evaluation of the quality of Shengfupian, and provides the key technical support for the high quality and good price of Shengfupian in the market circulation and clinical application.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 775-782, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922890

ABSTRACT

To establish a quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS) for the determination of Aster souliei Franch., the relative correction factors (fx) of neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, quercetin, apigenin and kaempferol were established by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with chlorogenic acid as internal reference. Meanwhile, the content of each component was determined by the external standard method (ESM) and QAMS, and a linear regression model was established to verify the feasibility and accuracy of the QAMS. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and orthogonal partial least square discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to evaluate the quality of 23 batches of A. souliei. The results showed that the repeatability of each fx was good. The average content of neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, quercetin, apigenin and kaempferol in 23 batches of A. souliei by QAMS was 0.165, 0.234, 6.115, 0.478, 0.484, 3.359, 1.382, 0.210, 0.172, and 0.057 mg·g-1, respectively. The mean content determined by the ESM method was 0.163, 0.235, 6.172, 0.479, 0.483, 3.343, 1.413, 0.207, 0.171, and 0.056 mg·g-1. The results of HCA and OPLS-DA analysis show that 23 batches of A. souliei can be divided into two groups based on caffeic acid content. The content of the first group was between 0.873 to 5.647 mg·g-1, while the second was between 8.524 to 16.705 mg·g-1. This QAMS method can be used to simply and quickly evaluate the quality A. souliei.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909007

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish a suitable quality evaluation index system of open online courses in military continuing education.Methods:A primary index system program was established through literature review and small expert meeting. Delphi method was used to conduct a letter consultation among 50 experts, and the index system was revised according to the experts' advice and they consulted again until a broad agreement was reached.Results:After two rounds of letter consultation, the recognition rate of 43 experts on the naming and connotation of the indexes reached more than 95%, and their opinions basically reached a consensus. The variation coefficients of the index weights were distributed between 0.00 and 0.10, with a high degree of concentration. A quality evaluation index system of open online courses in military continuing education has been established, including 4 first-level indexes: curriculum design, curriculum production, online operation and curriculum effect, 10 second-level indexes, and 25 third-level indexes.Conclusion:The quality evaluation index system could provide a basis for evaluating online course quality scientifically and offer better educational resources and teaching services.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908926

ABSTRACT

Objective:To systematically sort out and cluster the existing indicators of key issues in the quality of postgraduate clinical degree education based on the bibliometric study, so as to build a multidimensional quality assessment index system that integrates scientificity, rationality and representativeness, and to provide a scientific measurement tool for assessing clinical professional postgraduate education in China.Methods:By mining the related functions of UCINET6 network analysis integration software and its one-dimensional and two-dimensional data analysis NetDraw program, the social network analysis (SNA) method was used to extract and cluster the education quality problem set of clinical professional degree postgraduates.Results:A three-dimensional evaluation index system was constructed. The first dimension concluded such 8 key issues in the quality of postgraduate education in clinical medicine as ability assessment, teaching system, teaching quality assurance system, professional cognition and career prospects, assessment and evaluation system and organization, and the pulse taking and diagnosis.Conclusion:The clinical graduate education quality evaluation index system is an effective measurement tool for education quality improvement, based on a multidimensional perspective, with key issues as priority areas for intervention, providing an effective evidence-based basis for ensuring the development of professional graduate education efforts from 2020-2025.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908139

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compile the evaluation scale of the quality of education in the clinical practice base of full-time Master of Specialist Nursing (MNS) based on student participation and the SERVQUAL model, evaluate the quality of clinical practice base, and provide reference for the evaluation of clinical practice base.Methods:Based on the theory of student participation and the SERVQUAL model, the evaluation scale of the educational quality of clinical practice base of MNS was constructed. By facilitating sampling methods, 176 MNS students from 11 universities in 6 provinces were selected, and a questionnaire of self-compiled general information and a survey of the evaluation scale of education quality of MNS clinical practice base were distributed.Results:The evaluation scale of education quality of clinical practice base of MNS contained 28 entries in five dimensions: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, guarantee and empathy. The total Cronbach alpha coefficient of the scale was from 0.983 to 0.987, item level content validity index was from 0.92 to 0.96, scale level content validity index was 1 and the correlated coefficient of the structural validity Pearson was from 0.785 to 0.966. To explore factor analysis, the dimension value of the scale KMO value was greater than 0.7, and the expected part and the actual feel part KMO value were 0.956 and 0.963 respectively. The number of common factors was 2 and 3 respectively, and the cumulative interpretation variation was 79.1% and 78.4% respectively.The actual perception of the quality of education in the clinical practice base of MNS was lower than expected, and the differences in entries were statistically significant ( P<0.05). The analysis of multiple linear regression showed that the teaching time and level of clinical practice base undertaken by clinical practice base were the main factors affecting the expectation and actual feeling value ( P<0.05). The importance performance analysis analysis found that 11 entries were in the advantage zone, 3 entries were in the maintenance area, 12 entries were in the minor improvement area and 2 entries were in the priority improvement area. Conclusions:The evaluation scale of the quality of education of the clinical practice base of MNS have good confidence and validity. The actual degree of educational quality of the clinical practice base of MNS is lower than expected. The teaching time and level of clinical practice base undertaken by clinical practice base are the main factors that affect expectation and actual feeling. It is urgent to improve the theoretical knowledge and practice level of tutors and deal with occupational exposure experienced by MNS students.

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3414-3420, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906837

ABSTRACT

The quality evaluation of compound Chinese medicines is an important but challenging issue in this research field, which has been paid much controversial due to the constrained association with clinical efficacy. Developing a methodology for quality evaluation of compound Chinese medicines related to clinical efficacy is an important measure in research on Chinese material medica quality to ensure clinical effectiveness and safety. Therefore, based on the research concept that "originating from clinic-testing in experiment-returning to clinic", and taking Xiaoke prescription as an example, the characteristic information of metabolome, proteome and microbiome are discussed from the clinical aspect, and the integrated markers associated with clinical efficacy constructed with artificial intelligence technology. Taking the integrated markers as the link and indication are connecting the clinical and basic, the main pharmacodynamic substances and key targets of Xiaoke prescription that are related to clinical efficacy are explained. Clinical samples are used for validation. Based on the main pharmacodynamic substances and key targets, methods and key technologies for chemical and biological evaluation of the quality of Xiaoke prescription are established, providing a methodology for quality evaluation of compound Chinese medicines, including clinical efficacy response indicators (related to clinic), main pharmacodynamic substances (chemical evaluation), and key targets (biological evaluation), to provide new ideas and methods for improving the quality evaluation of compound Chinese medicines.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906536

ABSTRACT

Citri Reticulatae Semen is a traditional Chinese medicine in our country. By referring to the relevant literature and materials such as the works of ancient and modern materia medica, this paper summarizes the historical evolution of processing, quality analysis, pharmacological effects and other aspects of Citri Reticulatae Semen. The results showed that the processing methods of Citri Reticulatae Semen in the past dynasties mainly included stir-frying, processing with wine, baking with wine, etc. The modern stir-baking with salt solution was developed on the basis of the ancient stir-frying with green salt, most of the national and provincial processing standards contained crude and salt-processed products of Citri Reticulatae Semen. The properties and flavors of Citri Reticulatae Semen in the past dynasties were basically consistent with those in modern times. It is bitter in taste and neutral in nature. It belongs to the liver and kidney meridians and has the effects of regulating Qi, dispersing knots and relieving pain. Citri Reticulatae Semen contains limonins, fatty acids, proteins and mineral elements, etc. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were commonly used to detect and analyze Citri Reticulatae Semen. Citri Reticulatae Semen has anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibacterial activities, and processing can change the content of its chemical components to a certain extent. In a word, the current research about Citri Reticulatae Semen is not enough in-depth, it is necessary to further analyze the material basis of efficacy of Citri Reticulatae Semen and its processed products, explore the change law of chemical components before and after processing and the relationship between chemical composition and activity, and clarify the processing mechanism for providing scientific basis for its standardized processing, quality control and clinical rational use.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906532

ABSTRACT

Quality evaluation based on character identification of traditional Chinese medicinal materials is the wisdom crystallization of the long-term medication experience of the pharmacists in the past dynasties, and is a quality evaluation system with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Because of its simple language, easy to understand and easy to operate, it plays an important guiding role in the quality evaluation of TCM. Modern electronic sensory apparatus technology can realize the objective expression of TCM characters. Some scholars correlated their expression results with the contents of the main chemical components in TCM, proving that quality evaluation based on character identification of traditional Chinese medicinal materials has a certain scientific basis. However, the scientific connotation of quality evaluation based on character identification of traditional Chinese medicinal materials has not yet been clearly clarified. There is a lack of systematic research on which characters of TCM can truly reflect its quality. Therefore, the author summarizes quality evaluation based on character identification of traditional Chinese medicinal materials from three aspects. It makes clear that the idea of quality evaluation based on character identification of traditional Chinese medicinal materials is derived from analogical thinking, and combs the four stages of germination, development, prosperity and maturity experienced in its formation process, summarizes the modern research progress of this theory, clarifies that the role of the theory in evaluating the quality of medicinal materials, guiding the classification of commodity specifications, and harvesting and processing of medicinal materials. It is recommended that the follow-up should be strengthened on the research of quality evaluation based on character identification of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, make full use of electronic sensory instruments, liquid-mass spectrometry, biological efficacy evaluation and other technologies, strengthen the objective description of the characteristics of TCM, and attach importance to the analysis of the correlation between the overall characteristics of TCM and its efficacy, and establish a new research model related to the characteristics-active ingredients-pharmaceutical effects of TCM, in order to elucidate the scientific connotation of quality evaluation based on character identification of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, so as to better serve the quality evaluation of TCM.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906466

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint of branches of <italic>Juglans mandshurica</italic> and to evaluate the quality of the samples from different producing areas and in different harvest periods. Method:Chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Poroshell 120 SB-C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 2.7 μm) for gradient elution with mobile phase of 0.2% formic acid solution (A)-0.2% formic acid acetonitrile solution (B) (0-5 min, 5%-10%B; 5-25 min, 10%-16%B; 25-40 min, 16%-22%B; 40-45 min, 22%-45%B; 45-50 min, 45%-65%B; 50-52 min, 65%-100%B; 52-55 min, 100%B) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>. The column temperature was 30 ℃ and the detection wavelength was 270 nm. The quality of branches of <italic>Juylans mandshurica</italic> was evaluated by similarity evaluation, cluster analysis, principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. The chemical constituents of the samples were identified by HPLC coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). The mass spectrometry was conducted in negative ion mode with electrospray ionization(ESI). Data were acquired over a range of <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 100-1 700 for MS and <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 50-1 700 for MS/MS. Result:A total of 19 common peaks were confirmed in 40 batches of samples, and the similarity ranged from 0.430 to 0.995, of which the similarity of samples collected in spring and winter seasons (April, May and December) was greater than 0.90, while the similarity of most samples collected in summer (July to September) was low. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the samples were divided into two groups according to the harvest time, but there was no obvious classification rule for the samples from different producing areas. The contents of most constituents in the samples collected in spring and winter were higher than those collected in summer. The result illustrated that different harvest periods had great influence on the quality of branches of <italic>J</italic>.<italic> mandshurica</italic>. Compared with the samples collected in summer, the quality of samples collected in spring and winter was better. A total of 22 peaks were proved to be the main constituents that contributed to the difference between samples collected in different seasons. A total of 83 chemical components were identified by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS, including 49 tannins, 7 organic acids, 14 naphthalene derivatives, 1 flavonoid, 6 anthracene derivatives, 2 lignans, 3 diarylheptanoids and 1 saccharide. Totally 13 common peaks were identified. Of the peaks that contributed to discriminate samples collected in different season, 19 peaks were identified and most of them were tannins. Conclusion:The established HPLC fingerprint can provide useful information for the quality evaluation of branches of <italic>J</italic>.<italic> mandshurica</italic>. Tannin is the main constituents in the samples. Harvest period has great influence on the quality of branches of <italic>J</italic>.<italic> mandshurica</italic>.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906444

ABSTRACT

The historical evolution, fermentation technology and key links of Sojae Semen Praeparatum (SSP) were sorted out by consulting ancient books and modern literature, and the influencing factors and control methods of quality were analyzed and summarized in order to provide reference for the quality control of SSP. After analysis, it was found that in the fermentation process of SSP, fermentation strains, miscellaneous bacteria, temperature and humidity were all important factors affecting the quality of SSP. The condition control of "post fermentation" process has been paid more attention to in the past dynasties. In addition, the delicious SSP recognized in ancient times should be made from mold fermentation, and the breeding and application of fermented mold may be the key point to solve the quality problem of SSP. Therefore, based on the evaluation indexes of SSP in the past dynasties, it is of great significance to study and optimize the technological conditions such as strain, temperature and humidity in depth to improve the quality of SSP.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906438

ABSTRACT

Objective:To provide a scientific basis for the classification of Phyllanthi Fructus product grades. Method:A total of 30 batches of Phyllanthi Fructus currently available in the market were collected for quantification based on such appearance indexes as diameter, thickness, grain weight, and crust colour (<italic>L</italic><sup>*</sup>, <italic>a</italic><sup>*</sup>, and <italic>b</italic><sup>*</sup> values). The contents of gallic acid, corilagin, chebulagic acid, and ellagic acid were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), followed by descriptive statistical analysis (DSA), analysis of variance (ANOVA), and principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the importance of each main index and explore the correlations between the appearance indexes and internal components. The classification standard of Phyllanthi Fructus product grades was formulated, and its scientificity was verified in hepatocelular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Result:The correlation analysis revealed that the crust colour <italic>L</italic><sup>*</sup>, <italic>a</italic><sup>*</sup>, and <italic>b</italic><sup>*</sup> values were significantly negatively correlated with corilagin, chebulagic acid, and ellagic acid (<italic>|r|</italic>>0.5, <italic>P</italic><0.01), but irrelevant to gallic acid (<italic>|r|</italic><0.1). Considering the variable coefficient of each index, PCA results, and the requirement of gallic acid as quality indicator for Phyllanthi Fructus in <italic>Chinese Pharmacopoeia</italic>, the crust colour <italic>L</italic><sup>*</sup>, <italic>a</italic><sup>*</sup>, and <italic>b</italic><sup>*</sup> values and gallic acid content were determined to be the classification indexes. The K-means cluster analysis confirmed that products with crust colour <italic>L</italic><sup>*</sup><44, <italic>a</italic><sup>*</sup><7, and <italic>b</italic><sup>*</sup><10 and gallic acid content >1.6% could be classified into the first class, and those failing to meet the above requirements into the second class. The cell experiment demonstrated that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) of the first-class product against hepatocelular carcinoma HepG2 cells was lower than that of the second-class product. A colourimetric card was developed based on crust colour <italic>L</italic><sup>*</sup>, <italic>a</italic><sup>*</sup>, and <italic>b</italic><sup>*</sup> values to provide a visual tool for on-site evaluation of Phyllanthi Fructus products. Conclusion:This study has initially established the classification standard of Phyllanthi Fructus product grades, which contributes to guiding price negotiation of Phyllanthi Fructus products based on quality grade and thus ensuring high quality and high price.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906387

ABSTRACT

Objective:A comprehensive and in-depth analysis method for identification of chemical constituents in Suanzaoren Tang granules was established. Method:Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was employed with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) for gradient elution (0-8 min, 5%-17%B; 8-10 min, 17%B; 10-11 min, 17%-18%B; 11-12 min, 18%-20%B; 12-17 min, 20%-23%B; 17-22 min, 23%-33%B; 22-30 min, 33%-60%B; 30-32 min, 60%-100%B; 32-36 min, 100%B), the flow rate of 0.3 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> and electrospray ionization (ESI). High quality MS/MS data were scanned in positive and negative ion modes with scanning range of <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 50-1 500. The local database of the chemical components from different Chinese medicines in Suanzaoren Tang granules was established by SCIEX OS software. Then the chemical components in Suanzaoren Tang granules were characterized by matching with the local database and comparing with the reference substance and literature information. Result:A total of 134 compounds were characterized and identified under positive and negative ion modes, mainly including flavonoids, triterpenoids, phthalides, steroidal saponins, alkaloids and organic phenolic acids. In addition, the sources of Chinese medicines for all compounds identified in Suanzaoren Tang granules were assigned. Among them, 41 were from Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, 11 were from Poria, 22 were from Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, 28 were from Chuanxiong Rhizoma and 35 were from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Conclusion:The method can be used to identify the chemical constituents in Suanzaoren Tang granules systematically, quickly and accurately, which can provide a new strategy for the rapid and accurate identification of other Chinese patent medicines.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906372

ABSTRACT

Visci Herba, a commonly used Chinese medicinal, was often mistaken as Taxilli Herba in ancient Chinese materia medica. The two Chinese medicinals have often been confused even in present clinical practice, and their origins are difficult to be identified. Hence, it is necessary to carry out systematic and in-depth textual research. This paper explored the origin, producing area, quality evaluation, harvesting and processing, property, flavor, and efficacy of Visci Herba based on ancient Chinese materia medica of the past dynasties and modern plant morphology, so as to provide evidence for the development and utilization of Visci Herba. The findings demonstrated that Visci Herba was mostly recorded as Taxilli Herba until the name of Visci Herba appeared in the Tang Dynasty. The records of the two Chinese medicinals could be traced back to the Song Dynasty. Visci Herba and Taxilli Herba were officially listed as two different Chinese medicinals in the 1977 edition Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the first time, where the origin of Visci Herba was determined to be Viscum coloratum(Komar.)Nakai. According to the ancient Chinese materia medica, V. coloratum was mainly distributed in Lingbao, Henan province and Xuzhou, Jiangsu province and now it mostly grows in Northeast China and North China. In ancient times, Visci Herba with deep yellow cross-section and sticky fruit juice on the tree was preferred, which was often harvested on 3, March in spring, dried in the shade, grinded together with the roots, branches, stems, and leaves using the copper file, and preserved away from fire. By contrast, it is now usually harvested from winter to the next spring and then cut into sections for drying after the removal of thick stems, or dried after being steamed. As described in ancient Chinese materia medica, Visci Herba, bitter and sweet in flavor, neutral in property, possessed the effects of dispelling rheumatism, tonifying kidney, strengthening sinews and bones, benefiting blood vessels, and preventing abortion, basically consistent with its modern functions of dispelling rheumatism, tonifying liver and kidney, strengthening sinews and bones, and preventing abortion.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906351

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the treasure of the Chinese nation. As an important raw material for clinical treatment of diseases, Chinese materia medica plays an extremely important role. However, in the process of transformation from traditional wild collection of animals and plants to modern artificial cultivation and industrial production of preparations, whether the quality of Chinese materia medica is fully transferred will directly affect the quality and clinical efficacy of Chinese materia medica preparation. From the field to the sickbed, process control of quality transfer of Chinese materia medica is the key to guarantee quality and curative effect. In this paper, the whole process that affects the quality of Chinese materia medica preparations such as seed and seedling, planting and breeding, harvesting and processing, processing of decoction pieces and preparation production was analyzed. Paying attention to the whole process of quality control of Chinese materia medica is of great significance to improve the quality of Chinese materia medica preparations and promote the rapid development of TCM. Based on this, the author intended to analyze the key control links in the quality transfer process of Chinese materia medica (breeding, planting areas and field management, timely harvesting and intensive primary processing, appropriate processing, optimization of preparation technology, standardization of packaging and informationization of storage and transportation), in order to provide reference for the design and development of Chinese materia medica preparations guided by clinical value.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906290

ABSTRACT

Plantaginis Semen is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) commonly used in China, which is one of the authentic medicinal materials in Jiangxi. It has great development prospects. However, the current research on Plantaginis Semen is not in-depth enough, mainly involving chemical components and pharmacological activities. There are few researches on processing and variety of Plantaginis Semen. In order to further develop and utilize the resources of Plantaginis Semen, we summarized 4 varieties that have been studied more at present, the processing contents of Plantaginis Semen in ancient and modern literature were consulted and sorted out, and its processing historical evolution were summarized. The influences of different processing technologies and methods on the chemical composition and pharmacological effects of Plantaginis Semen were analyzed, the possible processing mechanism was discussed. Meanwhile, and the quality evaluation methods of Plantaginis Semen varieties included in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia were summarized. The author mainly analyzed the researches status of Plantaginis Semen and its decoction pieces in the three aspects of variety, processing and quality evaluation, and summarized its current major problems such as insufficient use and development of varieties, unclear processing mechanisms, and undetermined quality evaluation standards. And combined with the national standardization project of TCM to carry out the prospect and analysis for it, in order to solve the problems in the actual production and use of Plantaginis Semen, and provide reference for its further development, production of the high-quality decoction pieces, analysis of the processing mechanism, and establishment of the quality control system.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906229

ABSTRACT

Sojae Semen Germinatum was firstly recorded in Shennong Bencaojing, and it has a long history of edible and medicinal use. Most ancient medical practitioners described that Sojae Semen Germinatum was processed with black soya bean, while some others recorded that Sojae Semen Germinatum was processed with black soya bean and soybean or with soybean only. In modern times, black soya bean and soybean are both used. Before the Northern and Southern dynasties, the germination process of Sojae Semen Germinatum was mostly soil culture, and then changed into water culture later. The medicinal part of Sojae Semen Germinatum may also change from the initial aboveground part to the whole processed products including the soybean and the bud. The bud length was used to control the processing ending of Sojae Semen Germinatum, but there were different views of the bud length in ancient and modern times. Before the Tang dynasty, Sojae Semen Germinatum was mostly used directly. Since the Tang dynasty, various subsequent processed products of Sojae Semen Germinatum appeared. Most ancient medical practitioners confirmed that Sojae Semen Germinatum was sweet flavor, neutral in nature and non-toxic, and the mainstream believed that it belonged to the spleen, lung and stomach meridians. However, there were different opinions on its efficacy of relieving exterior syndrome by diaphoresis. In this paper, the evolution of Sojae Semen Germinatum was explored after consulting all kinds of ancient books, its historical name, processing history, quality evaluation and others were systematically summarized in order to clarify its historical development and lay a good foundation for the clinical use and further development of Sojae Semen Germinatum.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906118

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish and apply a new practical analytical method for identifying the fishy odor of Cordyceps based on headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-QQQ-MS/MS) technique. Method:The InertCap Pure-WAX capillary column (0.25 mm×30 m, 0.25 μm) was used for chromatographic separation. The injection port temperature was set at 250 ℃. The injection mode was split injection with a ratio of 5∶1. High purity helium was used as the carrier gas and control mode was set to constant pressure. The column flow rate was 1.43 mL∙min<sup>-1</sup>, the linear velocity was 43.3 cm∙s<sup>-1</sup>, and the purge flow rate was 3.0 mL∙min<sup>-1</sup>. The chromatographic column temperature program as follows:maintained the initial temperature at 50 ℃ for 5 min, and increased the temperature at a rate of 10 ℃∙min<sup>-1</sup> to 250 ℃, held for 10 min. The column equilibrium time was 2.0 min. The ion source of mass spectrographic analysis was electron ionization with ion source temperature of 200 ℃, and the monitoring mode was set to multiple reaction monitoring. Result:Seven batches of Cordyceps samples were collected, including 3 batches from Sichuan, 3 batches from Qinghai and 1 batch from Tibet. There were six batches of counterfeits, including 3 batches from Sichuan, 2 batches from Guizhou and 1 batch in Xinjiang. A total of 81 volatile compounds were screened out in Cordyceps, which could be divided into 13 types (esters, ketones, aldehydes and others) according to the compound structure, indicating that the fishy odor of Cordyceps was a complex odor. There was no significant difference in the types of volatile compounds of Cordyceps from different regions, which suggested that these volatile compounds in Cordyceps produced in Tibet (Naqu), Qinghai (Yushu and Guoluo) and Sichuan (Litang, Rangtang and Seda) were relatively consistent. However, the contents of some volatile compounds in Cordyceps produced in different regions were quite different, and 16 volatile compounds with significant difference were screened out, including 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate, <italic>γ</italic>-octalactone, hexyl acetate and others, those compounds maybe could been used as the quality markers for identification of regions of Cordyceps. There was a large difference in volatile compounds between Cordyceps and its counterfeits, and 34 volatile compounds were screened out, including ethyl acetate, acetophenone, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and others, those compounds maybe could been used as the quality markers for authenticity identification of Cordyceps. Conclusion:In summary, the established method for identifying the fishy odor of Cordyceps in this paper has the characteristics of high sensitivity, accuracy and simplicity, which can provide reference for the analysis of volatile compounds in other Chinese herbal medicines.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906040

ABSTRACT

As a new technology with unique drug delivery advantages, nanoemulsion has been widely used in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations. By searching, classifying and sorting out the literature reports at home and abroad in recent years, this paper systematically expounded the application advantages and production mechanism of nanoemulsion in delivering effective components of TCM from three aspects of improving oral bioavailability, enhancing targeting effect and delaying drug release. The current formulation optimization strategies, preparation processes and quality evaluation indicators commonly used in TCM nanoemulsion were summarized. Based on the research status of TCM nanoemulsion with different active components, the common problems and possible solutions in the development of TCM nanoemulsion were discussed, and the future research hotspots and directions of TCM nanoemulsion were prospected. This article clarifies the feasibility of nanoemulsion for enriching the selection of TCM dosage forms, which can provide reference for the subsequent rational design and improvement of TCM preparations. At the same time, it is revealed that the research focus of TCM nanoemulsion in the future lies in the integrated research of TCM compounds, and shows a trend of multi-disciplinary joint and targeted research.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905972

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, and to search for makers to characterize the quality difference of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus from different origins coupled with chemometrics. Method:The analysis was performed on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD C<sub>18</sub> column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-0.05% phosphoric acid solution for gradient elution, and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. A total of 31 batches of samples were analyzed to establish the HPLC fingerprint of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. Similarity evaluation was performed by Traditional Chinese Medicine Chromatographic Fingerprint Similarity Evaluation System (2012 edition) to confirm the common peaks, which were identified by comparison of reference substances. On the basis, chemometrics methods were used to analyze and evaluate the quality of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus from different origins. At the same time, 3 batches of 5 species of decoction pieces from the genus <italic>Citrus</italic> in the family Rutaceae, including Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, Aurantii Fructus, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride and Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, were randomly collected for evaluating the effectiveness and reliability of the established HPLC fingerprint of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. Result:HPLC fingerprint of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus was established and 22 common peaks were identified. And seven common peaks among them were identified as 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin, diosmin, hesperidin, byakangelicin, 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, bergapten and oxypeucedanin. Except for 2 batches of samples, the similarities of fingerprints between other 29 batches of samples were >0.9. The 31 batches of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus were basically divided into 3 groups by cluster analysis and principal component analysis, which were consistent with the classification of three different producing areas. Eight differential markers were screened by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and four of them (5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, bergapten, 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin and diosmin) were identified by reference substances. Similarity evaluation of 5 species of decoction pieces from genus <italic>Citrus</italic> in the family Rutaceae was carried out by taking the reference fingerprint of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus as treference chromatogram, similarity of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus decoction pieces was 0.892-0.977, and the similarities of the other 4 kinds of decoction pieces were 0.215-0.517. Conclusion:The established fingerprint method is reasonable, effective and accurate for quality control of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, the characterization information is more comprehensive combined with chemometrics.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL