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1.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 158(2): 101-107, mar.-abr. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375535

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los receptores son proteínas codificadas por el ADN, algunos de los cuales ya han sido cristalizados, lo que permite conocer los detalles de su estructura a nivel atómico y algunos aspectos de su función. Esta revisión se enfoca en los más diversos y abundantes, los receptores acoplados a la proteína G. Esta familia de receptores reconoce y media la acción de varios ligandos endógenos (hormonas, neurotransmisores, factores de crecimiento y hormonas locales) y también interviene en la patogenia de diversas enfermedades, por lo que son el blanco terapéutico de aproximadamente 30 a 40 % de los medicamentos que se emplean en la práctica clínica cotidiana y de diversas drogas ilegales. La cristalografía de rayos X es una de las herramientas clave que ha permitido observar la estructura de estos receptores en los aminoácidos que participan en esta interacción, lo que posibilita conocer el sitio de unión del ligando endógeno y de moléculas sintéticas que actúan sobre ellos para modular su acción. El modelado molecular es también una herramienta bioinformática computacional que apoya la investigación sobre la unión receptor-ligando, que hace posible el diseño y desarrollo de fármacos cada vez más específicos. A estos desarrollos se suman importantes cambios en los conceptos farmacodinámicos fundamentales.


Abstract Receptors are proteins coded by DNA, some of which have already been crystalized, thus allowing the details of their structure at the atomic level and some aspects of their function to be known. This review focuses on the most diverse and abundant family of receptors, G protein-coupled receptors. This family of receptors recognizes and mediates the action of several endogenous ligands (hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors and local hormones) and also intervenes in the pathogenesis of various diseases, which is why they are targeted by approximately 30 to 40% of medications that are used in daily clinical practice and of various illegal drugs as well. X-ray crystallography is one of the essential tools that has allowed to observe the structure of these receptors in the amino acids that participate in this interaction, which allows to know the binding site of the endogenous ligand and of synthetic molecules that act on them to modulate their action. Molecular modeling or "docking" is also a computational bioinformatics tool that supports research on receptor-ligand binding, which allows the design and development of increasingly specific drugs. These developments have brought along significant changes in fundamental pharmacodynamic concepts.

2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(2): e98-e101, abril 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363992

ABSTRACT

La prucaloprida acelera el vaciamiento gástrico en adultos con gastroparesia. No existen estudios con este medicamento en niños con gastroparesia. Se presenta un niño de 8 años que consultó por síntomas posprandiales de un mes de duración, con diagnóstico de gastroparesia por gammagrafía de vaciamiento gástrico. No mejoró con metoclopramida, domperidona, eritromicina y esomeprazol. Recibió prucaloprida durante dos períodos (durante 178 y 376 días) a dosis de 0,03-0,04 mg/kg/día. Presentó mejoría en el seguimiento con el índice cardinal de síntomas de gastroparesia y gammagrafías de vaciamiento gástrico. Por la buena respuesta, la prucaloprida podría ser una opción terapéutica en la gastroparesia pediátrica.


Prucalopride has been used in adults with gastroparesis, accelerating gastric emptying. There are no studies with this drug in gastroparetic children. An 8-year-old boy is presented who consulted for a month of postprandial symptoms, with a diagnosis of gastroparesis by gastric emptying scintigraphy. He did not improve with metoclopramide, domperidone, erythromycin, and esomeprazole. He received prucalopride for two periods (for 178 and 376 days) at doses: 0.03 - 0.04 mg/kg/day, presenting improvement in the follow-up with the cardinal gastroparesis symptom index and gastric emptying scintigraphy. Due to the good response, prucalopride may be a therapeutic option in pediatric gastroparesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Benzofurans/therapeutic use , Gastroparesis/diagnosis , Gastroparesis/drug therapy , Domperidone/therapeutic use , Gastric Emptying
3.
Horiz. meÌüd. (Impresa) ; 22(1): e1355, ene.-mar. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375619

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El lactato es un metabolito altamente dinámico que, en condiciones anaerobias, es producido por hipoxia o isquemia; y en condiciones aerobias, es sintetizado por un mecanismo impulsado por la estimulación adrenérgica, a través del receptor β2, que potencia la acción de la bomba sodio-potasio, y por un estado de glicólisis aerobia acelerada. Este metabolito es capaz de intercambiarse entre diferentes células productoras y consumidoras, con lo que asegura la materia prima para obtener energía. El sistema nervioso simpático responde a los estímulos de estrés con la liberación de catecolaminas, que actúan como hormonas y como neurotransmisores en varios tejidos del cuerpo y permiten un aumento del metabolismo que eleva los valores de glucosa y el oxígeno disponible. Existe una relación fisiológica de dependencia entre las catecolaminas y la producción de lactato que predispone al organismo para responder de forma efectiva ante una situación de estrés. Sin embargo, en tejidos sensibles, la respuesta adrenérgica exacerbada puede ocasionar efectos exagerados que pueden incrementar la probabilidad de fallo. En base al conocimiento de estos mecanismos, se plantean estrategias terapéuticas enfocadas en regular la actividad simpática.


ABSTRACT Lactate is a highly dynamic metabolite that is produced, under anaerobic conditions, due to hypoxia or ischemia. Under aerobic conditions, it is synthesized by a mechanism driven by the stimulation of the β2 adrenergic receptor, which increases the activity of the sodium-potassium pump, and by a state of accelerated aerobic glycolysis. This metabolite is capable of being exchanged between different producing and consuming cells, ensuring the raw material for energy production. The sympathetic nervous system responds to stress stimuli through the release of catecholamines, which act as hormones and neurotransmitters in various tissues of the body, allowing an increase in metabolism that raises glucose and available oxygen levels. There is a physiological dependence between catecholamine levels and lactate production, predisposing the body to respond effectively to a stressful situation. However, an exacerbated adrenergic response may cause exaggerated effects on sensitive tissues that increase the probability of failure. Based on the knowledge of these mechanisms, therapeutic strategies focused on regulating the sympathetic activity are proposed.

4.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO6412, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364799

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate whether different genotypes of p.Arg16Gly, p.Gln27Glu, p.Arg19Cys and p.Thr164Ile variants interfere in response to treatment in children and adolescents with moderate to severe acute asthma. Methods This sample comprised patients aged 2 to 17 years with a history of at least two wheezing episodes and current moderate to severe asthma exacerbation. All patients received multiple doses of albuterol and ipratropium bromide delivered via pressurized metered-dose inhaler with holding chamber and systemic corticosteroids. Hospital admission was defined as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were changes in forced expiratory volume in the first second after 1 hour of treatment, and for outpatients, length of stay in the emergency room. Variants were genotyped by sequencing. Results A total of 60 patients were evaluated. Hospital admission rates were significantly higher in carriers of the genotype AA relative to those with genotype AG or GG, within the p.Arg16Gly variant (p=0.03, test χ2, alpha=0.05). Secondary outcomes did not differ between genotypes. Conclusion Hospital admission rates were significantly higher among carriers of the genotype AA within the p.Arg16Gly variant. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01323010


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Asthma/genetics , Asthma/drug therapy , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/genetics , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/therapeutic use , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Metered Dose Inhalers , Albuterol/therapeutic use
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18816, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364426

ABSTRACT

The reasons for the recently observed increase in the incidence of breast cancer in the Indian population are not clearly understood, but thought to be largely explained by westernization of lifestyles and changes in reproductive behavior, which characterize exposure to hormones. Our aim is to review the reproductive risk factors and comorbidities and evaluate the association between molecular subtypes of breast cancer. A hospital-based analytical case-control study was conducted among the breast cancer cases with controls in a multispecialty teaching hospital for a period of one year. Totally, 130 subjects were recruited and an interview was conducted using a structured questionnaire to obtain demographic and risk factor data, including tissue marker status (ER, PR and HER-2) obtained from case files. Data were analyzed with SPSS-20 version. Results: The highest age group reported in this study was 51- 60 years which has a 3.8 times increased risk compared to other age and the age group of 31- 40 have a decrease risk of 0.33. In this study, the percentage of post menopause (68%) and mothers not breastfeeding (10%) was higher in cases compared to controls and a noted increase in the risk of breast cancer with odds ratio (OR) of 2.745 (p= <0.0001) and 9.08 (p=0.01) respectively. Duration of breastfeeding showed significantly (p=<0.0001)) moderate positive correlation (r=0.549, 0.457, 0.418 and 0.636) for luminal A, luminal B, HER+, and triple negative respectively. This study found that all the reproductive risk factors do not have correlation with a molecular subtype of breast cancer except breastfeeding. Post menopause and breastfeeding were common factors associated with all people and could be modifiable to prevent the occurrence of breast cancer through lifestyle change


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Comorbidity/trends , Risk Factors , Reproductive Behavior , Hospitals/classification , Case-Control Studies , Demography/classification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Life Style , Age Groups
6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2129-2149, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929399

ABSTRACT

Cardiometabolic disease (CMD), characterized with metabolic disorder triggered cardiovascular events, is a leading cause of death and disability. Metabolic disorders trigger chronic low-grade inflammation, and actually, a new concept of metaflammation has been proposed to define the state of metabolism connected with immunological adaptations. Amongst the continuously increased list of systemic metabolites in regulation of immune system, bile acids (BAs) represent a distinct class of metabolites implicated in the whole process of CMD development because of its multifaceted roles in shaping systemic immunometabolism. BAs can directly modulate the immune system by either boosting or inhibiting inflammatory responses via diverse mechanisms. Moreover, BAs are key determinants in maintaining the dynamic communication between the host and microbiota. Importantly, BAs via targeting Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and diverse other nuclear receptors play key roles in regulating metabolic homeostasis of lipids, glucose, and amino acids. Moreover, BAs axis per se is susceptible to inflammatory and metabolic intervention, and thereby BAs axis may constitute a reciprocal regulatory loop in metaflammation. We thus propose that BAs axis represents a core coordinator in integrating systemic immunometabolism implicated in the process of CMD. We provide an updated summary and an intensive discussion about how BAs shape both the innate and adaptive immune system, and how BAs axis function as a core coordinator in integrating metabolic disorder to chronic inflammation in conditions of CMD.

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 637-650, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929316

ABSTRACT

Receptor activity-modulating proteins (RAMPs) are accessory molecules that form complexes with specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and modulate their functions. It is established that RAMP interacts with the glucagon receptor family of GPCRs but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we used a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) approach to comprehensively investigate such interactions. In conjunction with cAMP accumulation, Gα q activation and β-arrestin1/2 recruitment assays, we not only verified the GPCR-RAMP pairs previously reported, but also identified new patterns of GPCR-RAMP interaction. While RAMP1 was able to modify the three signaling events elicited by both glucagon receptor (GCGR) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), and RAMP2 mainly affected β-arrestin1/2 recruitment by GCGR, GLP-1R and glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor, RAMP3 showed a widespread negative impact on all the family members except for growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor covering the three pathways. Our results suggest that RAMP modulates both G protein dependent and independent signal transduction among the glucagon receptor family members in a receptor-specific manner. Mapping such interactions provides new insights into the role of RAMP in ligand recognition and receptor activation.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 50-75, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929281

ABSTRACT

The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling exert essential regulatory function in microbial-and onco-immunology through the induction of cytokines, primarily type I interferons. Recently, the aberrant and deranged signaling of the cGAS-STING axis is closely implicated in multiple sterile inflammatory diseases, including heart failure, myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases, aortic aneurysm and dissection, obesity, etc. This is because of the massive loads of damage-associated molecular patterns (mitochondrial DNA, DNA in extracellular vesicles) liberated from recurrent injury to metabolic cellular organelles and tissues, which are sensed by the pathway. Also, the cGAS-STING pathway crosstalk with essential intracellular homeostasis processes like apoptosis, autophagy, and regulate cellular metabolism. Targeting derailed STING signaling has become necessary for chronic inflammatory diseases. Meanwhile, excessive type I interferons signaling impact on cardiovascular and metabolic health remain entirely elusive. In this review, we summarize the intimate connection between the cGAS-STING pathway and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. We also discuss some potential small molecule inhibitors for the pathway. This review provides insight to stimulate interest in and support future research into understanding this signaling axis in cardiovascular and metabolic tissues and diseases.

9.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 403-416, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929123

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS)-induced analgesia was characterized, and its underlying mechanisms were examined in a spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain in rats. The analgesic effect of SCS with moderate mechanical hypersensitivity was increased with increasing stimulation intensity between the 20% and 80% motor thresholds. Various frequencies (2, 15, 50, 100, 10000 Hz, and 2/100 Hz dense-dispersed) of SCS were similarly effective. SCS-induced analgesia was maintained without tolerance within 24 h of continuous stimulation. SCS at 2 Hz significantly increased methionine enkephalin content in the cerebrospinal fluid. The analgesic effect of 2 Hz was abolished by μ or κ opioid receptor antagonist. The effect of 100 Hz was prevented by a κ antagonist, and that of 10 kHz was blocked by any of the μ, δ, or κ receptor antagonists, suggesting that the analgesic effect of SCS at different frequencies is mediated by different endorphins and opioid receptors.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Animals , Narcotic Antagonists/pharmacology , Neuralgia/therapy , Opioid Peptides , Rats , Receptors, Opioid/physiology , Receptors, Opioid, kappa , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Stimulation
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1809-1823, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927819

ABSTRACT

Bacillus thuringiensis is widely used as an insecticide which is safe and environmentally friendly to humans and animals. One of the important insecticidal mechanisms is the binding of Bt toxins to specific toxin receptors in insect midgut and forming a toxin perforation which eventually leads to insect death. The resistance of target pests to Bt toxins is an important factor hampering the long-term effective cultivation of Bt crops and the continuous use of Bt toxins. This review summarizes the mechanism of insect resistance to Bt toxins from the perspective of important Bt toxin receptors in midgut cells of Lepidopteran insects, which may facilitate the in-depth study of Bt resistance mechanism and pest control.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/genetics , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Endotoxins/metabolism , Hemolysin Proteins/metabolism , Insecta/metabolism , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Pest Control, Biological
11.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1328-1333, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924705

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the expression level of calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor component protein (CRCP) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue and adjacent tissue and its association with the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients. Methods HCC and adjacent tissue samples were collected from 79 HCC patients who underwent surgical resection in Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Navy Medical University, from June 2003 to September 2009. Tissue microarray was prepared, and immunohistochemistry was used for quantitative analysis. Related proteins were extracted and measured by Western blot, and the expression of CRCP was compared between HCC tissue and adjacent tissue. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to obtain the area under the ROC curve (AUC), and goodness of fit was evaluated. Youden index was used to determine the optimal cut-off value. and the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to analyze the association of CRCP expression with the recurrence and prognosis of HCC, and the log rank test was used for comparison between the two groups. Results Among the 79 HCC patients, there were 67 male patients and 12 female patients, with an age of 10-72 years, and 20 patients had portal vein tumor thrombus. As for pathological grade, 1 had grade 4 HCC, 61 had grade 3 HCC, and 17 had grade 2 HCC; as for BCLC stage, 5 had BCLC stage 0 HCC, 55 had BCLC stage A HCC, 11 had BCLC stage B HCC, and 8 had BCLC stage C HCC. Western blot showed that the expression level of CRCP in HCC tissue was lower than that in adjacent tissue in 4 patients, and immunohistochemistry showed that the expression level of CRCP in HCC tissue was significantly lower than that in adjacent tissue in 75.9% of the patients. Low CRCP expression was associated with CK19 positivity, incomplete tumor capsule, presence of portal vein tumor thrombus, and high pathological grade ( χ 2 =6.410, 4.829, 9.319, and 9.083, all P < 0.05). Compared with the low CRCP expression group, the high CRCP expression group had a significantly longer overall survival time and a significantly lower recurrence rate ( P < 0.001 and P =0.009). Conclusion Patients with low CRCP expression in HCC tissue tend to have a poorer prognosis than those with high CRCP expression, and CRCP may participate in the development, progression, and metastasis of HCC, suggesting that this molecule can be used as a potential biomarker to predict the prognosis of HCC patients.

12.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 724-728, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922989

ABSTRACT

TGR5 is a bile acid-activated G protein-coupled receptor and plays an important role in the physiological and pathological processes of the biliary system. This article describes the normal expression of TGR5 in the liver and bile duct under normal physiological conditions and its functions including the regulation of bile acid secretion and metabolism and cytoprotection. This article also summarizes the changes in the expression and function of TGR5 under pathophysiological conditions and the mechanism of TGR5 in affecting the development and progression of biliary tract diseases through inflammatory response and cell proliferation and apoptosis. TGR5 may be a potential target for the treatment of biliary tract diseases in the future.

13.
NOVA publ. cient ; 19(37): 11-24, jul.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360608

ABSTRACT

Resumen Una de las herramientas más novedosas en inmunoterapias adoptivas contra leucemias y tumores malignos es el uso del receptor de antígeno quimérico "CAR". El receptor CAR ha sido ampliamente utilizada en células T (células CAR-T) potenciando su eficacia en el reconocimiento y eliminación de tumores, obteniéndose a la fecha terapias basadas en esta tecnología. No obstante, las células CAR-T llegan a repercutir negativamente en la salud del paciente, presentando el síndrome neurológico de efecto inmune asociado a células (ICANS) y el síndrome de lanzamiento de citocinas (SLC). Como consecuencia, el paciente necesita ser hospitalizado durante la terapia. Además, el coste de manufactura y terapia es elevado, siendo una tecnología limitada a un sector muy bajo de la población. En este trabajo, mencionamos el empleo de una terapia emergente de células asesinas naturales (NK) con el receptor CAR (CAR-NK), que cuentan con muchas ventajas por encima de las células CAR-T. Las células CAR-NK conservan su capacidad citotóxica en contra de tumores gracias a su acción dependiente de receptores activadores e inhibidores, por lo que el receptor CAR, solo estimula sus habilidades y persistencia. Sumado a esto, el coste de una terapia de células CAR-NK podría resultar redituable debido a la capacidad de las células CAR-NK de eliminar múltiples células tumorales sin generar daño colateral en el paciente. Aquí analizamos las características de los múltiples receptores CAR y los fenotipos de células NK que han sido utilizados durante múltiples ensayos (NK-92, células NK de sangre cordal y periférica, y células NK iPSC).


Abstract One of the novel and effective devices against leukemia and solid tumors in adoptive immunotherapies is the use of the chimeric antigen receptor "CAR". CAR technology has been widely used in T-cells (CAR-T cells) empowering its efficacy on the identification and elimination of tumor cells, getting today certain drugs based on this technology. Nevertheless, CAR-T cells can have a negative impact on patient health, causing in many cases immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) and cytokine release syndrome (CRS). As a consequence, the patient will have to be hospitalized for the duration of therapy. Moreover, the cost of manufacture and therapy is quite expensive, limiting its use to a low range of people. On the other hand, we analyze the advantages of Natural Killer cells with the CAR receptor (CAR-NK), which have many plusses over CAR-T cells. CAR-NK cells retain their cytotoxic abilities against tumor cells due their activator/ inhibitor receptors balance. Thus, the CAR receptor technology just increases their skills and persistence. Furthermore, CAR-NK therapy could be more profitable since CAR-NK can eliminate multiple tumor cells without generating collateral damage on patient health. Here, we discuss the characteristics of the multiples CAR receptors in general and the NK types cells that have been used in trials demonstrating their viable emerging therapy (NK-92, cord and peripheral blood NK cells, and iPSC-derived NK cells).

14.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(6): 107-114, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1355836

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2, respectively) and delayed tooth emergence (DTE). This cross-sectional study was composed of biological unrelated children of both sexes, age ranging from 11 to 13 years old. DTE was defined when the successor primary tooth was still present in the oral cavity after its exfoliation time or the absence of the permanent tooth emergence into the oral cavity. Children were diagnosed with DTE when they had at least one delayed permanent tooth, according to age of exfoliation of each tooth proposed by The American Dental Association. Genomic DNA from saliva was used to evaluate the SNPs in ESR1 (rs9340799 and rs2234693) and ESR2 (rs1256049 and rs4986938) using Real-Time PCR. Chi-square or Fisher exact tests and Logistic Regression adjusted by age and gender were performed. SNP-SNP interaction was accessed by multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis also adjusted by gender and age. The established alpha of this study was 5%. Among 537 included children, 296 (55%) were in the "DTE" group and the 241 (45%) were in the "Control" group. Age and gender were not statistically different among the groups (p>0.05). Genotype distribution of the SNPs rs9340799, rs2234693, rs1256049 and rs4986938 were not associated with DTE (p> 0.05). The models elected by MDR were not statistically significant either. Conclusions: The studied SNPs in ESR1 and ESR2 were not associated with permanent DTE.


RESUMO O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a associação entre polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único (SNPs) em genes que codificam receptores de estrógeno (ESR1 e ESR2, respectivamente) e o retardo na emergência dentária (DTE). Este estudo transversal foi composto por crianças biológicas não relacionadas de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 11 e 13 anos. O DTE foi definido pela presença do dente decíduo na cavidade bucal após seu tempo e também, quando as crianças apresentaram pelo menos um dente permanente com atraso. O DNA genômico foi usado para avaliar os SNPs em ESR1 (rs9340799 e rs2234693) e ESR2 (rs1256049 e rs4986938) usando PCR em tempo real. Foram realizados testes Qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher e Regressão Logística ajustados por idade e sexo. A interação SNP-SNP foi acessada pela análise de redução de dimensionalidade multifatorial (MDR), também ajustada por sexo e idade. O alfa de 5% foi estabelecido. Entre 537 crianças incluídas, 296 (55%) estavam no grupo "DTE" e 241 (45%) estavam no grupo "Controle". A idade e o sexo não foram estatisticamente diferentes entre os grupos (p> 0,05). A distribuição de genótipos dos SNPs rs9340799, rs2234693, rs1256049 e rs4986938 não foi associada ao DTE (p> 0,05). Os modelos eleitos pelo MDR também não foram estatisticamente significativos. Conclusões: Os SNPs estudados na ESR1 e ESR2 não foram associados ao DTE na dentição permanente.

15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(5): 531-541, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340059

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The use of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young bodybuilders, motivated by aesthetic results. Although the medical community condemns this practice for its potential deleterious effect, we must recognize the need for more scientific research on the likelihood and magnitude of the adverse events. Objective: To evaluate whether high-quality, scientific evidence supports that AAS negatively affect lipid profile and promote muscle hypertrophy in resistance training practitioners. Methods: A systematic review of the literature of randomized clinical trials was conducted in the PubMed / Medline, Scielo and Science direct databases. The searches were conducted by two independent researchers by June 2018. A significance level of 5% was considered in the analysis. Results: Six clinical trials involving 170 resistance training practitioners were included. A significant heterogeneity was found in studies evaluating the effects of AAS on lipid profile and muscle hypertrophy (I² = 97, 95 and 91%, respectively), with no significant effects on HDL-cholesterol (-5.62mg/dL, 95%CI −12.10, 0.86, p= 0.09), LDL-cholesterol (7.76 mg/dL, 95%CI −9.70, 25.23, p= 0.57) and muscle hypertrophy (2.44kg 95%CI 0.02, 4.86, p=0.05). Conclusion: Current evidence does not support that low-to-moderate doses of AAS cause serious negative effects on lipid profile or promote muscle hypertrophy in resistance training practitioners.


Subject(s)
Receptors, Androgen , Cholesterol/blood , Testosterone Congeners/pharmacology , Resistance Training , Skeletal Muscle Enlargement/drug effects , Testosterone Congeners/adverse effects , Lipids
16.
Horiz. meÌüd. ; 21(4): e1276, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356249

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La capacidad de propagación y letalidad del SARS-CoV-2 en todo el mundo motiva la urgente necesidad de desarrollar una estrategia terapéutica apropiada para controlar los casos de COVID-19. El desarrollo de nuevos fármacos frente a este nuevo virus es apremiante debido a su rápida diseminación. Se han propuesto alternativas paralelas empleando fármacos ya disponibles para fines similares. Esta revisión describe el potencial antiviral de la ivermectina, así como sus mecanismos de acción frente a algunos virus, y discute su probable aplicación contra el SARS-CoV-2.


ABSTRACT The global spread and lethality of SARS-CoV-2 prompt the urgent need to develop an appropriate therapeutic strategy to control COVID-19 cases. The development of new drugs to fight this novel virus is urgent due to its rapid spread. Parallel alternatives have been proposed by using drugs already available for similar purposes. This review article describes the antiviral potential of ivermectin as well as its mechanisms of action against some viruses, and discusses its probable use to fight SARS-CoV-2.

17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 476-483, Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339188

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A doença cardiovascular é a principal causa de morte em todo o mundo. A apoptose mediada por hipóxia em cardiomiócitos é uma das principais causas de distúrbios cardiovasculares. O tratamento com a proteína do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF, do inglês vascular endothelial growth factor) foi testado, mas as dificuldades operacionais limitaram seu uso. Entretanto, com os avanços da terapia gênica, aumentou o interesse na terapia gênica baseada no VEGF em doenças cardiovasculares. No entanto, o mecanismo preciso pelo qual a reposição de VEGF resgata os danos pós-hipóxia em cardiomiócitos não é conhecido. Objetivos: Investigar o efeito da expressão de VEGF121 pós-hipóxia utilizando cardiomiócitos de ratos neonatos. Métodos: Cardiomiócitos isolados de ratos neonatos foram utilizados para estabelecer um modelo in vitro de lesão cardíaca induzida por hipóxia. O efeito da superexpressão de VEGF, isolado ou em conjunto com inibidores de moléculas pequenas que têm como alvo os canais de cálcio, receptores sensíveis ao cálcio (CaSR, do inglês calcium-sensitive receptors) e calpaína, no crescimento e proliferação celular em lesão de cardiomiócitos induzidos por hipóxia, foram determinados com ensaio de MTT, coloração TUNEL, coloração com Anexina V/PI, lactato desidrogenase e atividade da caspase. Para análise estatística, um valor de p<0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: Verificou-se que o efeito do VEGF121 foi mediado por CaSR e calpaína, mas não foi dependente dos canais de cálcio. Conclusões: Nossos resultados, mesmo em um ambiente in vitro, estabelecem as bases para uma validação futura e testes pré-clínicos da terapia gênica baseada em VEGF em doenças cardiovasculares.


Abstract Background: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death worldwide. Hypoxia-mediated apoptosis in cardiomyocytes is a major cause of cardiovascular disorders. Treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein has been tested but operational difficulties have limited its use. However, with the advancements of gene therapy, interest has risen in VEGF-based gene therapy in cardiovascular disorders. However, the precise mechanism by which VEGF replenishment rescues post-hypoxia damage in cardiomyocytes is not known. Objectives: To investigate the effect of post-hypoxia VEGF121 expression using neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Methods: Cardiomyocytes isolated from neonatal rats were used to establish an in vitro model of hypoxia-induced cardiac injury. The effect of VEGF overexpression, alone or in combination with small-molecule inhibitors targeting calcium channel, calcium sensitive receptors (CaSR), and calpain on cell growth and proliferation on hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte injury were determined using an MTT assay, TUNEL staining, Annexin V/PI staining, lactate dehydrogenase and caspase activity. For statistical analysis, a value of P<0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: The effect of VEGF121 was found to be mediated by CaSR and calpain but was not dependent on calcium channels. Conclusions: Our findings, even though using an in vitro setting, lay the foundation for future validation and pre-clinical testing of VEGF-based gene therapy in cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Receptors, Calcium-Sensing/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Hypoxia , Mitochondria
18.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(9): 682-689, Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351778

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to compare the local and systemic expression of the factors linked to the interferon alpha (IFN-α) activation pathway in different degrees of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. Methods A total of 128 patients with CIN I, CIN II, CIN III and cervical cancer was evaluated. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was used to evaluate the gene expression of IFNR1, IFNR2, IFN-α, oligoadenylate synthase (2'5′OAS), cytokine signal suppressor 1 (SOCS) 1, SOCS3, signal transducer and transcription activator 1 (STAT1), and IRF9 from 128 biopsies. A total of 46 out of 128 samples were evaluated by flow cytometry for IFNAR1, IFNAR2, STAT1, IRF7 and IFN-α in peripheral blood cells. Results Patients with CIN II and III (63 samples) had a low local expression of IFNR1, but not IFNR2. Patients with some degree of injury showed high expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3. Systemically, patients with CIN II and III (20 samples) had a significant increase in IFNR1, IFNR2, STAT1, IRF7, and IFN-α in helper, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and in monocytes. Conclusion Patients with high-grade lesions have increased systemic expression of IFN-α and its activation pathways in helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, as well as in monocytes due to an exacerbation of the immune response in these patients. This phenomenon is not accompanied by resolution of the lesion due to a defect in the IFN-α activation pathway that revealed by low local IFNAR1 expression and high local expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3.


Resumo Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a expressão local e sistêmica dos fatores ligados à via de ativação do interferon alfa (IFN-α) em diferentes graus de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) e câncer cervical (CA) Métodos Foram avaliados 128 pacientes com NIC I, NIC II, NIC III e CA. A técnica de reação de cadeia de polimerase em tempo real (RT-PCR, na sigla em inglês) foi realizada para avaliar a expressão gênica do receptor de interferon (IFNR) 1, IFNR2, IFN-α, 2′-5′- oligoadenilato sintetase (2′5′OAS), supressor de sinalização de citocina (SOCS)1, SOCS3, transdutor de sinal e ativador de transcrição 1 (STAT1) e fator regulador de interferon 9 (IRF9) das 128 biópsias. Das 128 amostras, 46 foram avaliadas por citometria de fluxo para IFNAR1, IFNAR2, STAT1, IRF7 e IFN-α em células de sangue periférico. Resultados Pacientes com NIC II e III (63 amostras) tiveram baixa expressão local de IFNR1 mas não de IFNR2. Pacientes com algum grau de lesão apresentaram alta expressão de SOCS1 e SOCS3. Sistemicamente, os pacientes com NIC II e III (20 amostras) tiveram um aumento significativo de IFNR1, IFNR2, STAT1, IRF7 e IFN-α em linfócitos T auxiliares, citotóxicos e monócitos. Conclusão Pacientes com lesões de alto grau apresentam expressão sistêmica aumentada de IFN-α e suas vias de ativação em linfócitos T auxiliares e citotóxicos, bem como em monócitos, devido à exacerbação da resposta imune nesses pacientes. Este fenômeno não é acompanhado pela resolução da lesão devido a um defeito na via de ativação do IFN-α que é revelado pela baixa expressão local de IFNR1 e alta expressão local de SOCS1 e SOCS3.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/genetics , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/genetics , Interferon-alpha , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins/metabolism
19.
Colomb. med ; 52(3): e2054600, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360376

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Multiple infections, nutrient deficiencies and inflammation (MINDI) occur in indigenous communities, but their associations with perinatal outcomes have not been described. Objective: To assess maternal and cord blood micronutrient and inflammation status in peripartum mothers from the Ngäbe-Buglé comarca in Panama, and their associations with placental and infant outcomes. Methods: In 34 mother-newborn dyads, placental weight and diameter were measured, and maternal and cord blood were processed for complete cell counts, serum C-reactive protein, ferritin, serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), vitamins A and D. Blood volumes were calculated using Nadler's formula. Results: Mothers had low plasma volume (<2.8 L, 96%), vitamin A (52.9%), vitamin D (29.4%), iron (58.8%) and hemoglobin (23.5%), but high hematocrit (>40%, 17.6%) and inflammation (C-reactive protein >8.1 mg/L, 85.3%). Birthweights were normal, but low placental weight (35.3%), low head circumference Z-scores (17.6%), and low cord hemoglobin (5.9%), iron (79.4%), vitamin A (14.7%) and vitamin D (82.3%) were identified. Maternal and cord vitamin D were highly correlated. Higher maternal plasma volume was associated with heavier placentae (β= 0.57), and higher cord D (β= 0.43) and eosinophils (β= 0.43) with larger placentae. Hemoconcentration (higher cord hematocrit) was associated with lower newborn weight (β= -0.48) and head circumference (β= -0.56). Inflammation [higher maternal neutrophils (β= -0.50), and cord platelets (β= -0.32)] was associated with lower newborn length and head circumference. Conclusion: Maternal-newborn hemoconcentration, subclinical inflammation and multiple nutrient deficiencies, particularly neonatal vitamin D deficiency, were identified as potential targets for interventions to improve pregnancy outcomes in vulnerable communities.


Resumen Antecedentes: Las Múltiples Infecciones, Nutrición Deficiente e Inflamación (MINDI), son frecuentes en comunidades indígenas, sin embargo, sus asociaciones con resultados de salud perinatales no han sido descritos. Objetivo: Evaluar la inflamación y los micronutrientes en sangre materna y de cordón de madres en trabajo de parto en la comarca Ngäbe-Buglé en Panamá, así como sus asociaciones con medidas placentarias y del recién nacido. Métodos: En 34 pares madre-recién nacido, se midieron peso y diámetro placentario, y se analizaron muestras de sangre materna y de cordón umbilical para hemograma completo, proteína-C reactiva (PCR), ferritina, receptor sérico de transferrina (RsTf), vitaminas A y D. Se usó la fórmula de Nadler para calcular volúmenes sanguíneos. Resultados: Las madres presentaron volumen plasmático (<2.8 L, 96%), vitamina A (52.9%), vitamina D (29.4%), hierro (58.8%) y hemoglobina (23.5%) bajos, pero el 17.6% presentaron hematocrito >40% y 85.3% presentaron inflamación (PCR >8.1 mg/L). Los pesos al nacer fueron normales, pero se identificó bajo peso placentario (35.3%), bajo puntaje-z de circunferencia cefálica neonatal, y en sangre de cordón, bajos hemoglobina (5.9%), hierro (79.4%), vitamina A (14.7%) y vitamina D (82.3%). Se encontró una fuerte correlación positiva entre la vitamina D materna y de sangre de cordón. Un mayor volumen plasmático materno se asoció con placentas de mayor peso (β= 0.57), en tanto que concentraciones más altas de vitamina D (β= 0.43) y mayor número de eosinófilos (β= 0.43) se asociaron con mayor diámetro placentario. Una mayor hemoconcentración (hematocrito en cordón más alto) se asoció con menores peso al nacer (β= -0.48) y circunferencia cefálica (β= -0.56). La inflamación [mayor número de neutrófilos maternos (β= -0.50) y plaquetas en sangre de cordón (β= -0.32)] se asoció con menor talla y circunferencia cefálica neonatales. Conclusión: La hemoconcentración materna y del recién nacido, la inflamación subclínica y las múltiples deficiencias en micronutrientes, particularmente la deficiencia de vitamina D neonatal, se identificaron como potenciales áreas de intervención para mejorar los resultados de salud del embarazo en comunidades vulnerables.

20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 337-345, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346468

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las leucemias agudas constituyen la neoplasia más frecuente en pacientes pediátricos. Actualmente, el 80% de los niños con leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) logran curarse con quimioterapia con vencional pero el 20% de los mismos presentarán una reaparición de la enfermedad. La enfermedad residual medible (ERM) ha sido descripta como un importante factor pronóstico, que permite evaluar la respuesta de los pacientes al tratamiento. Una de las técnicas más sensibles par a estudiar ERM es la cuantificación de reordena mientos génicos de inmunoglobulinas (Ig) y receptores de linfocitos-T (TCR). Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron describir los reordenamientos detectados de Ig/TCR, evaluar el efecto de la ERM en la supervivencia de niños con LLA y comparar la ERM por Ig/TCR con la cuantificada mediante citometría de flujo multiparamétrica (CFM). Del total de 455 pacientes estudiados, en el 96% fue posible caracterizar al menos un reordenamiento de Ig/TCR. El total de reordenamientos clonales detectados fue de 1550. La ERM pudo ser estudiada en forma exitosa en el 89% de los casos. El valor de ERM positiva combinada al día 33 y 78 de tratamiento, permitió identificar pacientes de alto riesgo, entre los previamente estratificados por la ERM mediante CFM al día 15. La comparación entre la determinación de ERM mediante reordenamientos Ig/TCR y CFM mostró una excelente correlación. El presente trabajo constituye un estudio de ERM mediante Ig/TCR realizado en un número muy significativo de pacientes diagnosticados en forma consecutiva, tratados en el marco de un protocolo homogéneo y con excelente seguimiento clínico.


Abstract Acute leukemias are the most common neoplasm in pediatric patients. Currently, 80% of children with diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are cured with conventional chemotherapy, but 20% of them will have a recurrence of the disease. Measurable Residual Disease (MRD) has been described as an important prognostic factor that allows evaluating the response of patients to treatment. One of the most sensitive techniques to study MRD is the quantification of immunoglobulins (Ig) and T-lymphocyte receptors (TCR) genes rearrangements. The aims of this study were to describe the detected Ig/TCR rearrangements, to evaluate the prognostic impact of MRD in our population of children with ALL and to compare the MRD values by Ig/TCR with those obtained by multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC). A total of 455 patients were studied. In 96% of the cases, it was possible to characterize at least one Ig/TCR rearrangement. The total number of Ig/TCR rear rangements detected was 1550. MRD was successfully applied in 89% of the cases. The combined positive MRD values at day 33 and 78 of treatment allow the identification of high-risk patients in cases previously stratified by MRD using flow cytometry at day 15. The comparison between MRD determination by Ig/TCR rearrangements and FC showed excellent correlation. The present work constitutes a study of MRD by Ig/TCR carried out in a very significant number of patients consecutively diagnosed, treated within a homogeneous protocol and with excellent clinical follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Immunoglobulins , Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , T-Lymphocytes , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Neoplasm, Residual/genetics
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