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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905840

ABSTRACT

Objective:To quickly analyze and identify the components in raw and wine-processed products of <italic>Polygonatum cyrtonema</italic> (PC) dried rhizomes by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), and then find out the differential components before and after processing. Method:The ACQUITY UPLC BEH C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) was used with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution-acetonitrile as the mobile phase for gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.25 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>. Electrospray ionization was selected for collection and detection in positive and negative ion modes, and the data were analyzed by PeakView 1.2.0.3. According to the retention time, accurate relative molecular weight and fragmentation ion information provided by MS, and combined with the reference substance and literature, the components were identified. After normalized treatment, the MS data of each sample were analyzed with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), and then the differential components before and after processing were screened according to the principle that variable importance in the projection (VIP) value was >1. Result:A total of 38 components were identified from raw and wine-processed products of PC dried rhizomes, including 15 steroidal saponins, 6 alkaloids, 3 flavonoids, 2 amino acids, 2 organic acids and 10 others. The results of PCA and OPLS-DA showed that there were significant differences in the contents of components in PC dried rhizomes before and after processing, and 16 differential components such as kingianoside Z, disporopsin and linoleic acid were screened. Conclusion:UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technique can accurately and comprehensively identify the components in PC dried rhizomes, these components are mainly steroidal saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids. It takes a great difference in the contents of components before and after processing, and transformation of the same category components is the main reason for the differences of raw and wine-processed products, which will provide reference for the researches on material basis and processing chemistry of PC dried rhizomes.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921656

ABSTRACT

Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are well-known Chinese herbal medicines for wind dispersing and exterior releasing. Through textual research on Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica, the discrimination of their medicinal parts in history was clarified, and the processing, the property(nature and flavor), meridian tropism, functions, indications, usage, dosage, and the selection of decoction pieces were compared to provide the basis for clinical application. As a result, the whole herb of Schizonepeta tenuifolia was used as medicine in the early records. The aerial part and the dried spike of S. tenuifolia were used as medicines separately in the Song Dynasty, which was recorded in the Atlas of Materia Medica(Ben Cao Tu Jing). Some ancient classics emphasized that only the dried spike could be used as medicine. The separation of Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica meets the different needs of clinical medication and supports the concept of rational development and utilization of Chinese medicine resources. About ten processing methods for Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica have been recorded since ancient times, and raw and charred drugs were the major products. Raw Schizonepetae Herba is required to be used in sections, whereas raw Schizonepetae Spica in clean preparation. Both charred products should avoid scorching. Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are similar in the property(pungent, bitter, and warm), meridian tropism(lung and liver meridians, as well as qi and blood aspects), and functions(releasing exterior, dispersing wind, regulating and stopping blood, promoting eruption, dispelling sores, promoting digestion, eliminating alcohol effect, etc.), but Schizonepetae Spica is superior in efficacy. For Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica in traditional Chinese medicinal prescriptions, the raw and charred products are similar in usage and dosage, while their focuses in clinical compatibility vary. The raw and charred products of Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are widely applied clinically. Decoction pieces of different specifications can result in different efficacies and clinical applications, so medication should be performed with caution.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Lamiaceae , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872775

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the moisture adsorption and thermodynamic characteristics of raw products, wine-processed products and fried charcoal products of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, in order to guide their drying and storage. Method:Static isotherm weighing method was used to determine the adsorption isotherm curves of three Rhei Radix et Rhizoma decoction pieces at 25, 35, 45 ℃, and the test data were fitted with 7 commonly used water adsorption models to determine the best model for studying the adsorption thermodynamic parameters of these decoction pieces. Result:The best adsorption models of these three decoction pieces were all GAB model. At 25, 35, 45 ℃, the absolute safe moisture content of fried charcoal products was 7.43%, 6.79% and 6.20%, of wine-processed products was 8.68%, 8.17% and 7.03%, of raw products was 9.88%, 9.36% and 7.77%, respectively. At 25, 35, 45 ℃, the relative safe moisture content of fried charcoal products was 9.46%, 8.63% and 8.21%, of wine-processed products was 11.49%, 11.03% and 9.74%, of raw products was 13.49%, 12.66% and 11.14%, respectively. The net equivalent heat of adsorption (Qst) and differential entropy (Sd) of these three kinds of decoction pieces all decreased with the increase of equilibrium moisture content, Qst and Sd were in accordance with the entropy-enthalpy complementary theory. The constant velocity temperatures of raw products, wine-processed products and fried charcoal products of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma were 386.66, 391.15, 394.34 K (unit conversion of 1 K=-272.15 ℃), their Gibbs free energies were 0.372 2, 0.406 0, 0.372 2 kJ·mol-1, respectively. Their adsorption processes were an unspontaneous process driven by enthalpy. Conclusion:The orders of equilibrium moisture content, monomolecular layer moisture content, Qst and Sd of three Rhei Radix et Rhizoma decoction pieces are all raw products>wine-processed products>fried charcoal products. The moisture absorption capacity of the decoction pieces is ranked as raw products>wine-processed products>fried charcoal products. The frying and roasting process significantly affects the hygroscopicity and thermodynamic properties of the three decoction pieces, the reason for this difference may be that the high temperature of the stir-frying results in the decrease of the hygroscopic groups and the increase of the hydrophobic materials in raw products, and the change in the texture of the decoction pieces. The research on the water adsorption characteristics of three Rhei Radix et Rhizoma decoction pieces can provide reference for selecting their storage conditions and drying process.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801837

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the protective effect of Phytolaccae Radix and its processed products on nephropathy induced by doxorubicin (DOX) in rats, and explore its mechanism. Method: A rat model of nephropathy was established by a single tail intravenous injection of DOX hydrochloride. Content of esculentoside A (EsA) in Phytolaccae Radix and its processed products was determined by HPLC-ELSD. Contents of serum total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), total cholesterol (TC) and urine protein (UP) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA and protein expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in renal tissue of rats was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Result: A single intravenous injection of DOX could induce a severe nephrotic syndrome associated with decreased serum TP, Alb and elevated serum BUN, SCr, TC, and a high urinary excretion of protein (Pβ in renal tissue of model group rats was significantly higher than that of blank group (PPPConclusion: Phytolaccae Radix and its processed products can improve the symptoms of DOX nephropathy model rats in different degrees, among which the vinegar prepared products have the strongest effect, and this effect may be related to the reduction of TGF-β expression in renal tissue.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801804

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of Coptidis Rhizoma on intestinal microflora of normal and type 2 diabetic rats before and after being steamed with rice wine based on 16S rRNA sequencing technology. Method: The type 2 diabetic rat model was established by high-fat diet and streptozotocin. Normal and model rats were given the decoction of Coptidis Rhizoma or Coptidis Rhizoma steamed with rice wine every day (0.8 g·kg-1, according to raw drug quantity), the positive drug group was given metformin solution every day (0.25 g·kg-1), continuous administration for 30 d. Blood glucose was measured once a week and oral glucose tolerance was measured on the 27th day of administration. On the 30th day, feces were taken and the rats were anesthetized. Blood was taken for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Colon was dissected for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology, the alpha diversity, beta diversity, abundance and composition, and the correlation with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of intestinal microflora were comprehensively analyzed and evaluated. Result: After giving normal rats Coptidis Rhizoma or Coptidis Rhizoma steamed with rice wine, there were some inflammatory reactions, imbalance of oxidation-antioxidant system, pathological damage of colon and changes of intestinal microflora, which showed some toxic and side effects, but the toxic and side effects of Coptidis Rhizoma steamed with rice wine were lower than those of Coptidis Rhizoma. Coptidis Rhizoma could reduce fasting blood glucose and improve glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic rats before and after steaming. Although the effect of Coptidis Rhizoma steamed with rice wine had an increasing trend, there was no significant difference between before and after processing. Type 2 diabetic rats appeared mild inflammation and imbalance of oxidation-antioxidant system, characterized by significant increase of contents of interleukin (IL)-6, nuclear transcription factor (NF)-κB and malondialdehyde (MDA) (PPPConclusion: Coptidis Rhizoma can treat type 2 diabetic rats by regulating intestinal microflora before and after steaming with rice wine, and the effect of Coptidis Rhizoma steamed with rice wine is better. The toxic and side effects of Coptidis Rhizoma on intestinal flora are reduced by steamed with rice wine. The processing mechanism of increasing efficacy and decreasing toxicity of Coptidis Rhizoma steamed with rice wine is closely related to intestinal microflora.

6.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 3945-3948, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-662034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To compare the differences in the volatile ingredients of raw products and wine processed products of Ligusticum chuanxiong,and provide reference for its pharmacological activity research and clinical application. METHODS:Head-space solid phase microextraction-GC/MS was used to analyze the volatile components of L. chuanxiong before and after processed with wine. And area normalization method was adopted to calculate the relative percentage content of each component. RESULTS:28 components were isolated from the raw products and 24 components were identified,accounting for 99.70% of total volatile components. 2-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-ol(20.06%),α-selinene(17.97%)and 4-ethyl-3-nonen-5-yne(9.24%)were high-er in contents. 21 components were isolated from the wine processed products and 18 components were identified,accounting for 89.74% of total volatile components. 4-ethyl-nonen-5-yne (12.97%) was the highest in content,followed by 4-carene (11.74%) and α-selinene(10.79%). Compared with raw products,the contents of active components α-pinene and β-elemene were increased. CONCLUSIONS:The volatile components and their relative contents of L. chuanxiong before and after processed with wine show certain differences,and volatile components after wine processed are relatively reduced. However,contents of the components with analgesic effect are increased,and its analgesic effect is superior to raw products.

7.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 3945-3948, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-659259

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To compare the differences in the volatile ingredients of raw products and wine processed products of Ligusticum chuanxiong,and provide reference for its pharmacological activity research and clinical application. METHODS:Head-space solid phase microextraction-GC/MS was used to analyze the volatile components of L. chuanxiong before and after processed with wine. And area normalization method was adopted to calculate the relative percentage content of each component. RESULTS:28 components were isolated from the raw products and 24 components were identified,accounting for 99.70% of total volatile components. 2-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-ol(20.06%),α-selinene(17.97%)and 4-ethyl-3-nonen-5-yne(9.24%)were high-er in contents. 21 components were isolated from the wine processed products and 18 components were identified,accounting for 89.74% of total volatile components. 4-ethyl-nonen-5-yne (12.97%) was the highest in content,followed by 4-carene (11.74%) and α-selinene(10.79%). Compared with raw products,the contents of active components α-pinene and β-elemene were increased. CONCLUSIONS:The volatile components and their relative contents of L. chuanxiong before and after processed with wine show certain differences,and volatile components after wine processed are relatively reduced. However,contents of the components with analgesic effect are increased,and its analgesic effect is superior to raw products.

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