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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(2)abr. 2024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558131

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a potentially fatal reaction to various forms of tissue damage and infections that cause damage to various organs. Furthermore, the brain is damaged earlier than other organs, resulting in diffuse brain dysfunction. The central clinical symptom of SIRS is delirium and emotional changes are involved in disease development. Although the amygdala is known to play a major role, the mechanisms underlying emotional changes in the early stages of SIRS have not been elucidated. Therefore, changes to dopamine levels in the amygdala were observed using an in vivo model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced SIRS to clarify the biochemical mechanisms activated in the early stages of SIRS. Extracellular dopamine was collected from the amygdala of free moving rats via microdialysis and then analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, emotional changes were assessed with the open field and sucrose preference tests. In the LPS group, dopamine release in the amygdala increased remarkably immediately after LPS administration, peaking at 120 min. Thereafter, dopamine release temporarily decreased, but then significantly increased again after 180 min. The present results suggest that diffuse brain dysfunction in the early stages of SIRS may involve altered dopamine levels in the amygdala.


El síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica (SRIS) es una reacción potencialmente fatal a diversas formas de daño tisular e infecciones que causan injuria a varios órganos. Además, el cerebro se daña antes que otros órganos, lo que provoca una disfunción cerebral difusa. El síntoma clínico central del SIRS es el delirio y los cambios emocionales están involucrados en el desarrollo de la enfermedad. Aunque se sabe que la amígdala desempeña un papel importante, no se han dilucidado los mecanismos que subyacen a los cambios emocionales en las primeras etapas del SRIS. Por lo tanto, en el estudio se provocaron cambios en los niveles de dopamina en la amígdala utilizando un modelo in vivo de SRIS inducido por lipopolisacáridos (LPS) para dilucidar los mecanismos bioquímicos activados en las primeras etapas del SRIS. La dopamina extracelular se recogió de la amígdala de ratas en movimiento libre mediante microdiálisis y luego se analizó mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Además, se evaluaron los cambios emocionales con las pruebas de campo abierto y de preferencia de sacarosa. En el grupo de LPS, la liberación de dopamina en la amígdala aumentó de manera notable inmediatamente después de la administración de LPS, alcanzando un máximo a los 120 minutos. A partir de entonces, la liberación de dopamina disminuyó temporalmente, pero luego volvió a aumentar significativamente después de 180 min. Los resultadosactuales sugieren que la disfunción cerebral difusa en las primeras etapas del SIRS puede implicar niveles alterados de dopamina en la amígdala.

2.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 70(4): e20230990, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558882

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of coenzyme q10 on cyclophosphamide-induced kidney damage in rats. METHODS: A total of 30 female Wistar-Albino rats were utilized to form three groups. In group 1 (control group) (n=10), no drugs were given. In group 2 (cyclophosphamide group) (n=10), 30 mg/kg intraperitoneal cyclophosphamide was administered for 7 days. In group 3 (cyclophosphamide+coenzyme q10 group) (n=10), 30 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 10 mg/kg coenzyme q10 were given for 7 days via intraperitoneal route. Right kidneys were removed in all groups. Blood malondialdehyde levels and activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were measured. Histopathological damage was evaluated by examining the slides prepared from kidney tissue using a light microscope. RESULTS: Tissue damage was significantly higher in the cyclophosphamide group than in the cyclophosphamide+coenzyme q10 group (p<0.05). The malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were lower in the cyclophosphamide group than in the cyclophosphamide+coenzyme q10 group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Coenzyme q10 may be a good option to prevent cyclophosphamide-induced kidney damage.

3.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; (12): 127-134, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006524

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    To investigate the optimal administration combination of β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) and Angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang-Ⅱ) in the establishment of SD rat aortic dissection (AD) model and the related complications. Methods    Forty-two three-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: a group A (0.25% BAPN), a group B (0.40% BAPN), a group C (0.80% BAPN), a group D [1 g/(kg·d) BAPN], a group E [1 g/(kg·d) BAPN+ 1 μg/(kg·min) saline], a group F [1 g/(kg·d) BAPN+1 μg/(kg·min) Ang-Ⅱ] and a group G (control group). There were 6 rats in each group. The intervention period was 4 weeks (groups E and F were 4 weeks+5 days). Rats were dissected immediately if they died during the experiment. After the intervention, the surviving rats were sacrificed by pentobarbital sodium, and the whole aorta was separated and retained. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe the changes of aorta from the pathological morphology. Results    There was no statistical difference in the survival rate among the groups after 4 weeks of BAPN intervention (P>0.05). After 5 days of mini-osmotic pumps implantation, the survival rate of rats was higher in the group E than that in the group F (P=0.008), and the incidence of AD in the group E was lower than that in the group F (P=0.001). BAPN could affect the food and water intake of rats. After BAPN intervention for 4 weeks, the body weight of rats in the group G was higher than those in the intervention groups (P<0.05). BAPN combined with Ang-Ⅱ could make the aortic intima thick, elastic fiber breakage, arrangement disorder, and inflammatory cell infiltration in rats, which conformed to the pathological and morphological changes of AD. BAPN could also affect mental state and gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion    The combination of BAPN [1 g/(kg·d)] and Ang-Ⅱ [1 μg/(kg·min)] can stably establish AD model in rats, which will provide a stable carrier for further study of the pathogenesis and therapeutic targets of AD. However, the complications in this process are an unstable factor. How to balance the influence of BAPN on other tissues and organs in the process of AD model establishment remains to be further studied.

4.
International Eye Science ; (12): 196-202, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005380

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the preventive effect and optimal drug dose of lipoic acid-niacin(N2L)against blue light-induced retinal damage in SD rats, and to explore its possible protective mechanism.METHODS: A total of 36 specific pathogen free-grade male SD rats of 150-200 g were selected and randomly divided into normal control group, blue light injury group, N2L low-dose group(1.0 mg/kg), N2L medium-dose group(2.5 mg/kg), N2L high-dose group(5.0 mg/kg), and physiological saline group, with 6 rats in each group. The normal control group was reared in a 12 h dark and light cycle, and the rest of the groups received 9 h of daily light exposure, 3 h of blue light irradiation with a wavelength of 455 nm and an intensity of 3000±50 lx, and 12 h of darkness to establish the injury model, and were exposed to light exposure for 14 d. For 14 consecutive durations, a 1 mL dose of the corresponding drug was injected intraperitoneally. The rats were reared for another 5 d with a regular 12 h light-dark cycle and were examined by electroretinography. Specimens were prepared by over anesthesia, HE staining, and the thickness of the outer nuclear layer was observed under a optical microscope; superoxide dismutases(SOD)activity was detected by CheKineTM SOD Activity Assay Kit; and the retinal Caspase-3, quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), glutathione S transferase(GST), Bcl-2, and Bax protein expression in rat retina were detected by Western blot.RESULTS: The amplitude of b-wave in dark-vision ERG 3.0 and 10.0(cd·s)/m2 stimulated light, b-wave in bright-vision ERG 3.0(cd·s)/m2 stimulated light, and the amplitude of the 2nd wave peak of oscillatory potential were significantly lower in blue light injury group than that in the normal control group(all P&#x0026;#x003C;0.01), while the amplitude was significantly higher in the N2L medium-dose group than in the blue light injury group(all P&#x0026;#x003C;0.05), and was not statistically different from that of the normal control group; the thickness of the retina in the blue light injury group was decreased in the ONL compared with that of the normal control group(P&#x0026;#x003C;0.001), while in the N2L medium dose group, it was thicker than that of the blue light injury group(P&#x0026;#x003C;0.001), and there was no statistically significant difference from the normal control group; SOD activity was significantly higher in the N2L medium-dose group than in the remaining 5 groups(P&#x0026;#x003C;0.05); the expression of Caspase-3, Bax, and NQO1 in the blue light injury group was higher than that of the normal control group(all P&#x0026;#x003C;0.01), and expression of Bax and Caspase-3 was significantly lower in the N2L medium-dose group compared with the blue light injury group(all P&#x0026;#x003C;0.001), whereas GST, NQO1 and Bcl-2 were significantly increased(all P&#x0026;#x003C;0.01).CONCLUSION:A concentration of 2.5 mg/kg N2L can effectively antagonize the damaging effect of blue light on the retina of SD rats, and it is expected to be a preventive and curative drug for it.

5.
Journal of Sun Yat-sen University(Medical Sciences) ; (6): 261-267, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016447

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of morin treatment on bone metabolism and bone mass in aged rats, and to clarify the possible mechanism. MethodsTen young female Sprague-Dawley rats (3 months old) and 20 old female Sprague-Dawley rats (24 months old) were randomly divided into three groups: Control group (CON, 10 young rats); Model group (MOD, 10 young rats); 10 old rats and SangHuangSu Group (SSS, 10 old rats). During the experiment, the SSS group received intraperitoneal injection of morin (10 mg / kg) daily. The treatment lasted for 12 weeks. After treatment, Micro-CT, HE stained sections, serological tests and Western blot were used to observe the treatment effect and possible mechanism. ResultsAfter 12 weeks of treatment, compared with MOD group, the number and density of bone trabeculae in SSS group were significantly improved. The BMD, Conn. D, Tb. N, Tb.Th and Tb.Sp of the left femur in the SSS group were significantly better than those in the MOD group(P <0.05). After 12 weeks of treatment, the levels of CTX-1, osteocalcin, TRACP-5b and PINP in SSS group were significantly lower than those in MOD group(P <0.05). Compared with the MOD group, the ERK1/2-p38 signal pathway was significantly inhibited and the levels of ERK1/2 and p38 were significantly decreased in the SSS group(P <0.05). ConclusionMorin pigment mediates the protective effect on the bones of aged rats by inhibiting the ERK1/2-p38 signaling pathway and reducing bone turnover.

6.
Journal of Sun Yat-sen University(Medical Sciences) ; (6): 233-242, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016444

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the effect of precocious puberty on glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism in female rats. MethodsSixty two-day-old female rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. When aged 5 days, the precocious puberty group and normal group were given a single subcutaneous injection of danazol and solvent soybean oil respectively. The vaginal opening of rats was monitored from their 21 days of age. After 12 hours of fasting, all successful modeling rats were randomly executed within 3 days after vaginal opening, when aged 7 and 12 weeks. Then we measured the rats’ body weight and length, determined the concentrations of glucose, insulin, blood lipids, estradiol, leptin and adiponectin with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and observed the pathological changes of perirenal fat, uterus and ovary. ResultsFor body weight and length, rats in the precocious puberty group were smaller than those in the normal group within 3 days after vaginal opening, but which did not affect their subsequent growth and development, and there was no significant difference between the two groups at 7 and 12 weeks of age. Within 3 days after vaginal opening, insulin levels had significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.001), the precocious group showed hyperinsulinemia and increased number of perirenal adipocytes. At three execution times, no significant difference was noted in estradiol, leptin and adiponectin levels between the two groups. The same was true in the ratios of ovary or uterus to body weight between the two groups. ConclusionsPrecocious puberty makes earlier onset of pubertal development and allows body maladaptation to the sudden changes of the internal environment. However, the changes due to precocious puberty are temporary and reversible, and they may become normal in adulthood.

7.
Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6): 120-124, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1015155

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare effectiveness between the modified and traditional pressure-overload myocardial hypertrophy(POMH) model by abdominal aorta coarctation (AAC) method. Methods Totally 45 rats were divided into three groups(n = 15 per group), sham group, traditional group, and modified group. In the traditional group, the diameter ol the abdominal aorta was narrowed to 0. 70 mm through a midline incision for 4 weeks; in the modified group, the diameter of the abdominal aorta was narrowed above the left kidney to 0. 45 mm for 1 week, and then the narrowing was lifted postoperatively. The cardiac index, heart weight (HW) /body weight (BW) and left ventricular index, left ventricular weight (LVW)/BW were measured from the heart specimens, and the cross-sectional area of cardiac myocytes, myocardial collagen area, and myocardial collagen area Iraction were measured in the pathological sections by HE staining and Masson staining. Results Compared with the sham group, the differences in end-systolic interventricular septum thickness (IVSs), left ventricular end-systolic posterior wall thickness (LVPWs), HW/BW, LVW/BW, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, myocardial collagen area, myocardial collagen area fraction, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) expression levels were statistically significant (P0. 05). Conclusion The modified abdominal aortic constriction method used in this experiment is time-saving, stable, homogeneous and easy to replicate, and is a more ideal approach to establish a rat model of POMH.

8.
Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6): 3-9, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1015152

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the expression and localization of group Ⅰ metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1/ 5) in rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and the effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on mGluR1/ 5 protein level. Methods Twelve male SD rats were randomly divided into control group(Ctrl)and CIH group(CIH), 6 rats in each group. After 6 weeks of modeling, the effect of CIH on mGluR1/ 5 protein level was detected by Western blotting, the expression and distribution of mGluR1/ 5 in SCG were detected by immunohistochemistry and double-immunofluorescent staining. Results mGluR1/ 5 was expressed in rat SCG. mGluR1 was distributed in neurons and small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells, but not in satellite glial cells (SGCs), nerve fibers and blood vessels, whereas mGluR5 was mainly distributed in nerve fibers and a little in neurons, but not in SGCs, SIF cells and blood vessels. CIH increased the protein levels of mGluR1/ 5 (P<0. 01) in rat SCG. Conclusion Both mGluR1 and mGluR5 are expressed in the rat SCG, but their distribution are different, and the increased protein levels of both may be involved in CIH-induced hypertension.

9.
Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6): 67-72, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1015149

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect and mechanism of Chir99021 on osteogenic differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells. Methods Primary rat dental pulp stem cells were isolated from rat dental pulp and verified by fluorescence immunoassay. Different concentrations of Chir99021 were set, and the cell proliferation was detected by CCK⁃8 to select the optimal concentration. Osteogenic differentiation was detected by alizarin red staining. The expression of osteogenic differentiation related genes and proteins recombinant wingless type MMTV integration site famity member 1 (Wnt1), Wnt3a and Wnt3a β⁃expression of catenin, axis inhibition protein 2(Axin 2), dentin sialophosphoprotein(OCN) and dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1(DMP1) was detected by Real⁃time PCR and Western blotting. Results The positive expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and vimentin indicated that rat dental pulp stem cells were successfully isolated. After osteogenic induction of rat dental pulp stem cells, calcium deposits significantly increased with the addition of glycogen synthase kinase⁃3β(GSK⁃3β) inhibitor Chir99021, calcium deposits were significanted reduced. After osteogenic differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells, the expression of Wnt1, Wnt3a, β⁃catenin, Axin2, OCN and DMP1 increased, while the expression of Wnt1, Axin2, OCN and DMP1 decreased with the addition of Chir99021. Conclusion Chir99021 can inhibit the osteogenic differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells after 7 days of induction.

10.
Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6): 113-119, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1015143

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a low density, high purity and high stability in vitro culture method of primary hippocampal neurons of fetal rats by co-culturing hippocampal and cortical cells, so as to obtain higher purity and better vitality of primary hippocampal neurons disease. Methods The fetal rat hippocampal tissue was isolated from 16-18 days pregnant SD rats, then cut and digested by 0.125% trypsin. The obtained cell suspension was filtered by 200 mesh cell sieve, and then the obtained cell suspensions were then inoculated into the inner layer and outer ring of the culture plate in a surrounding form. They were co-cultured in DMEM/F12 medium containing 10% horse serum. After 4-6 hours of cell adhesion, the culture medium was changed to maintenance medium (Neurobasal+2% B27+0.5 mmol/L glutamine). Then the cell viability was detected with CCK-8 kit and the purity of hippocampal neurons was detected by immunofluorescent staining. Results Hippocampal neurons grew well and formed crisscross neural networks after 5 days. And it could survive for 3 weeks. The purity of hippocampal neurons was up to 98%. Conclusion The method of co-culturing hippocampal and cortical cells can obtain high-purity, high activity, high survival rate, and high stability primary hippocampal neurons from fetal rats, which can provide certain experimental conditions for the study of hippocampal neuron related diseases in the nervous system and is worthy of promotion and application.

11.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 74-81, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009112

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of VX765 on osteoarthritis (OA) and chondrocytes inflammation in rats.@*METHODS@#Chondrocytes were isolated from the knee joints of 4-week-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The third-generation cells were subjected to cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) analysis to assess the impact of various concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 μmol/L) of VX765 on rat chondrocyte activity. An in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced cell inflammation model was employed, dividing cells into control group, LPS group, VX765 concentration 1 group and VX765 concentration 2 group without obvious cytotoxicity. Western blot, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, and ELISA were conducted to measure the expression levels of inflammatory factors-transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF-β 1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Additionally, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining were employed to assess the expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Thirty-two SD rats were randomly assigned to sham surgery group (group A), OA group (group B), OA+VX765 (50 mg/kg) group (group C), and OA+VX765 (100 mg/kg) group (group D), with 8 rats in each group. Group A underwent a sham operation with a medial incision, while groups B to D underwent additional transverse incisions to the medial collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament, with removal of the medial meniscus. One week post-surgery, groups C and D were orally administered 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg VX765, respectively, while groups A and B received an equivalent volume of saline. Histopathological examination using HE and safranin-fast green staining was performed, and Mankin scoring was utilized for evaluation. Immunohistochemical staining technique was employed to analyze the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) and collagen type Ⅱ.@*RESULTS@#The CCK-8 assay indicated a significant decrease in cell viability at VX765 concentrations exceeding 10 μmol/L ( P<0.05), so 4 μmol/L and 8 μmol/L VX765 without obvious cytotoxicity were selected for subsequent experiments. Following LPS induction, the expressions of TGF-β 1, IL-6, and TNF-α in cells significantly increased when compared with the control group ( P<0.05). However, intervention with 4 μmol/L and 8 μmol/L VX765 led to a significant decrease in expression compared to the LPS group ( P<0.05). Western blot and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated a significant upregulation of Nrf2 pathway-related molecules Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expressions by VX765 ( P<0.05), indicating Nrf2 pathway activation. Histopathological examination of rat knee joint tissues and immunohistochemical staining revealed that, compared to group B, treatment with VX765 in groups C and D improved joint structural damage in rat OA, alleviated inflammatory reactions, downregulated MMP-13 expression, and increased collagen type Ⅱ expression.@*CONCLUSION@#VX765 can improve rat OA and reduce chondrocyte inflammation, possibly through the activation of the Nrf2 pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 13/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Collagen Type II/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Dipeptides , para-Aminobenzoates
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251410, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355887

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dietary habits of bandicoot rats (bandicota bengalensis) were investigated in the agricultural crops of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan by analysing stomach contents. The research activities were conducted in major field crops including wheat-groundnut and in the fallow lands during non-crop season at the field boundaries. The specimens were captured from the fields using kill/snap traps, and dissected to collect their stomach samples for laboratory analysis. Light microscopic slides of the plant material were recovered from stomach samples and the reference materials were collected from the field. Results revealed that the bandicoot rat predominantly fed upon cultivated crops during cropping season but consumed wild vegetation during non-cropping season. There was no significance difference between summer and winter diets. Most frequently consumed crop food items were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 28.57%), groundnut (Arachis hypogea; 11.26%), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; 10.17%), chickpea (Cicer arietinum; 9.52%), maize (Zea mays; 6.49%), millet (Pennisetum glaucum; 5.84%), barley (Hordeum vulgare; 4.98%) and mustard (Brassica campestris; 4.98%). Among wild vegetation were consumed khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7.79%), baron dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7.36%) and Prickly flower (Achyranthes aspera; 3.03%). The study concludes that, in addition to consuming wheat and groundnut crops, the Lesser bandicoot rat also subsists on grasses, weeds, and some fodder crops, as important component of its diet in agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau.


Resumo Os hábitos alimentares de ratos bandicoot (Bandicota bengalensis) foram investigados nas plantações agrícolas do planalto de Pothwar, Paquistão, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. As atividades da pesquisa foram conduzidas nas principais culturas de campo, incluindo trigo e amendoim, e em terras de pousio durante a estação não agrícola nos limites do campo. Os espécimes foram capturados dos campos usando armadilhas kill/snap e dissecados para coletar suas amostras de estômago para análise laboratorial. Lâminas de microscopia de luz do material vegetal foram recuperadas de amostras de estômago; os materiais de referência foram coletados no campo. Os resultados revelaram que o rato bandicoot alimentava-se predominantemente de culturas cultivadas durante a época de cultivo, mas consumia vegetação selvagem durante a época de não colheita. Não houve diferença significativa entre as dietas de verão e inverno. Os alimentos agrícolas mais frequentemente consumidos foram trigo (Triticum aestivum; 28,57%), amendoim (Arachis hypogea; 11,26%), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor; 10,17%), grão de bico (Cicer arietinum; 9,52%), milho (Zea mays; 6,49%), milheto (Pennisetum glaucum; 5,84%), cevada (Hordeum vulgare; 4,98%) e mostarda (Brassica campestris; 4,98%). Entre a vegetação silvestre foram consumidos khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7,79%), barão dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7,36%) e flor espinhosa (Achyranthes aspera; 3,03%). O estudo conclui que, além de consumir culturas de trigo e amendoim, o rato bandicoot pequeno também subsiste de gramíneas, ervas daninhas e algumas culturas forrageiras, componentes importantes de sua dieta no agroecossistema do planalto de Pothwar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Murinae , Pakistan , Crops, Agricultural , Zea mays , Feeding Behavior
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469285

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dietary habits of bandicoot rats (bandicota bengalensis) were investigated in the agricultural crops of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan by analysing stomach contents. The research activities were conducted in major field crops including wheat-groundnut and in the fallow lands during non-crop season at the field boundaries. The specimens were captured from the fields using kill/snap traps, and dissected to collect their stomach samples for laboratory analysis. Light microscopic slides of the plant material were recovered from stomach samples and the reference materials were collected from the field. Results revealed that the bandicoot rat predominantly fed upon cultivated crops during cropping season but consumed wild vegetation during non-cropping season. There was no significance difference between summer and winter diets. Most frequently consumed crop food items were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 28.57%), groundnut (Arachis hypogea; 11.26%), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; 10.17%), chickpea (Cicer arietinum; 9.52%), maize (Zea mays; 6.49%), millet (Pennisetum glaucum; 5.84%), barley (Hordeum vulgare; 4.98%) and mustard (Brassica campestris; 4.98%). Among wild vegetation were consumed khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7.79%), baron dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7.36%) and Prickly flower (Achyranthes aspera; 3.03%). The study concludes that, in addition to consuming wheat and groundnut crops, the Lesser bandicoot rat also subsists on grasses, weeds, and some fodder crops, as important component of its diet in agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau.


Resumo Os hábitos alimentares de ratos bandicoot (Bandicota bengalensis) foram investigados nas plantações agrícolas do planalto de Pothwar, Paquistão, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. As atividades da pesquisa foram conduzidas nas principais culturas de campo, incluindo trigo e amendoim, e em terras de pousio durante a estação não agrícola nos limites do campo. Os espécimes foram capturados dos campos usando armadilhas kill/snap e dissecados para coletar suas amostras de estômago para análise laboratorial. Lâminas de microscopia de luz do material vegetal foram recuperadas de amostras de estômago; os materiais de referência foram coletados no campo. Os resultados revelaram que o rato bandicoot alimentava-se predominantemente de culturas cultivadas durante a época de cultivo, mas consumia vegetação selvagem durante a época de não colheita. Não houve diferença significativa entre as dietas de verão e inverno. Os alimentos agrícolas mais frequentemente consumidos foram trigo (Triticum aestivum; 28,57%), amendoim (Arachis hypogea; 11,26%), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor; 10,17%), grão de bico (Cicer arietinum; 9,52%), milho (Zea mays; 6,49%), milheto (Pennisetum glaucum; 5,84%), cevada (Hordeum vulgare; 4,98%) e mostarda (Brassica campestris; 4,98%). Entre a vegetação silvestre foram consumidos khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7,79%), barão dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7,36%) e flor espinhosa (Achyranthes aspera; 3,03%). O estudo conclui que, além de consumir culturas de trigo e amendoim, o rato bandicoot pequeno também subsiste de gramíneas, ervas daninhas e algumas culturas forrageiras, componentes importantes de sua dieta no agroecossistema do planalto de Pothwar.

14.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 130-139, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999169

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the effects of Hedysari Radix polysaccharide on the apoptosis of gastric sinus smooth muscle cells and explore the underlying mechanism via the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine-threonine kinase (Akt) pathway in the rat model of diabetic gastroparesis (DGP). MethodSixty-two Wistar male rats were randomized into a blank group (n=12) and a modelling group (n=50). The rat model of DGP was established by small-dose multiple intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin combined with an irregular high-fat and high-sugar diet for 4 weeks. The modeled rats were randomized into model group, mosapride citrate (1.35 mg·kg-1), and high-, medium-, and low-dose (200, 100, and 50 mg·kg-1, respectively) Hedysari Radix polysaccharide groups. The rats were administrated with corresponding drugs by gavage, and those in the blank and model groups with equal volumes of pure water by gavage once a day for 8 consecutive weeks. The random blood glucose and body mass were measured every 2 weeks, and gastric emptying rate was calculated. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes of smooth muscle in gastric antrum, and terminal deoxynucleoitidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) was employed to detect the apoptosis of smooth muscle cells in the gastric antrum. The expression of IGF-1, phosphorylated (p)-PI3K, and p-Akt in the smooth muscle of gastric sinus tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of IGF-1, p-PI3K/PI3K, p-Akt/Akt, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in the smooth muscle of the gastric antrum. ResultCompared with the blank group, the model group showed elevated random blood glucose at all time points (P<0.01), decreased body mass and gastric emptying rate (P<0.01), increased apoptotic index of smooth muscle cells in the gastric antrum (P<0.01), down-regulated protein levels of IGF-1, p-PI3K/PI3K, p-Akt/Akt, and Bcl-2, and up-regulated protein level of Bax (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the 8 weeks of drug administration lowered the random blood glucose, increased the body mass and gastric emptying rate (P<0.05, P<0.01), decreased the apoptotic index of smooth muscle cells in the gastric antrum (P<0.05, P<0.01), up-regulated the protein levels of IGF-1, p-PI3K/PI3K, p-Akt/Akt, and Bcl-2, and down-regulated the protein level of Bax (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the mosapride citrate group,the administration of low-dose Hedysari Radix polysaccharide for 6 and 8 weeks lowered the random blood glucose and decreased the body mass (P<0.05, P<0.01),low and medium-dose Hedysari Radix polysaccharide decreased the gastric emptying rate and the apoptotic index of smooth muscle cells in the astragaloside low-dose group decreased (P<0.05). The protein levels of IGF-1,p-PI3K/PI3K,p-Akt/Akt and Bcl-2(low dose)were down-regulated and the protein level of Bax was up-regulated by low doses of Hedysari Radix polysaccharide (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with high-dose Hedysari Radix polysaccharide, low-dose Hedysari Radix polysaccharide elevated random blood glucose and reduced body mass after 6 and 8 weeks of administration (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the low and medium doses decreased the gastric emptying rate, increased the apoptotic index of smooth muscle cells in the gastric antrum (P<0.05, P<0.01), down-regulated the protein levels of IGF-1, p-PI3K/PI3K, p-Akt/Akt, and Bcl-2, and up-regulated the protein level of Bax (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the medium-dose group,the low-dose group of Hedysari Radix polysaccharide had lower body mass,lower gastric emptying rate in rats,higher apoptotic index of smooth muscle cells in gastric sinus tissue after 6 and 8 weeks of administration (P<0.05, P<0.01), and lower protein expression of IGF-1,p-PI3K/PI3K,p-Akt/Akt. ConclusionHedysari Radix polysaccharide protects the smooth muscle cells in gastric antrum against apoptotic injury and promotes gastric motility by activating the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, as manifested by the up-regulated expression of IGF-1, p-PI3K, p-Akt, and Bcl-2 and down-regulated expression of Bax.

15.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1808-1815, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528773

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The R-spondin protein family is a group of proteins that enhance Wnt/b-catenin signaling and have pleiotropic functions in stem cell growth and development. In the literature reviews, there is no histomorphological study showing the localization and distribution of R-spondins in different hypothalamic nuclei. For this reason, the purpose of this study was to determine the localization, distribution characteristics, and densities in the hypothalamic nuclei of neurons expressing Rspo1 and Rspo3 proteins. The free-floating brain sections of the male rats who were not exposed to any treatment were stained with the indirect immunoperoxidase method using the relevant antibodies. As a result of the immunohistochemical studies, it was determined that neurons expressing the Rspo1 protein were found in large numbers in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCh), anterior paraventricular nucleus, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PeV), anterior hypothalamic area, magnocellular preoptic nucleus (MCPO) and the lateral hypothalamic area (LH) from the hypothalamic nuclei, while they were localized in fewer numbers in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Rspo3 protein expression was found in neurons localized in the hypothalamic nuclei SON, paraventricular nucleus (PVN), PeV, ARC, ventromedial nucleus (VMH), LH, anterior parvicellular nucleus, and zona inserta (ZI). In addition, neurons synthesizing both peptides were found in the cortex and hippocampus regions (H). Rspo1 and 3 proteins are expressed in hypothalamic energy homeostatic areas, thus these proteins may be involved in the regulation of food intake.


La familia de proteínas R-espondina es un grupo de proteínas que mejoran la señalización de Wnt/b-catenina y tienen funciones pleiotrópicas en el crecimiento y desarrollo de las células madre. En las revisiones de la literatura no existen estudios histomorfológicos que muestren la localización y distribución de las R-espondinas en diferentes núcleos hipotalámicos. Por esta razón, el propósito de este estudio fue determinar la localización, características de distribución y densidades en los núcleos hipotalámicos de neuronas que expresan las proteínas Rspo1 y Rspo3. Secciones de cerebro flotantes de ratas macho que no fueron expuestas a ningún tratamiento se tiñeron con el método de inmunoperoxidasa indirecta utilizando los anticuerpos pertinentes. Como resultado de los estudios inmunohistoquímicos, se determinó que las neuronas que expresan la proteína Rspo1 se encontraron en gran número en el núcleo supraóptico (SON), el núcleo supraquiasmático (SCh), el núcleo paraventricular anterior, el núcleo hipotalámico periventricular (PeV), el núcleo hipotalámico anterior área, núcleo preóptico magnocelular (MCPO) y el área hipotalámica lateral (LH) de los núcleos hipotalámicos, mientras que se localizaron en menor número en el núcleo arqueado (ARC). La expresión de la proteína Rspo3 se encontró en neuronas localizadas en los núcleos hipotalámicos SON, núcleo paraventricular (PVN), PeV, ARC, núcleo ventromedial (VMH), LH, núcleo parvicelular anterior y zona inserta (ZI). Además, se encontraron neuronas que sintetizan ambos péptidos en las regiones de la corteza y el hipocampo (H). Las proteínas Rspo1 y 3 se expresan en áreas homeostáticas de energía hipotalámicas, por lo que estas proteínas pueden estar involucradas en la regulación de la ingesta de alimentos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Thrombospondins/metabolism , Hypothalamus/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1727-1733, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528782

ABSTRACT

El bazo es el órgano linfático intraperitoneal más grande del organismo, presentando dos funciones principales: defensiva, mediante respuesta inmunitaria y filtración sanguínea. El objetivo de la presente revisión, fue obtener información actualizada sobre la anatomía del bazo de la rata albina (Rattus norvegicus albinus) y comparativa con la anatomía del bazo humano, perro, gato y cerdo, al representar las principales especies de importancia en la medicina, medicina veterinaria y en las ciencias biomédicas. Se realizó una búsqueda de material bibliográfico actualizado en diferentes sitios web científicos. Es así como, se revisaron 71 fuentes bibliográficas, en su gran mayoría artículos científicos (31), libros de anatomía humana y veterinaria (17), artículos especializados (17) y tesis (6). En general existe consenso, sobre la descripción anatómica del bazo, el cual se sitúa en la región hipocondriaca izquierda del abdomen, entre el fondo del estómago y el diafragma, irrigado por la arteria y vena esplénica. Se evidenció que existen similitudes en aspectos macroscópicos, al comparar el bazo de la rata blanca, con el bazo de otras especies (funcionalidad, peso relativo, ubicación topográfica). En aspectos microscópicos, el bazo en humanos y otros mamíferos se compone de estroma, además de parénquima, constituido a su vez por pulpa blanca y roja. En particular, existen diferencias entre el bazo de rata, humano, gato, perro y cerdo, en formas, tamaños y aspectos microscópicos, relacionados con la microcirculación e inmunidad. Mientras que existen semejanzas en procesos patológicos y respuestas a tratamientos farmacológicos y clínicos. Por lo anteriormente expuesto, se concluye que la rata albina constituye un buen modelo biológico, específicamente en aspectos anatómicos microscópicos del bazo de tipo inmunológico. Mientras que el bazo de cerdo es mejor comparativamente, en estudios anatómicos macroscópicos de tipo quirúrgicos, resultando ambos extrapolables, especialmente a la medicina humana.


SUMMARY: The spleen is the largest intraperitoneal lymphatic organ of the body, presenting two main functions: defensive, through immune response and blood filtration. The objective of the present review was to obtain updated information on the anatomy of the spleen of the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus) and to compare it with the anatomy of the human, dog, cat and pig spleen, representing the main species of importance in medicine, veterinary medicine and biomedical sciences. A search for updated bibliographic material was carried out in different scientific websites. Thus, 71 bibliographic sources were reviewed, mostly scientific articles (31), human and veterinary anatomy books (17), specialized articles (17) and theses (6). In general, there is consensus on the anatomical description of the spleen, which is located in the left hypochondriac region of the abdomen between the fundus of the stomach and the diaphragm, irrigated by the splenic artery and vein. It was evidenced that there are similarities in macroscopic aspects when comparing the spleen of the white rat with the spleen of other species (functionality, relative weight, topographic location). In microscopic aspects, the spleen in humans and other mammals is composed of stroma, in addition to parenchyma, constituted in turn by white and red pulp. In particular, there are differences between rat, human, cat, dog and pig spleens in shapes, sizes and microscopic aspects related to microcirculation and immunity. While there are similarities in pathological processes and responses to pharmacological and clinical treatments. For the above mentioned, it is concluded that the albino rat constitutes a good biological model, specifically in microscopic anatomical aspects of the spleen of immunological type. While the pig spleen is comparatively better in macroscopic anatomical studies of surgical type, both are extrapolable especially to human medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Spleen/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Comparative , Immune System/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Veterinary
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1): e54636, dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1550730

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La Rata de Magdalena, Xenomys nelsoni, es un roedor endémico de México, de distribución restringida a las selvas bajas caducifolias densas, en una pequeña región de la costa del Pacífico mexicano. Es una especie poco conocida, catalogada como "En Peligro" de acuerdo con la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (IUCN). Este desconocimiento unido a la alta tasa de deforestación de su hábitat hace que su conservación sea prioritaria. Objetivo: Realizar un recuento histórico de los registros depositados en las colecciones científicas, generar mapas de distribución potencial y analizar el estado de conservación de la especie. Método: Los datos de ocurrencia de las especies se obtuvieron de la literatura y bases de datos digitales y se analizaron por décadas. Se utilizaron los programas GARP y MaxEnt para generar los modelos de nicho ecológico. La importancia de las variables en el modelo se estimó mediante un análisis Jackknife. Resultados: A lo largo de 129 años 19 recolectores registraron 69 ejemplares, de los cuales 65 están depositados en siete colecciones internacionales y una nacional. Aunque la especie sólo se ha recolectado en Jalisco y Colima, la distribución potencial de X. nelsoni incluye también el estado de Michoacán. De esta área estimada, sólo el 1.5 % se encuentra dentro de un Área Natural Protegida. Conclusiones: Los resultados de la distribución potencial podrían ser utilizados para verificar la presencia de la especie en lugares donde no ha sido recolectada como el norte de la Reserva de la Biosfera Chamela-Cuixmala y en algunas zonas de la provincia fisiográfica Costas del Sur en el estado de Michoacán. Es necesario incrementar los muestreos en regiones poco estudiadas predichas por el modelo y aumentar el área de protección.


Abstract Introduction: The Magdalena Rat, Xenomys nelsoni, is a rodent endemic to Mexico, whose distribution is restricted to dense tropical dry forests in a small region on the Pacific coast of Mexico. It is a poorly known species categorized as "Endangered" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This lack of knowledge and the high rates of deforestation of its habitat makes its conservation a priority. Objective: To summarize the historical records deposited in scientific collections, to create potential distribution maps, and to analyze the conservation status of the species. Methods: We obtained species occurrence data from literature and digital databases, analyzing them by the decade. We used GARP and MaxEnt software to generate the ecological niche models. The importance of the variables in the model was estimated using the Jackknife technique. Results: Over 129 years, 19 collectors registered 69 specimens, of which 65 are deposited in one national and seven international collections. Although the species has only been collected in Jalisco and Colima, the potential distribution for X. nelsoni also includes the state of Michoacán. Of this estimated area, only 1.5 % is in a Protected Natural Area. Conclusions: The results of the potential distribution could be used to verify the presence of the species in places where it has not been collected, such as the northern part of the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve and in some areas of the physiographic province Costas del Sur in the state of Michoacán. It is needed to increase samplings in the least studied regions predicted by the model and expand the area of protection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats/anatomy & histology , Ecosystem , Endangered Species , Mexico
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1537-1549, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521025

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Cisplatin (Cis) is an important chemotherapeutic agent used in cancer treatment. Males exposed to Cis were reported to exhibit testicular toxicity. Cis-induced testicular toxicity is mediated by oxidative stress, inflammation, testosterone inhibition and apoptosis. Accordingly, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential protective roles of infliximab (IFX), which is an anti- TNF-a agent, and of white tea (Camellia sinensis), which is known to possess antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects, against Cis-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Rats were randomly assigned into five groups as follows: control group, Cisplatin (7 mg/kg) treatment group, Cisplatin (7 mg/kg) + infliximab (7 mg/kg) treatment group, cisplatin + white tea (WT) treatment group, and Cisplatin+ WT+IFX combined treatment group. In the present study, Cis exposure reduced the sperm count. It also increased testicular oxidative stress as well as the levels of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. Histopathological assays supported the biochemical findings. Treatment with IFX and/or WT restored testicular histology, preserved spermatogenesis, suppressed oxidative stress and apoptosis, and significantly ameliorated Cis-induced damage. It was concluded that white tea and infliximab could potentially serve as therapeutic options for the protection of testicular tissue against the harmful effects of Cis.


El cisplatino (Cis) es un importante agente quimioterapéutico utilizado en el tratamiento del cáncer. Se informó que los hombres expuestos a Cis exhibieron toxicidad testicular. La toxicidad testicular inducida por Cis está mediada por el estrés oxidativo, la inflamación, la inhibición de la testosterona y la apoptosis. En consecuencia, este estudio se realizó para evaluar las posibles funciones protectoras de infliximab (IFX), un agente anti-TNF-α, y del té blanco (Camellia sinensis), conocido por sus propiedades antioxidantes, antiapoptóticas y anti-TNF-α -efectos inflamatorios, contra la toxicidad testicular inducida por Cis en ratas. Cinco grupos de ratas se asignaron al azar de la siguiente manera: grupo control, grupo de tratamiento con cisplatino (7 mg/ kg), grupo de tratamiento con cisplatino (7 mg/kg) + infliximab (7 mg/kg), grupo de tratamiento con cisplatino + té blanco (WT), y grupo de tratamiento combinado Cisplatino+ WT+IFX. En el presente estudio, la exposición a Cis redujo el conteo de espermatozoides. También aumentó el estrés oxidativo testicular, así como los niveles de marcadores inflamatorios y apoptóticos. Los ensayos histopatológicos respaldaron los hallazgos bioquímicos. El tratamiento con IFX y/o WT restauró la histología testicular, preservó la espermatogénesis, suprimió el estrés oxidativo y la apoptosis, y mejoró significativamente el daño inducido por Cis. Se concluyó que el té blanco y el infliximab podrían potencialmente servir como opciones terapéuticas para la protección del tejido testicular contra los efectos nocivos de Cis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Tea/chemistry , Testis/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cisplatin/toxicity , Camellia sinensis/chemistry , Infliximab/pharmacology , Sperm Count , Testis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis , Oxidative Stress , Glutathione/analysis , Inflammation , Malondialdehyde/analysis
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1043-1052, ago. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514344

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder with rising incidences worldwide. Gastric symptoms of DM have been reported, including nausea, vomiting, bloating, and epigastric pain. Moreover, acute to chronic gastritis and atrophic gastritis occur in DM can affect the chief cells of the gastric gland. Chief cells are vital because of their ability to digest and separate vitamin B12 from protein. Lack of vitamin B12 leads to impaired DNA synthesis and abnormal metabolism in red blood cells, and eventually leading to pernicious anemia. Furthermore, decreased vibratory and positional senses, numbness, ataxia with subacute combined degeneration, and dementia are present in pernicious anemic patients. Twenty-four male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into control (n = 12) and diabetic (n = 12) groups. The rats were further separated into two categories: short-term (4 weeks) and long-term (24 weeks) groups. DM model was induced by manually injecting intraperitoneally with streptozotocin in citrate buffer at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight. The same amount of buffer was injected into the control group. After sacrifice, three regions of the stomach (the cardia, body, and pylorus) were dissected. Histopathology was performed by staining with toluidine blue. Image analysis was used to quantify the zymogen granule accumulation in chief cells. The data were compared between the control and DM rats in each period using Student's t-test. In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also used to examine the ultrastructures. There was a significant decrease in the percentage of zymogen granules in DM rats. Under TEM, the destructions of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus in the DM rat were observed in the chief cells. In rats with uncontrolled diabetes, there is damage to the chief cells all over the area of the stomach, affecting digestion and malabsorption of vitamin B12. Therefore, this result helps clinicians recognize that diabetic patients with gastric symptoms may have hidden pernicious anemia.


La diabetes mellitus (DM) es un trastorno metabólico con incidencia creciente a nivel mundial. Se han informado síntomas gástricos de DM, que incluyen náuseas, vómitos, distensión abdominal y dolor epigástrico. Además, la gastritis aguda a crónica y la gastritis atrófica que ocurren en la DM pueden afectar las células principales de la glándula gástrica. Las células principales son vitales debido a su capacidad para digerir y separar la vitamina B12 de las proteínas. La falta de vitamina B12 conduce a una síntesis de ADN deteriorada y un metabolismo anormal en los glóbulos rojos, lo que eventualmente conduce a una anemia perniciosa. Además, los pacientes con anemia perniciosa presentan disminución de los sentidos vibratorio y posicional, entumecimiento, ataxia con degeneración combinada subaguda y demencia. En este estudio se usaron 24 ratas Sprague-Dawley macho adultas. Las ratas se dividieron en grupos control (n = 12) y diabéticas (n = 12). Las ratas se separaron además en dos categorías: grupos a corto plazo (4 semanas) y a largo plazo (24 semanas). El modelo de DM se indujo inyectando manualmente por vía intraperitoneal estreptozotocina en tampón de citrato a una dosis de 60 mg/kg de peso corporal. Se inyectó la misma cantidad de tampón en el grupo control. Después del sacrificio, se disecaron tres regiones del estómago (cardias, cuerpo y píloro). La histopatología se realizó mediante tinción con azul de toluidina. El análisis de imágenes se utilizó para cuantificar la acumulación de gránulos de zimógeno en las células principales. Los datos se compararon entre las ratas control y DM en cada período utilizando la prueba t de Student. Además, se utilizó microscopía electrónica de transmisión (TEM) para examinar la ultraestructura celular. Hubo una disminución significativa en el porcentaje de gránulos de zimógeno en ratas DM. Bajo TEM, se observaron en las células principales las destrucción de las mitocondrias, del retículo endoplásmico rugoso y del complejo golgiense en la rata DM. En ratas con diabetes no controlada, hay daño en las células principales de toda el área del estómago, lo que afecta la digestión y la malabsorción de vitamina B12. Por lo tanto, este resultado ayuda a los médicos a reconocer que los pacientes diabéticos con síntomas gástricos pueden tener una anemia perniciosa oculta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Chief Cells, Gastric/pathology , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 789-797, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514318

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) exerts balancing the intracellular level between two-second messengers, diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid, by its phosphorylation activity. DGK ζ is often localized in cell nuclei, suggesting its involvement in the regulation of intranuclear activities, including mitosis and apoptosis. The present immunohistochemical study of rat kidneys first revealed no detection levels of DGK ζ -immunoreactivity in nuclei of most proximal tubule epithelia in contrast to its distinct occurrence in cell nuclei of collecting and distal tubules with the former more dominant. This finding suggests that DGK ζ is a key factor regulating vulnerability to acute kidney injury in various renal tubules: its low expression represents the high vulnerability of proximal tubule cells, and its distinct expression does the resistance of collecting and distal tubule cells. In addition, this isozyme was more or less localized in nuclei of cells forming glomeruli as well as in endothelial nuclei of peritubular capillaries and other intrarenal blood vessels, and epithelial nuclei of glomerular capsules (Bowman's capsules) and renal calyces, including intrarenal interstitial cells.


La diacilglicerol quinasa (DGK) ejerce el equilibrio del nivel intracelular entre dos segundos mensajeros, diacilglicerol y ácido fosfatídico, por su actividad de fosforilación. La DGK ζ a menudo se localiza en los núcleos celulares, lo que sugiere su participación en la regulación de las actividades intranucleares, incluidas la mitosis y la apoptosis. El presente estudio inmunohistoquímico en riñones de rata no reveló niveles de detección de inmunorreactividad de DGK ζ en los núcleos de la mayoría de los epitelios de los túbulos proximales, en contraste a la detección en los núcleos celulares de los túbulos colectores y distales, siendo el primero más dominante. Este hallazgo sugiere que DGK ζ es un factor clave que regula la vulnerabilidad a la lesión renal aguda en varios túbulos renales: su baja expresión representa la alta vulnerabilidad de las células del túbulo proximal, y su expresión distinta hace a la resistencia de las células del túbulo colector y distal. Además, esta isoenzima estaba más o menos localizada en los núcleos de las células que forman los glomérulos, así como en los núcleos endoteliales de los capilares peritubulares y otros vasos sanguíneos intrarrenales, y en los núcleos epiteliales de las cápsulas glomerulares (cápsulas de Bowman) y los cálices renales, incluidas las células intersticiales intrarrenales.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diacylglycerol Kinase/metabolism , Kidney Tubules/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Immunoelectron , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Diacylglycerol Kinase/ultrastructure , Kidney Tubules/ultrastructure
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